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10G RAC升级到11G的方法(官方)

原创 Linux操作系统 作者:howard_zhang 时间:2010-11-05 12:04:48 0 删除 编辑

在 Oracle Enterprise Linux 上升级到 Oracle RAC 11g

了解如何在 Oracle Enterprise Linux 5 上逐步将 Oracle RAC 10g 第 2 版升级到 Oracle RAC 11g

作者:Vincent Chan

2007 年 10 月发布

Oracle 最近发布了大家期待已久的 Oracle 数据库 11g(即,新一代网格计算)。该版本在网格计算方面取得了显著进步,提供了大量令人难以置信的新特性,从而进一步改进了数据库可用性和可管理性、性能监视、诊断以及数据库升级过程。其中不乏令人印象深刻的创新功能,例如 Oracle 真正应用测试、具有实时查询功能的物理备用、新的分区方案以及结果缓存等关键特性。

转自:http://www.oracle.com/technology/global/cn/pub/articles/chan-upgrade.html

基本上,将 Oracle RAC 10g 升级到 Oracle RAC 11g 的方法有三种:

  • 使用 Oracle 数据库升级助手 (DBUA) 实用程序
  • 手动升级
  • 导出 Oracle 10g 数据库,然后将其导入 Oracle 11g 数据库

推荐的方法是,使用 DBUA 升级您的数据库和自动存储管理 (ASM)。DBUA 可以执行许多人工任务,从而显著简化升级过程。在本指南中,我们将描述使用 DBUA 进行升级的过程。

本指南相关下载

  • 适用于 Linux x86 的 Oracle 集群件第 1 版 (11.1.0.6.0)
  • 适用于 Linux x86 的 Oracle 数据库 11g 第 1 版 (11.1.0.6.0)

概述

本指南分为以下步骤:

  1. 准备安装
  2. 升级 Oracle 集群件
  3. 安装 Oracle 数据库 11g 第 1 版软件
  4. 升级 Oracle 数据库
  5. 升级 Oracle ASM
  6. 探索 Oracle 数据库 11g

Oracle RAC 10g 环境概述:

主机名 实例名 数据库名 集群件文件存储 数据库文件存储
merlin1 devdb1 devdb Raw ASM
merlin2 devdb2 devdb Raw ASM


主机名 Oracle 集群件主目录 Oracle ASM 主目录 Oracle 主目录
merlin1 /u02/crs/oracle /u01/app/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1 /u01/app/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1
merlin2 /u02/crs/oracle /u01/app/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1 /u01/app/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1


Oracle 集群件文件

设备名

Oracle Cluster Registry /dev/sdb1
Voting Disk /dev/sdc1

Oracle RAC 11g 环境概述:

主机名 实例名 数据库名 集群件文件存储 数据库文件存储
merlin1 devdb1 devdb Raw ASM
merlin2 devdb2 devdb Raw ASM


主机名 Oracle 集群件主目录 Oracle ASM 主目录 Oracle 主目录
merlin1 /u02/crs/oracle /u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/asm /u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1
merlin2 /u02/crs/oracle /u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/asm /u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1


Oracle 集群件文件 设备名
Oracle Cluster Registry /dev/sdb1
Voting Disk /dev/sdc1

您将在每个节点的 Oracle 集群件主目录、Oracle ASM 主目录和 Oracle 主目录中安装软件,以实现冗余和更高的可用性。

1. 准备安装

执行完整的备份

在升级到 Oracle RAC 11g 之前,备份您的 Oracle RAC 10g 环境。

安装其他软件包

以 root 用户身份安装以下程序包(如果它们尚未安装到 RAC 节点上)。这些程序包可以从 Enterprise-R5-GA-Server-i386-disc2.iso 和 Enterprise-R5-GA-Server-i386-disc3.iso 中提取。

  1. compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-61.i386.rpm
  2. elfutils-libelf-devel-0.125-3.e15.i386.rpm
  3. gcc-4.1.1-52.e15.i386.rpm
  4. gcc-c++-4.1.1-52.e15.i386.rpm
  5. glibc-devel-2.5-12.i386.rpm
  6. libaio-devel-0.3.106-3.2.i386.rpm
  7. libstdc++-devel-4.1.1-52.e15.i386.rpm
  8. sysstat-7.0.0-3.e15.i386.rpm
  9. unixODBC-2.2.11-7.1.i386.rpm
  10. unixODBC-devel-2.2.11-7.1.i386.rpm

提取这些程序包之后,以 root 用户身份执行以下命令。

# ls -1
elfutils-libelf-devel-0.125-3.e15.i386.rpm
libaio-devel-0.3.106-3.2.i386.rpm
unixODBC-2.2.11-7.1.i386.rpm
unixODBC-devel-2.2.11-7.1.i386.rpm 
#
# rpm -Uvh *.rpm

