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ping指定包大小的命令格式(windows linux)

原创 Linux操作系统 作者:xz43 时间:2013-11-22 13:08:32 0 删除 编辑
linux下ping包的默认大小为64Byte,次数不限。但有时我们需要尝试ping大数据包,来测试网络的状况,这时,就要指定ping包的大小了。


Linux下ping(vxworks 基本上和linux的一样)大数据包的格式;

ping  [ -LRUbdfnqrvVaAB]  [ -c count]  [ -i interval]  [ -l preload]  [ -p pattern]  [ -s packetsize]  [ -t ttl]  [ -w deadline]  [ -F  flowla-bel]  [ -I interface]  [ -M hint]  [ -Q tos]  [ -S sndbuf]  [ -T times-tamp option]  [ -W timeout]  [ hop ...]  destination

OPTIONS
       -a     Audible ping.


       -A     Adaptive ping. Interpacket interval adapts to  round-trip  time,
              so  that  effectively  not more than one (or more, if preload is
              set) unanswered probes present in the network. Minimal  interval
              is  200msec  for  not super-user.  On networks with low rtt this
              mode is essentially equivalent to flood mode.


       -b     Allow pinging a broadcast address.


       -B     Do not allow ping to  change  source  address  of  probes.   The
              address is bound to one selected when ping starts.


       -c count
              Stop  after  sending  count  ECHO_REQUEST packets. With deadline
              option, ping waits for count ECHO_REPLY packets, until the time-
              out expires.


       -d     Set  the SO_DEBUG option on the socket being used.  Essentially,
              this socket option is not used by Linux kernel.


       -F flow label
              Allocate and set 20 bit flow  label  on  echo  request  packets.
              (Only  ping6).  If  value  is zero, kernel allocates random flow
              label.


       -f     Flood ping. For  every  ECHO_REQUEST  sent  a  period  忖.忖  is
              printed,  while  for  ever  ECHO_REPLY  received  a backspace is
              printed.  This provides a rapid display of how many packets  are
              being  dropped.   If  interval is not given, it sets interval to
              zero and outputs packets as fast as they come back or  one  hun-
              dred  times  per second, whichever is more.  Only the super-user
              may use this option with zero interval.


       -i interval
              Wait interval seconds between sending each packet.  The  default
              is  to  wait for one second between each packet normally, or not
              to wait in flood mode. Only super-user may set interval to  val-
              ues less 0.2 seconds.


       -I interface address
              Set  source address to specified interface address. Argument may
              be numeric IP address or name of device. When pinging IPv6 link-
              local address this option is required.


       -l preload
              If  preload is specified, ping sends that many packets not wait-
              ing for reply.  Only the super-user may select preload more than
              3.


       -L     Suppress  loopback of multicast packets.  This flag only applies
              if the ping destination is a multicast address.


       -n     Numeric output only.  No attempt will be made to lookup symbolic
              names for host addresses.


       -p pattern
              You  may  specify  up to 16 忖pad忖 bytes to fill out the packet
              you send.  This is useful for diagnosing data-dependent problems
              in  a network.  For example, -p ff will cause the sent packet to
              be filled with all ones.


       -Q tos Set Quality of Service -related bits in ICMP datagrams.  tos can
              be either decimal or hex number.  Traditionally (RFC1349), these
              have been interpreted as: 0 for reserved (currently being  rede-
              fined  as  congestion  control), 1-4 for Type of Service and 5-7
              for Precedence.  Possible settings for Type of Service are: min-
              imal cost: 0x02, reliability: 0x04, throughput: 0x08, low delay:
              0x10.  Multiple TOS bits should not be set simultaneously.  Pos-
              sible settings for special Precedence range from priority (0x20)
              to net control (0xe0).  You must be root (CAP_NET_ADMIN capabil-
              ity) to use Critical or higher precedence value.  You cannot set
              bit 0x01 (reserved) unless ECN has been enabled in  the  kernel.
              In RFC2474, these fields has been redefined as 8-bit Differenti-
              ated Services (DS), consisting of: bits  0-1  of  separate  data
              (ECN  will  be  used, here), and bits 2-7 of Differentiated Ser-
              vices Codepoint (DSCP).


