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[转]DBA管理-004

原创 Linux操作系统 作者:31597359 时间:2019-04-08 07:54:05 0 删除 编辑
[转]DBA管理-004

46. ORA-01555 SNAPSHOT TOO OLD的解决办法
增加MINEXTENTS的值,增加区的大小,设置一个高的OPTIMAL值。
如果是执行大的事务,报此错误,说明oracle给此事务随机分配的回滚段太小了,这时可以为它指定一个足够大的回滚段,以确保这个事务的成功执行.例如

set transaction use rollback segment roll_abc;
delete from table_name where ...
commit;
  回滚段roll_abc被指定给这个delete事务,commit命令则在事务结束之后取消了回滚段的指定.


47. 事务要求的回滚段空间不够,表现为表空间用满(ORA-01560错误),回滚段扩展到达参数 MAXEXTENTS的值(ORA-01628)的解决办法.
向回滚段表空间添加文件或使已有的文件变大;增加MAXEXTENTS的值。


48. 监控事例的等待
select event,sum(decode(wait_Time,0,0,1)) "Prev",
sum(decode(wait_Time,0,1,0)) "Curr",count(*) "Tot"
from v$session_Wait
group by event order by 4;

49. 回滚段的争用情况
select name, waits, gets, waits/gets "Ratio"
from v$rollstat C, v$rollname D
where C.usn = D.usn;

50 监控表空间的 I/O 比例
select B.tablespace_name name,B.file_name "file",A.phyrds pyr,
A.phyblkrd pbr,A.phywrts pyw, A.phyblkwrt pbw
from v$filestat A, dba_data_files B
where A.file# = B.file_id
order by B.tablespace_name;

51、监控文件系统的 I/O 比例
select substr(C.file#,1,2) "#", substr(C.name,1,30) "Name",
C.status, C.bytes, D.phyrds, D.phywrts
from v$datafile C, v$filestat D
where C.file# = D.file#;

52、监控 SGA 的命中率
select a.value + b.value "logical_reads", c.value "phys_reads",
round(100 * ((a.value+b.value)-c.value) / (a.value+b.value)) "BUFFER HIT RATIO"
from v$sysstat a, v$sysstat b, v$sysstat c
where a.statistic# = 38 and b.statistic# = 39
and c.statistic# = 40;

53、监控 SGA 中字典缓冲区的命中率
select parameter, gets,Getmisses , getmisses/(gets+getmisses)*100 "miss ratio",
(1-(sum(getmisses)/ (sum(gets)+sum(getmisses))))*100 "Hit ratio"
from v$rowcache
where gets+getmisses <>0
group by parameter, gets, getmisses;

54、监控 SGA 中共享缓存区的命中率,应该小于1%
select sum(pins) "Total Pins", sum(reloads) "Total Reloads",
sum(reloads)/sum(pins) *100 libcache
from v$librarycache;

select sum(pinhits-reloads)/sum(pins) "hit radio",sum(reloads)/sum(pins) "reload percent"
from v$librarycache;

55、显示所有数据库对象的类别和大小
select count(name) num_instances ,type ,sum(source_size) source_size ,
sum(parsed_size) parsed_size ,sum(code_size) code_size ,sum(error_size) error_size,
sum(source_size) +sum(parsed_size) +sum(code_size) +sum(error_size) size_required
from dba_object_size
group by type order by 2;

56、监控 SGA 中重做日志缓存区的命中率,应该小于1%
SELECT name, gets, misses, immediate_gets, immediate_misses,
Decode(gets,0,0,misses/gets*100) ratio1,
Decode(immediate_gets+immediate_misses,0,0,
immediate_misses/(immediate_gets+immediate_misses)*100) ratio2
FROM v$latch WHERE name IN ('redo allocation', 'redo copy');

57、监控内存和硬盘的排序比率,最好使它小于 .10,增加 sort_area_size
SELECT name, value FROM v$sysstat WHERE name IN ('sorts (memory)', 'sorts (disk)');


58、监控当前数据库谁在运行什么SQL语句?
SELECT osuser, username, sql_text from v$session a, v$sqltext b
where a.sql_address =b.address order by address, piece;

59、监控字典缓冲区?
SELECT (SUM(PINS - RELOADS)) / SUM(PINS) "LIB CACHE" FROM V$LIBRARYCACHE;
SELECT (SUM(GETS - GETMISSES - USAGE - FIXED)) / SUM(GETS) "ROW CACHE" FROM V$ROWCACHE;
SELECT SUM(PINS) "EXECUTIONS", SUM(RELOADS) "CACHE MISSES WHILE EXECUTING" FROM V$LIBRARYCACHE;
后者除以前者,此比率小于1%,接近0%为好。

SELECT SUM(GETS) "DICTIONARY GETS",SUM(GETMISSES) "DICTIONARY CACHE GET MISSES"
FROM V$ROWCACHE

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