检验内核参数

最低内核参数要求如下所示。如果必要,在两个节点的 /etc/sysctl.conf 中配置相应的参数。

kernel.shmall = 2097152
kernel.shmmax = 2147483648
kernel.shmmni = 4096
kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128
fs.file-max = 65536
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024 65000
net.core.rmem_default = 4194304
net.core.rmem_max = 4194304
net.core.wmem_default = 262144
net.core.wmem_max = 262144

2. 升级 Oracle 集群件

将 Oracle 集群件升级到版本 10.2.0.3

如果您希望执行滚动升级,在升级到 Oracle RAC 11g 之前,Oracle 集群件的版本必须至少是 10.2.0.3 或带有 CRS 2 号补丁包的 10.2.0.2(参见错误 5256865)。10.2.0.3 补丁集 (5337014) 可以从 Oracle Metalink 下载。

参见 Oracle Metalink 说明 419058.1 或针对 Linux x86 的 Oracle 10.2.0.3 补丁集的相关信息。
merlin1-> crsctl query crs activeversion
CRS active version on the cluster is [10.2.0.3.0]

Oracle 集群件安装前检查

集群验证实用程序 (CVU) 可降低安装 RAC 的复杂性并减少所花费的时间。该工具将扫描集群环境中所有必需的组件,以确保满足成功安装的所有条件。

从 OTN 下载 Oracle 集群件 11.1.0.6 软件并解压缩到临时目录,然后执行 runcluvfy.sh。

/stage/clusterware/runcluvfy.sh stage -pre crsinst -n all -verbose > /tmp/prechecks.log

验证是否满足所有前提条件。您可以忽略针对 openmotif-2.2.3-3.RHEL3 的“Package existence checked failed”消息。

停止所有数据库资源

merlin1-> srvctl stop database -d devdb
merlin1-> srvctl stop asm -n merlin1
merlin1-> srvctl stop asm -n merlin2
merlin1-> srvctl stop nodeapps -n merlin1
merlin1-> srvctl stop nodeapps -n merlin2
merlin1-> crs_stat -t
Name           Type           Target    State     Host
------------------------------------------------------------
ora.devdb.db   application    OFFLINE   OFFLINE
ora....b1.inst application    OFFLINE   OFFLINE
ora....b2.inst application    OFFLINE   OFFLINE
ora....SM1.asm application    OFFLINE   OFFLINE
ora....N1.lsnr application    OFFLINE   OFFLINE
ora....in1.gsd application    OFFLINE   OFFLINE
ora....in1.ons application    OFFLINE   OFFLINE
ora....in1.vip application    OFFLINE   OFFLINE
ora....SM2.asm application    OFFLINE   OFFLINE
ora....N2.lsnr application    OFFLINE   OFFLINE
ora....in2.gsd application    OFFLINE   OFFLINE
ora....in2.ons application    OFFLINE   OFFLINE
ora....in2.vip application    OFFLINE   OFFLINE

准备要升级的 Oracle 集群件主目录

在每个节点上执行 preupdate.sh 脚本,以准备要升级的集群件主目录。该脚本可停止 Oracle 集群件组件并更改 Oracle 集群件主目录中文件的权限。

以 root 用户身份在每个节点上执行,
# cd /stage/clusterware/upgrade
# ./preupdate.sh -crshome /u02/crs/oracle -crsuser oracle
Shutting down Oracle Cluster Ready Services (CRS):
Stopping resources.This could take several minutes.
Successfully stopped CRS resources.
Stopping CSSD.
Shutting down CSS daemon.
Shutdown request successfully issued.
Shutdown has begun.The daemons should exit soon.
Checking to see if Oracle CRS stack is down...
Oracle CRS stack is down now.

升级 Oracle 集群件

您只需在一个节点上运行 Oracle Universal Installer (OUI)。OUI 将在每个节点上自动安装现有的二进制软件。

以 oracle 用户身份在 merlin1 上执行,

merlin1-> /stage/clusterware/runInstaller
  1. 欢迎页面:单击 Next
  2. 指定 Home 详细内容:验证 CRS_Home 目录 (/u02/crs/oracle) 显示正确。
  3. 指定硬件集群安装模式:验证所有节点均已选择。
  4. 特定于产品的必要条件检查:验证总体结果成功。
  5. 摘要:单击 Install
  6. 执行配置脚本:以 root 用户身份按顺序执行以下脚本(一次执行一个)。在当前脚本完成后,再继续执行下一个脚本。
    1. 在 merlin1 上执行 /u02/crs/oracle/install/rootupgrade。
    2. 在 merlin2 上执行 /u02/crs/oracle/install/rootupgrade。