       -q     Quiet output.  Nothing is displayed except the summary lines  at
              startup time and when finished.


       -R     Record  route.  (IPv4  only) Includes the RECORD_ROUTE option in
              the  ECHO_REQUEST  packet  and  displays  the  route  buffer  on
              returned  packets.  Note that the IP header is only large enough
              for nine such routes.  Many hosts ignore or discard this option.


       -r     Bypass  the normal routing tables and send directly to a host on
              an attached interface.  If  the  host  is  not  on  a  directly-
              attached network, an error is returned.  This option can be used
              to ping a local host through an  interface  that  has  no  route
              through it provided the option -I is also used.


       -s packetsize
              Specifies  the  number of data bytes to be sent.  The default is
              56, which translates into 64 ICMP data bytes when combined  with
              the 8 bytes of ICMP header data.


       -S sndbuf
              Set  socket  sndbuf.  If not specified, it is selected to buffer
              not more than one packet.


       -t ttl Set the IP Time to Live.


       -T timestamp option
              Set special IP  timestamp  options.   timestamp  option  may  be
              either  tsonly  (only  timestamps),  tsandaddr  (timestamps  and
              addresses) or tsprespec host1 [host2 [host3 [host4]]] (timestamp
              prespecified hops).


       -M hint
              Select Path MTU Discovery strategy.  hint may be either do (pro-
              hibit fragmentation, even local one), want (do  PMTU  discovery,
              fragment locally when packet size is large), or dont (do not set
              DF flag).


       -U     Print full user-to-user latency (the  old  behaviour).  Normally
              ping prints network round trip time, which can be different f.e.
              due to DNS failures.


       -v     Verbose output.


       -V     Show version and exit.


       -w deadline
              Specify a timeout, in seconds, before ping exits  regardless  of
              how  many  packets have been sent or received. In this case ping
              does not stop after count packet are sent, it waits  either  for
              deadline  expire  or until count probes are answered or for some
              error notification from network.


       -W timeout
              Time to wait for a response, in seconds. The option affects only
              timeout  in  absense  of any responses, otherwise ping waits for
              two RTTs.


       When using ping for fault isolation, it should  first  be  run  on  the
       local  host,  to verify that the local network interface is up and run-
       ning. Then, hosts and gateways  further  and  further  away  should  be
       忖pinged忖.  Round-trip  times and packet loss statistics are computed.
       If duplicate packets are received, they are not included in the  packet
       loss calculation, although the round trip time of these packets is used
       in calculating the  minimum/average/maximum  round-trip  time  numbers.
       When  the  specified number of packets have been sent (and received) or
       if the program is terminated with a SIGINT, a  brief  summary  is  dis-
       played.  Shorter current statistics can be obtained without termination
       of process with signal SIGQUIT.


       If ping does not receive any reply packets at all  it  will  exit  with
       code  1.  If  a packet count and deadline are both specified, and fewer
       than count packets are received by the time the deadline  has  arrived,
       it  will  also  exit with code 1.  On other error it exits with code 2.
       Otherwise it exits with code 0. This makes it possible to use the  exit
       code to see if a host is alive or not.


       This  program  is  intended for use in network testing, measurement and
       management.  Because of the load it can impose on the  network,  it  is
       unwise  to use ping during normal operations or from automated scripts.

语  法:ping [-dfnqrRv][-c<完成次数>][-i<间隔秒数>][-I<网络界面>][-l<前置载入>][-p<范本样式>][-s<数据包大小>][-t<存活数值>][主机名称或IP地址]
例如:


1. 指定数据包大小为1500Byte:ping -s 1500 ip


2. 指定次数为4次,数据包大小为32767Byte:ping -c 4 -s 32767 ip




Windows下默认ping包次数为4次,ping包大小为32Byte:


1. 指定ping包大小为1500Byte:ping -l 1500 ip


2. 指定次数为6次,ping包大小为1500:ping -n 6 -l 1500 ip

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