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英语语法(1) 名词

原创 IT生活 作者:tolyhuang 时间:2007-12-04 17:02:36 0 删除 编辑

名词分为专有名词和普通名词两大类。普通名词又分为个体名词和集体名词。在句子中可数名词要么前边加冠词,要么用其复数形式。名词的复数通常加s,但以sxchsh结尾的词es;以“辅音字母+y”结尾的词把“y”变成“i”,再加es。不规则名词的复数有其特殊形式。物质名词和抽象名词为不可数名词。名词有主格(作主语)、宾格(作宾语)和属格(表示所属关系)。冠词分为不定冠词和定冠词,它们有其基本用法和特殊用法。数词分为基数词、序数词和分数词,数词与名词在实际运用中要呼应。

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第一节

一、可数名词

1. 可数名词有单复数之分。在句中,名词的单数形式前边要有冠词或表示单数的限定词,否则就要用其复数形式。名词的复数形式通常是在单数形式后加词尾ses,或将y改为i再加es。但如果名词前边有表示单数的冠词或表示单数的限定词,就不能用其复数形式

2. 有少数名词的复数形式是不规则的,childchildren, manmen, womanwomen, footfeet, toothteeth, goosegeese, mousemice, oxoxen

3. 英语里还有些名词的单复数变化较为特殊,需特别注意

analysisanalyses, bacteriumbacteria, basisbases, crisiscrises, criterioncriteria, datumdata, formulaformulae(formulas), fungusfungi, phenomenonphenomena,syllabussyllabi, thesistheses

4. 有些名词的单复数是一样的:aircraft, spacecraft, Chinese, deer, fish, Japanese, means, series, species等。

5. 如果前边有表示复数的限定词时名词用其复数形式

6. 在形容词最高级中,表示范围的of后要用名词复数形式

7. 有些集体名词在形式上是单数如people(人民,人们)police(警察)cattle(牲畜)staff(全体人员,全体职员),但它们表达复数的含意。如果这些词做主语,其谓语须用复数形式。

8. hairfruit一般情况下用单数,表示总体。但如果我们要表示若干根头发或几种水果时,就要用这两个词的复数形式

eg: He bought apples, oranges and other fruits. (fruits”在此处意为“多种水果”)

另外还要注意:policecattle的谓语形式总是用复数形式。

9. 名词做定语时,不能用作复数

二、不可数名词

1. 不可数名词为物质名词和抽象名词,如information, proverty, advice, anger, applause, baggage, cake, chalk, chocolate, cloth(), bread, damage(损害), equipment, fruit, furniture, gold, information, ink, jewellery, luggage, mail(邮件), money, news, paper, protection, soap, sugar, weaponry, machinery, scenery, personnel, work

注:不可数名词可以与表示量的可数名词连用,借以表示“可数”的概念,我们可以加 a(n) piece sheet(), suit(), tube(), packet(), item(条,则), bar(), basket(篮子), glass(),bunch(), pair(双,对), bowl(), portion(), herd(), series(系列), shower() etc. ],如:a piece of advice(一条建议) a basket of fruit(一篮水果) an item of information (一则信息)a kind of protection(一种保护)等。

2. 有些抽象名词的意思可以转变成为具体名词,这时要用其复数形式

The insurance company paid $10000 in damages for the accident. (damage”本来为不可数名词“损害”,变复数后意思是“损失赔偿费”。)

单复数含义不同的名词还有:communication(通讯)——communications(通讯系统,通讯工具)cloth()——clothes(衣服)content(内容)——contents(目录)convenience(便利)——conveniences(便利设备)humanity(人类)——humanities(人文科学)necessity(需要)——necessities(必需品)pain(疼痛)——pains(辛劳)ruin(毁灭)——ruins(废墟,遗迹)sand(沙子)——sands(沙地,沙滩)wood(木材)——woods(树林)work(工作)——works(工厂,著作)

另外,有些名词通常只用复数形式,如:fundamentals(基本原则)goods(货物), means(方法), rapids(急流)shorts(短裤), sweets(欢乐), valuables (贵重物品)

三、同步练习(Correct errors, if any,in the following sentences:

1. The scholars met once a year to exchange esperiences.

2. Foreign ship are not allowed to fish in our territoral water.

3. I went to the doctor for an advice about my health.

4.The letter contained an important information.

5.In the afternoon I did some baby-sittings,for it is a fun looking after children.

6.The congregation was not numerous that night,but they seemed to be listening attentively to my lecture.

7.Poultries are dear in the city.

8.The board of director is shaking heads at the chairman’s speech.

9.The merchandises have arrived undamaged.

四、答案

1. The scholars met once a year to exchange esperience.

2. Foreign ship are not allowed to fish in our territoral waters.

3. I went to the doctor for an advice about my health.

4.The letter contained an important piece of information.

5.In the afternoon I did some baby-sittings,for it is fun looking after children.

6.The congregation were not numerous that night,but they seemed to be listening attentively to my lecture.

7.Poultry are dear in the city.

8.The board of directors are shaking heads at the chairman's speech.

9.The merchandise have arrived undamaged.

第二节 名词所有格

名词有三个格:主格、宾格和所属格。这里我们只讲属格,属格表示所有关系,它有两种不同的形式。

一、一是在名词尾加's

( my brother's toy我弟弟的玩具,the hostes's living room女主人的起居室),如果原名词已经有复数词尾?s,?es,只加' (如:soldiers' training ground士兵的训练场,teachers' reading?eoom教师阅览室)。注意,如果名词虽然是复数,但不是以?s结尾,则仍加's (the children's mother孩子的妈妈)

1) It is widely believed that the pull of gravity on a falling raindrop changes round shape into a teardrop shape.

A of the drop B the drops C drop of D drops their

2) The winner A photograph was of B an old barn(仓库) window covered with C a D delicate lacy frost(带花边的霜).

二、另外一种属格是由介词of加名词构成名词短语

3) At A birth the B head of a bady is extremely large in C relation to a D rest of the body.

三、例题解析

1) B为正确答案。“It”是形式主语。“that…”引导的是主从句。主从句的谓语是“changesinto…”“把……变成……”。其中“…into…”的前后应是对应的平行结构。很明显AD都不行,不能把“changes”误作名词。C改变了“…into…”的平行关系。只有B既能与前边的动词“changes”衔接,又能保持“…into…”的平行关系。

2) A错。 改为winners

3) D错。 改为the

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