在 merlin1 上,

# /u02/crs/oracle/install/rootupgrade
Checking to see if Oracle CRS stack is already up...

copying ONS config file to 11.1 CRS home
/bin/cp:`/u02/crs/oracle/opmn/conf/ons.config' and `/u02/crs/oracle/opmn/conf/ons.config' are the same file
/u02/crs/oracle/opmn/conf/ons.config was copied successfully to /u02/crs/oracle/opmn/conf/ons.config
WARNING:directory '/u02/crs' is not owned by root
WARNING:directory '/u02' is not owned by root
Oracle Cluster Registry configuration upgraded successfully
Adding daemons to inittab
Attempting to start Oracle Clusterware stack
Waiting for Cluster Synchronization Services daemon to start
Cluster Synchronization Services daemon has started
Waiting for Event Manager daemon to start
Event Manager daemon has started
Cluster Ready Services daemon has started
Oracle CRS stack is running under init(1M)
clscfg:EXISTING configuration version 3 detected.
clscfg:version 3 is 10g Release 2.
Successfully accumulated necessary OCR keys.
Using ports:CSS=49895 CRS=49896 EVMC=49898 and EVMR=49897.
node :  
node 1:merlin1 merlin1-priv merlin1
Creating OCR keys for user 'root', privgrp 'root'..
Operation successful.
clscfg -upgrade completed successfully
CRS stack on this node, is successfully upgraded to 11.1.0.6.0
Checking the existence of nodeapps on this node
Creating '/u02/crs/oracle/install/paramfile.crs' with data used for CRS configuration
Setting CRS configuration values in /u02/crs/oracle/install/paramfile.crs

在 merlin2 上,

# /u02/crs/oracle/install/rootupgrade
Checking to see if Oracle CRS stack is already up...

copying ONS config file to 11.1 CRS home
/bin/cp:`/u02/crs/oracle/opmn/conf/ons.config' and `/u02/crs/oracle/opmn/conf/ons.config' are the same file
/u02/crs/oracle/opmn/conf/ons.config was copied successfully to /u02/crs/oracle/opmn/conf/ons.config
WARNING:directory '/u02/crs' is not owned by root
WARNING:directory '/u02' is not owned by root
Oracle Cluster Registry configuration upgraded successfully
Adding daemons to inittab
Attempting to start Oracle Clusterware stack 
Waiting for Cluster Synchronization Services daemon to start
Cluster Synchronization Services daemon has started
Waiting for Event Manager daemon to start
Waiting for Event Manager daemon to start
Event Manager daemon has started
Cluster Ready Services daemon has started
Oracle CRS stack is running under init(1M)
clscfg:EXISTING configuration version 4 detected.
clscfg:version 4 is 11 Release 1.
Successfully accumulated necessary OCR keys.
Using ports:CSS=49895 CRS=49896 EVMC=49898 and EVMR=49897.
node :  
node 2:merlin2 merlin2-priv merlin2
Creating OCR keys for user 'root', privgrp 'root'..
Operation successful.
clscfg -upgrade completed successfully
CRS stack on this node, is successfully upgraded to 11.1.0.6.0
Checking the existence of nodeapps on this node
Creating '/u02/crs/oracle/install/paramfile.crs' with data used for CRS configuration
Setting CRS configuration values in /u02/crs/oracle/install/paramfile.crs


merlin1-> $ORA_CRS_HOME/bin/crsctl check crs
Cluster Synchronization Services appears healthy
Cluster Ready Services appears healthy
Event Manager appears healthy
merlin1-> $ORA_CRS_HOME/bin/crsctl query crs softwareversion
Oracle Clusterware version on node [merlin1] is [11.1.0.6.0] 
merlin1-> $ORA_CRS_HOME/bin/crsctl query crs activeversion
Oracle Clusterware active version on the cluster is [11.1.0.6.0]

merlin2-> $ORA_CRS_HOME/bin/crsctl check crs 
Cluster Synchronization Services appears healthy
Cluster Ready Services appears healthy
Event Manager appears healthy
merlin2-> $ORA_CRS_HOME/bin/crsctl query crs softwareversion
Oracle Clusterware version on node [merlin2] is [11.1.0.6.0] 
merlin2-> $ORA_CRS_HOME/bin/crsctl query crs activeversion
Oracle Clusterware active version on the cluster is [11.1.0.6.0]
  1. 返回到 merlin1 的执行配置脚本屏幕,然后单击“OK”。
  2. 配置助手:验证所有检查均成功。OUI 在最后会执行集群件安装后检查。如果 CVU 失败,请更正问题,并以 oracle 用户身份重新运行以下命令:
merlin1-> /u02/crs/oracle/bin/cluvfy stage -post crsinst -n merlin1,merlin2

Performing post-checks for cluster services setup

Checking node reachability...

Node reachability check passed from node "merlin1".


Checking user equivalence...

User equivalence check passed for user "oracle".					

Checking Cluster manager integrity...

Checking CSS daemon...

Daemon status check passed for "CSS daemon".

Cluster manager integrity check passed.

Checking cluster integrity...


Cluster integrity check passed


Checking OCR integrity...


Checking the absence of a non-clustered configuration...

