|control-z||Stop (don't kill) the foreground job, and then return to the shell|
|jobs||Check the status of jobs in the current session|
|ps -u username||Check the status of processes, including those from other sessions. On BSD systems, use 'ps -gx'.|
|kill -9 %1||Kill a job, by specifying its job number after the percent sign|
|kill -9 123||Kill a process, by specifying its process id (PID) number|
|bg||Run the most recently stopped job in the background|
|fg||Bring most recently backgrounded job to the foreground|
|fg %1||Bring a job to foreground by specifying its job number after the percent sign|
Enter username at login: prompt. Be carefull - Unix is case sensitive.
Enter password at password: prompt.
logout or exit
cat > file Enter text and end with ctrl-D vi file Edit file using the vi editor
cat file display contents of file more file display contents of file one screenfull at a time. view file a read only version of vi. less file similar to, but more powerfull than more. See the man page for more infomation on less.
diff file1 file2 line by comparison cmp file1 file2 byte by byte comparison
chmod mode file1 file2 ... chmod -R mode dir (changes all files in dir )
Mode Settings u user (owner) g group o other + add permission - remove permission r read w write x execute
Example: chmod go+rwx public.html adds read, write, and execute permissions for group and other on public.html.
ls list contents of directory ls -a include files with "." (dot files) ls -l list contents in long format (show modes)
mv src-file dest-file rename src-file to dest-file mv src-file dest-dir move a file into a directory mv src-dir dest-dir rename src-dir, or move to dest-dir mv -i src dest copy & prompt before overwriting
cp src-file dest-file copy src-file to dest-file cp src-file dest-dir copy a file into a directory cp -R src-dir dest-dir copy one directory into another cp -i src dest copy & prompt before overwriting
rm file remove (delete) a file rmdir dir remove an empty directory rm -r dir remove a directory and its contents rm -i file remove file, but prompt before deleting
compress file encode file, replacing it with file.Z zcat file.Z display compressed file uncompress file.Z decode file.Z, replacing it with file
pwd display absolute path of working directory
~ Your home (login) directory ~username Another user's home directory . Working (current) directory .. Parent of working directory ../.. Parent of parent directory
cd / go to the root directory cd go to your login (home) directory cd ~username go to username's login (home) directory not allowed in the Bourne shell cd ~username/directory go to username's indicated directory cd .. go up one directory level from here cd ../.. go up two directory levels from here cd /full/path/name/from/root change directory to absolute path named note the leading slash cd path/from/current/directory change directory to path relative to here. note there is no leading slash
date display date and time
? single character wild card * Arbitrary number of characters
lpr file print file on default printer lpr -Pprinter file print file on printer lpr -c# file print # copies of file lpr -d file interpret file as a dvi file lpq show print queue (-Pprinter also valid) lprm -# remove print request # (listed with lpq)
command > file direct output of command to file instead of to standard output (screen), replacing current contents of file
command > > file as above, except output is appended to the current contents of file
command < file command receives input from file instead of from standard input (keyboard)
cmd1 | cmd2 "pipe" output of cmd1 to input of cmd2
script. file log everything displayed on the terminal to file; end with exit
grep string filelist show lines containing string in any file in filelist grep -v string filelist show lines not containing string grep -i string filelist show lines containing string, ignore case
finger user or finger user@machine get information on a user finger @machine list users on machine who list current users
alias string command abbreviate command to string
Commands may be recalled
history show command history !num repeat command with history number num !str repeat last command beginning with string str !! repeat entire last command line !$ repeat last word of last command line
pid Process IDentification number. See section 7.2. job-id Job identification number. See section 7.2.
ps report processes and pid numbers ps gx as above, but include "hidden" processes jobs report current jobs and job id numbers
ctrl-Z NOTE:process still exists!
To start a job in background add & to the end of the command. Example: xv foo.gif &
ctrl-Z stop the job bg "push" the job into the background
fg bring a job to foreground fg %job-id foreground by job-id (see 7.2)
ctrl-C kill foreground process kill -KILL pid# see 7.2 for kill -KILL %job-id# displaying pids & job-ids
MH commands are issued directly to the terminal.
inc incorporate new mail scan show list of mail messages show show current message next show next message prev show previous message repl reply to current message forw forward current message comp compose a mail message rmm remove current mail message cmd -help print help on mh commmand cmd
The file .mh_profile is used to enable/disable MH features. man mh-profile for more information.
man command-name display on-line manual pages man -k string list one-line summaries of manual pages containing string
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