All nodes free of non-clustered, local-only configurations.


Uniqueness check for OCR device passed.

Checking the version of OCR...
OCR of correct Version "2" exists.

Checking data integrity of OCR...
Data integrity check for OCR passed.

OCR integrity check passed.

Checking CRS integrity...


Checking daemon liveness...

Liveness check passed for "CRS daemon".

Checking daemon liveness...

Liveness check passed for "CSS daemon".

Checking daemon liveness...

Liveness check passed for "EVM daemon".

Checking CRS health...

CRS health check passed.

CRS integrity check passed.

Checking node application existence...


Checking existence of VIP node application (required)

Check passed.

Checking existence of ONS node application (optional)

Check passed.

Checking existence of GSD node application (optional)

Check passed.

Post-check for cluster services setup was successful.
  1. 安装结束:单击 Exit。
在此阶段,Oracle 集群件已经升级到 Oracle 集群件 11g,并且所有集群资源应该处于运行状态。
merlin1-> $ORA_CRS_HOME/bin/crs_stat -t
Name           Type           Target    State     Host
------------------------------------------------------------
ora.devdb.db   application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin1
ora....b1.inst application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin1
ora....b2.inst application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin2
ora....SM1.asm application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin1
ora....N1.lsnr application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin1 
ora....in1.gsd application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin1
ora....in1.ons application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin1
ora....in1.vip application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin1
ora....SM2.asm application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin2
ora....N2.lsnr application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin2
ora....in2.gsd application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin2
ora....in2.ons application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin2
ora....in2.vip application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin2

3. 安装 Oracle 数据库 11g 第 1 版软件

创建 Oracle 主目录

以 oracle 用户身份在这两个节点上创建新的 Oracle 主目录。

mkdir -p  /u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1

安装 Oracle 数据库软件

从 OTN 上下载 Oracle 数据库软件。
以 oracle 用户身份在 merlin1 上执行,

merlin1-> /stage/database/runInstaller
  1. 欢迎页面:单击 Next
  2. 选择安装类型:
    1. 选择 Custom
  3. 指定 Home 详细内容:
    1. Oracle 基目录:/u01/app/oracle。
    2. 名称:OraDb11g_home1
    3. 路径:/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1
  4. 指定硬件集群安装模式:
    1. 选择 Cluster Installation
    2. 单击 Select All
  5. 特定于产品的必要条件检查:验证总体结果成功。
  6. 可用产品组件:选择所有必需组件。
  7. 特权操作系统组:
    1. 数据库管理员 (OSDBA) 组:dba。
    2. 数据库操作员 (OSOPER) 组:oinstall。
    3. ASM 管理员 (OSASM) 组:dba。
  8. 创建数据库:
    1. 选择 Install database Software only
  9. 摘要:单击 Install
  10. 执行配置脚本:以 root 用户身份执行下面的脚本。
    1. 在 merlin1 上执行 /u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1/root.sh。
    2. 在 merlin2 上执行 /u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1/root.sh。
  11. 返回到 merlin1 的执行配置脚本屏幕,然后单击 OK
  12. 安装结束:单击 Exit

4. 升级 Oracle 数据库

数据库升级前检查

在运行数据库升级助手 (DBUA) 之前,执行数据库升级前检查(即 utlu111i.sql)以检验是否满足所有前提条件。作为升级过程的一部分,DBUA 会自动将 cluster_database 参数由 true 更改为 false。进行必要的修改后,重新执行数据库升级前检查脚本。

以 sys 用户身份连接,

SQL> spool /tmp/utlu111i.log
SQL> @/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1/rdbms/admin/utlu111i
Oracle Database 11.1 Pre-Upgrade Information Tool    08-13-2007 18:03:45        
.                                                                               
**********************************************************************          
Database:                                                                       
**********************************************************************          
--> name:DEVDB                                                        
--> version:       10.2.0.3.0                                                   
--> compatible:    10.2.0.1.0                                                   
--> blocksize:     8192                                                         
--> platform.:Linux IA (32-bit)                                            
--> timezone file:V4                                                           
.                                                                               
**********************************************************************          
Tablespaces:[make adjustments in the current environment]                      
**********************************************************************          
--> SYSTEM tablespace is adequate for the upgrade.                              
.... minimum required size:743 MB                                              
--> UNDOTBS1 tablespace is adequate for the upgrade.                            
.... minimum required size:315 MB                                              
--> SYSAUX tablespace is adequate for the upgrade.                              
.... minimum required size:458 MB                                              
--> TEMP tablespace is adequate for the upgrade.                                
.... minimum required size:61 MB                                               
--> EXAMPLE tablespace is adequate for the upgrade.                             
.... minimum required size:66 MB                                               
.                                                                               
**********************************************************************          
Update Parameters:[Update Oracle Database 11.1 init.ora or spfile]             
**********************************************************************          
-- No update parameter changes are required.                                    
.                                                                               
**********************************************************************          
Renamed Parameters:[Update Oracle Database 11.1 init.ora or spfile]            
**********************************************************************          
-- No renamed parameters found.No changes are required.                        
.                                                                               
**********************************************************************          
Obsolete/Deprecated Parameters:[Update Oracle Database 11.1 init.ora or spfile]
**********************************************************************          
--> "background_dump_dest" replaced by  "diagnostic_dest"                       
--> "user_dump_dest" replaced by  "diagnostic_dest"                             
--> "core_dump_dest" replaced by  "diagnostic_dest"                             
.                                                                               
**********************************************************************          
Components:[The following database components will be upgraded or installed]   
**********************************************************************          
--> Oracle Catalog Views         [upgrade]  VALID                               
--> Oracle Packages and Types    [upgrade]  VALID                               
--> JServer JAVA Virtual Machine [upgrade]  VALID                               
--> Oracle XDK for Java          [upgrade]  VALID                               
--> Real Application Clusters    [upgrade]  VALID                               
--> Oracle Workspace Manager     [upgrade]  VALID                               
--> OLAP Analytic Workspace      [upgrade]  VALID                               
--> OLAP Catalog                 [upgrade]  VALID                               
--> EM Repository                [upgrade]  VALID                               
--> Oracle Text                  [upgrade]  VALID                               
--> Oracle XML Database          [upgrade]  VALID                               
--> Oracle Java Packages         [upgrade]  VALID                               
--> Oracle interMedia            [upgrade]  VALID                               
--> Spatial                      [upgrade]  VALID                               
--> Data Mining                  [upgrade]  VALID                               
--> Expression Filter            [upgrade]  VALID                               
--> Rule Manager                 [upgrade]  VALID                               
--> Oracle OLAP API              [upgrade]  VALID                               
.                                                                               
**********************************************************************          
Miscellaneous Warnings                                                          
**********************************************************************          
WARNING:--> The "cluster_database" parameter is currently "TRUE" and must be   
set to "FALSE" prior to running the upgrade.                                    
WARNING:--> Database contains stale optimizer statistics.                      
.... Refer to the 11g Upgrade Guide for instructions to update                  
.... statistics prior to upgrading the database.                                
.... Component Schemas with stale statistics:                                   
....   SYS                                                                      
WARNING:--> Database contains schemas with objects dependent on network        
packages.                                                                       
.... Refer to the 11g Upgrade Guide for instructions to configure Network ACLs. 
WARNING:--> EM Database Control Repository exists in the database.             
.... Direct downgrade of EM Database Control is not supported.Refer to the     
.... 11g Upgrade Guide for instructions to save the EM data prior to upgrade.   
.                                                                               

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> spool off

修改 oracle 用户环境文件

修改 ORACLE_HOME 以便在两个节点上反映新的 Oracle 数据库 11g 目录。

merlin1-> more .profile
export PS1="`/bin/hostname -s`-> "
export EDITOR=vi
export ORACLE_SID=devdb1
export ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle
export ORACLE_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/product/11.1.0/db_1
export ORA_CRS_HOME=/u02/crs/oracle
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib
export PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:/bin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/loca
l/bin:/usr/X11R6/bin
umask 022

升级数据库

以 oracle 用户身份在 merlin1 上执行 dbua。

merlin1-> ../.profile
merlin1-> which dbua
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1/bin/dbua  
merlin1-> dbua
  1. 欢迎页面:单击 Next
  2. 升级操作:选择 Upgrade a Database
  3. 数据库:选择 devdb
  4. 数据库升级助手:单击 Yes 移植现有的监听器。



图 1

  1. 数据库升级助手:单击 No 稍后升级 ASM。

 



图 2

  1. 诊断目标:
    1. Oracle 基目录:/u01/app/oracle
    2. 诊断目标:/u01/app/oracle



图 3

 

  1. 恢复配置:
    1. 选择 Specify Flash Recovery Area
    2. 闪回恢复区:+RECOVERYDEST。
    3. 闪回恢复区大小:2048 MB。
  2. 重新编译无效对象:选择 Recompile invalid objects at the end of upgrade
  3. 摘要:单击 Finish



图 4



图 5

 

  1. 进度:单击 OK 查看升级结果。
  2. 升级结果:单击 Close
SQL> select comp_name,version,status from dba_registry;

COMP_NAME                               VERSION    STATUS                       
--------------------------------------- ---------- ------                       
Oracle Enterprise Manager               11.1.0.6.0 VALID                        
OLAP Catalog                            11.1.0.6.0 VALID                        
Spatial                                 11.1.0.6.0 VALID                        
Oracle Multimedia                       11.1.0.6.0 VALID                        
Oracle XML Database                     11.1.0.6.0 VALID                        
Oracle Text                             11.1.0.6.0 VALID                        
Oracle Data Mining                      11.1.0.6.0 VALID                        
Oracle Expression Filter                11.1.0.6.0 VALID                        
Oracle Rule Manager                     11.1.0.6.0 VALID                        
Oracle Workspace Manager                11.1.0.6.0 VALID                        
Oracle Database Catalog Views           11.1.0.6.0 VALID                        
Oracle Database Packages and Types      11.1.0.6.0 VALID                        
JServer JAVA Virtual Machine            11.1.0.6.0 VALID                        
Oracle XDK                              11.1.0.6.0 VALID                        
Oracle Database Java Packages           11.1.0.6.0 VALID                        
OLAP Analytic Workspace                 11.1.0.6.0 VALID                        
Oracle OLAP API                         11.1.0.6.0 VALID                        
Oracle Real Application Clusters        11.1.0.6.0 VALID                        

18 rows selected.

merlin1-> srvctl config database -d devdb
merlin1 devdb1 /u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1
merlin2 devdb2 /u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1

merlin1-> $ORA_CRS_HOME/bin/crs_stat -t
Name           Type           Target    State     Host
------------------------------------------------------------
ora.devdb.db   application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin1
ora....b1.inst application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin1
ora....b2.inst application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin2
ora....SM1.asm application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin1
ora....N1.lsnr application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin1
ora....in1.gsd application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin1
ora....in1.ons application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin1
ora....in1.vip application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin1
ora....SM2.asm application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin2
ora....N2.lsnr application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin2
ora....in2.gsd application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin2
ora....in2.ons application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin2
ora....in2.vip application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin2

新的诊断位置

SQL> select name, value from v$parameter where name like '%dump_dest' or name like 'diag%';

NAME                 VALUE
-------------------- --------------------------------------------------
background_dump_dest /u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms/devdb/devdb1/trace
user_dump_dest       /u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms/devdb/devdb1/trace
core_dump_dest       /u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms/devdb/devdb1/cdump
diagnostic_dest      /u01/app/oracle

5. 升级 Oracle ASM

单独的 ASM 主目录不是必需的;但是,具有一个单独的 ASM 主目录具有以下优点:可让您将补丁或补丁集独立地从 ASM 主目录应用到 Oracle RDBMS 主目录。在同一个节点上运行一个以上的数据库实例时,具有单独的 ASM 主目录和 RDBMS 主目录尤其受益。在 Oracle RDBMS 主目录需要修补时,ASM 实例可用性将不会受到影响。

此时,您的 ASM 主目录仍然在 Oracle 数据库 10g 主目录下运行。

merlin1-> srvctl config asm -n merlin1
+ASM1 /u01/app/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1
merlin1-> srvctl config asm -n merlin2
+ASM2 /u01/app/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1

创建 ASM 主目录

在两个节点上,以 oracle 用户身份创建新的 ASM 主目录

mkdir /u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/asm 
并修改 shell 配置文件中的 ORACLE_HOME 变量,以反映新的 ASM 主目录。

ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/asm

在 ASM 主目录中安装 Oracle 数据库 11g 第 1 版软件

以 oracle 用户身份在 merlin1 上执行,

merlin1-> ../.profile 
merlin1-> /stage/database/runInstaller
  1. 欢迎页面:单击 Next
  2. 选择安装类型:
    1. 选择 Enterprise Edition
  3. 指定 Home 详细内容:
    1. Oracle 基目录:/u01/app/oracle。
    2. 名称:OraASM11g_home。
    3. 路径:/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/asm。
  4. 指定硬件集群安装模式:
    1. 选择 Cluster Installation
    2. 单击 Select All
  5. 特定于产品的必要条件检查:验证总体结果成功。
  6. 升级现有数据库:
    1. 您希望立即执行升级吗?:No
  7. 选择配置选项:
    1. 选择 Install Software Only
  8. 特权操作系统组:
    1. 数据库管理员 (OSDBA) 组:dba
    2. 数据库操作员 (OSOPER) 组:oinstall
    3. ASM 管理员 (OSASM) 组:dba
  9. 摘要:单击 Install
  10. 执行配置脚本:以 root 用户身份执行下面的脚本。
    1. 在 merlin1 上执行 /u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/asm/root.sh。
    2. 在 merlin2 上执行 /u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/asm/root.sh。
  11. 返回到 merlin1 的执行配置脚本屏幕,然后单击 OK
  12. 安装结束:单击 Exit

升级 ASM

在 merlin1 上,以 oracle 用户身份停止数据库并启动 DBUA。

merlin1-> srvctl stop database -d devdb
merlin1-> /u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/asm/bin/dbua
  1. 欢迎页面:单击 Next
  2. 升级操作:选择 Upgrade Automatic Storage Management Instance
  3. 摘要:单击 Finish



图 6



图 7

  1. 进度:单击 OK 查看升级结果。
  2. 升级结果:单击 Close
merlin1-> srvctl config asm -n merlin1
+ASM1 /u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/asm
merlin1-> srvctl config asm -n merlin2
+ASM2 /u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/asm
merlin1-> srvctl start database -d devdb
merlin1-> crs_stat -t 
Name           Type           Target    State     Host
------------------------------------------------------------
ora.devdb.db   application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin1
ora....b1.inst application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin1
ora....b2.inst application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin2
ora....SM1.asm application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin1
ora....N1.lsnr application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin1
ora....in1.gsd application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin1
ora....in1.ons application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin1
ora....in1.vip application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin1
ora....SM2.asm application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin2
ora....N2.lsnr application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin2
ora....in2.gsd application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin2
ora....in2.ons application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin2
ora....in2.vip application    ONLINE    ONLINE    merlin2



图 8

修改磁盘组兼容性属性和数据库兼容性参数

作为最后一步,要利用 Oracle 数据库 11g 的新特性,必须将数据库兼容性参数和磁盘组兼容性属性更改为 11.1.0。

在 devdb1 实例上,

SQL> show parameter compatible
NAME                     TYPE        VALUE
------------------------ ----------- -------------------------
compatible                           string      10.2.0.1.0

SQL> alter system set compatible='11.1.0' scope=spfile;
System altered.
在 merlin1 上,重新启动数据库,

merlin1-> srvctl stop database -d devdb
merlin1-> srvctl start database -d devdb

在 ASM1 实例上,

SQL> select name,compatibility,database_compatibility from 
v$asm_diskgroup;

NAME            COMPATIBILITY DATABASE_COMPATIBILI
--------------- ------------- --------------------
DG1             10.1.0.0.0    10.1.0.0.0
RECOVERYDEST    10.1.0.0.0    10.1.0.0.0

SQL> alter diskgroup dg1 set attribute 'compatible.asm'='11.1.0';

Diskgroup altered.

SQL> alter diskgroup dg1 set attribute 'compatible.rdbms'='11.1.0';

Diskgroup altered.

SQL> alter diskgroup recoverydest set attribute 'compatible.asm'='11.1.0';

Diskgroup altered.

SQL> alter diskgroup recoverydest set attribute 'compatible.rdbms'='11.1.0';

Diskgroup altered.

SQL> select name,compatibility,database_compatibility from v$asm_diskgroup;

NAME            COMPATIBILITY DATABASE_COMPATIBILI
--------------- ------------- --------------------
DG1             11.1.0.0.0    11.1.0.0.0
RECOVERYDEST    11.1.0.0.0    11.1.0.0.0


6. 探索 Oracle 数据库 11g

此部分将简要描述 Oracle 数据库 11g 的几个新特性。新特性的详细描述不在本指南的讨论范围之内。要获得更完整的列表,请参阅 Oracle 数据库新特性指南 11g 第 1 版 (11.1)

自动内存管理 — 在 Oracle 数据库 11g 中,已经使用动态参数 memory_target 进一步自动化了内存管理。您只需指定总的实例内存大小,数据库将自动管理 SGA 与 PGA 之间的内存分配。视图 v$memory_target_advice 将提供内存调整建议。

间隔分区通过在插入行超出分区范围时自动创建新表分区,提高了分区表的可管理性。

按整数值分区

SQL> create table patients (
2  patientid number not null,name varchar2(10),address varchar2(15)
  3  )
4  partition by range (patientid)
5  interval (100)
6  (partition p1 values less than (100))
  7  /

Table created.

SQL> select partition_name,high_value
2  from user_tab_partitions
3  where table_name='PATIENTS';

PARTITION_NAME  HIGH_VALUE
--------------- ---------------
P1              100

SQL> insert into patients values (100,'ROBERT','4 BORNE AVE');

1 row created.

SQL> select partition_name,high_value
2  from user_tab_partitions
3  where table_name='PATIENTS';

PARTITION_NAME  HIGH_VALUE
--------------- ---------------
P1              100
SYS_P81         200

SQL> select count(*) from patients partition (SYS_P81);

COUNT(*)
----------
         1

按日期分区

SQL> create table userlogs (
2  transid number,
3  transdt date,
4  terminal varchar2(10)
  5  )
6  partition by range (transdt)
7  interval (numtoyminterval(1,'YEAR'))
  8  (
9     partition p1 values less than (to_date('01-01-2007','mm-dd-yyyy'))
 10  );

Table created.

SQL> select partition_name,high_value
2  from user_tab_partitions
3  where table_name='USERLOGS';

PARTITION_NAME HIGH_VALUE
-------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
P1             TO_DATE(' 2007-01-01 00:00:00', 'SYYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS', 'NLS_CALENDAR=GREGORIA


SQL> insert into userlogs values (1,'11-AUG-07','XAV0004');

1 row created.

SQL> select partition_name,high_value
2  from user_tab_partitions
3  where table_name='USERLOGS';

PARTITION_NAME HIGH_VALUE
-------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
P1             TO_DATE(' 2007-01-01 00:00:00', 'SYYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS', 'NLS_CALENDAR=GREGORIA
SYS_P42        TO_DATE(' 2008-01-01 00:00:00', 'SYYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS', 'NLS_CALENDAR=GREGORIA


SQL> select count(*) from userlogs partition (sys_p42);

COUNT(*)
----------
         1
引用分区根据父表的分区模式对子表进行分区。

SQL> create table patients (
2  patientid number not null,name varchar2(10), address varchar2(15)
  3  )
4  partition by range (patientid)
5  (partition p1 values less than (100),
6   partition p2 values less than (200))
  7  /

Table created.
SQL> alter table patients
2  add constraint patients_pk primary key (patientid);

Table altered.

SQL> create table invoices (
2  invoiceno number,amount number, patientid number not null,
3  constraint invoices_fk
4  foreign key (patientid) references patients
  5  )
6  partition by reference (invoices_fk);

Table created.

SQL> select dbms_metadata.get_ddl('TABLE','INVOICES','VCHAN') from dual;

DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('TABLE','INVOICES','VCHAN')
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
CREATE TABLE "VCHAN"."INVOICES"
(    "INVOICENO" NUMBER,
"AMOUNT" NUMBER,
"PATIENTID" NUMBER NOT NULL ENABLE,
CONSTRAINT "INVOICES_FK" FOREIGN KEY ("PATIENTID")
REFERENCES "VCHAN"."PATIENTS" ("PATIENTID") ENABLE
) PCTFREE 10 PCTUSED 40 INITRANS 1 MAXTRANS 255
STORAGE(
BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT)
PARTITION BY REFERENCE ("INVOICES_FK")
(PARTITION "P1"
PCTFREE 10 PCTUSED 40 INITRANS 1 MAXTRANS 255
STORAGE(INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 2147483645
PCTINCREASE 0 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1 BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT)
TABLESPACE "USERS" NOCOMPRESS ,
PARTITION "P2"
PCTFREE 10 PCTUSED 40 INITRANS 1 MAXTRANS 255
STORAGE(INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 2147483645
PCTINCREASE 0 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1 BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT)
TABLESPACE "USERS" NOCOMPRESS )

SQL> insert into patients values (1,'TOBY','88 Palace Ave');

1 row created.

SQL> insert into invoices values (150,262.12,1);

1 row created.

SQL> select count(*) from invoices partition (p1);

COUNT(*)
----------
         1

SQL> select count(*) from invoices partition (p2);

COUNT(*)
----------
         0

SQL> insert into patients values (110,'GILY','512 HILE STREET');

1 row created.

SQL> insert into invoices values (151,500.01,110);

1 row created.

SQL> select count(*) from invoices partition (p1);

COUNT(*)
----------
         1

SQL> select count(*) from invoices partition (p2);

COUNT(*)
----------
         1
Oracle 数据库 11g 中的表压缩支持传统的 DML 和删除列操作。压缩数据在读取期间不需要解压缩,这样,因为读取的数据块较少,查询压缩数据的速度将明显加快。
SQL> create tablespace tbs1 datafile '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/db11g/tbs1_01.dbf' size 500M;

Tablespace created.

SQL> create tablespace tbs2 datafile '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/db11g/tbs2_01.dbf' size 500M;

Tablespace created.

SQL> create table mytable_compress (col1 varchar2(26),col2 varchar2(26)) tablespace tbs1 compress for all operations;

Table created.

SQL> create table mytable_nocompress (col1 varchar2(26),col2 varchar2(26)) tablespace tbs2;

Table created.

SQL> alter system flush buffer_Cache;

System altered.

SQL> alter system flush shared_pool;

System altered.

SQL> set timing on

SQL> insert into mytable_nocompress
2  select 'ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ','ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ'
3  from (select 1 from dual connect by level <= 2000000);

2000000 rows created.

Elapsed: 00:00:8.07

SQL> commit;

Commit complete.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.07

SQL> alter system flush buffer_Cache;

System altered.

SQL> alter system flush shared_pool;

System altered.

SQL> insert into mytable_compress
2  select 'ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ','ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ'
3  from (select 1 from dual connect by level <= 2000000);

2000000 rows created.

Elapsed: 00:00:41.79

SQL> commit;

Commit complete.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.04

SQL> select segment_name,extents from user_segments where segment_name like 'MYTABLE%';

SEGMENT_NAME                      EXTENTS
------------------------------ ----------
MYTABLE_COMPRESS                       53
MYTABLE_NOCOMPRESS                     88


SQL> select tablespace_name,bytes/1024/1024 from dba_free_space where tablespace_name like 'TBS%';

TABLESPACE_NAME                BYTES/1024/1024
------------------------------ ---------------
TBS1                                  461.9375
TBS2                                  363.9375


SQL> alter table mytable_compress drop column col2;

Table altered.

Elapsed: 00:00:21.04

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