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云原生已来,云原生是什么?

翻译 操作系统 作者:canxie07948 时间:2020-07-02 14:47:50 0 删除 编辑

前言

Internet 改变了人们生活、工作、学习和娱乐的方式。技术发展日新月异,云计算市场风起“云”涌,从最初的物理机到虚拟机(裸金属) ,再到容器(Container),而互联网架构也从集中式架构到分布式架构 ,再到云原生架构。如今 “云原生” 被企业和开发者奉为一种标准,并被认为是云计算的未来,让我想到一句话:“未来已来,只是分布不均”。

伴随着 “云原生” 技术(架构)越来越火,火得一塌糊涂,每个人对它的理解都各不相同,网上和阿里内部关于 Cloud Native 的相关文章和讨论也非常多。不过,我发现大家对于云原生的定义、理解及实践还处于探索阶段,还没有一个非常明确或者顶层设计的标准化定义。

最近参与了一个上云项目,里面用到很多云原生的技术,借此机会结合大家的各种讨论,以及项目中的实践,聊一下个人对于云原生的一些粗浅思考。

追本溯源

在正式讨论之前,我们不妨先来看看几位网红主播是怎么定义云原生的。

1. Pivotal 的定义

Pivotal 公司是敏捷开发领域的领导者(曾经 Google 也是其客户),出生名门(EMC、VMware等投资),是标准的富二代。它推出了 Pivotal Cloud Foundry(2011 ~ 2013 PAAS 界网红) 和 Spring 生态系列框架,也是云原生的先驱者和探路者(开山鼻祖)。云原生具体定义如下图:

2.png

Pivotal 公司的 Matt Stine 于 2013 年首次提出云原生(Cloud Native)的概念。2015 年,云原生推广时,Matt Stine 在《迁移到云原生架构》的小册子中定义了符合云原生架构的几个特征:12 因素应用、微服务架构、自敏捷架构、基于 API 协作、抗脆弱性。到了 2017 年,Matt Stine 改了口风,将云原生架构归纳为:模块化、可观测性、可部署性、可测试性、可处理性、可替换性等 6 大特征。而 Pivotal 最新官网对云原生概括为 4 个要点:DevOps、持续交付、微服务、容器。

2. CNCF 的定义

CNCF(Cloud Native Computing Foundation,云原生基金会)相信大家已经非常熟悉。它是由开源基础设施界的翘楚 Google、RedHat 等公司共同牵头发起的一个基金会组织,其目的非常明确,就是为了对抗当时大红大紫的 Docker 公司在容器圈一家独大的局面,具体情况(有很多故事)不在这边细说了。CNCF 通过 Kubernetes 项目在开源社区编排领域一骑绝尘,之后就扛起了云原生定义和推广的大旗,风光无限。云原生具体定义如下:

3.png

2015 年 CNCF 掺和进来,最初把云原生定义为:应用容器化、面向微服务、容器编排。到了 2018 年,CNCF 更新了云原生的定义,加入了声明式 API 和服务网格(2017 年社区新技术,和微服务并列,注意它不是微服务的升级版本),这些技术能够构建容错性好,易于管理和便于观察的松耦合系统。

3. 小结

随着云原生生态和边界不断的扩大,云原生自身的定义一直在变。不同的公司(Pivotal & CNCF)不同的人对它有不同的定义,同一家公司在不同的时间阶段定义也不一样。根据摩尔定律推断,未来对于云原生的定义还会不断变化。

针对两家公司对云原生的定义不一样的情况,不妨跳出技术界面,我尝试用组织和立场的角度来分析下两位网红提出者:

  • Pivotal 定位于 PaaS 层端到端的解决方案及数字化转型,从文化、流程、方法论、蓝图规划、软件开发方式等,都有一套模式,主要用户是传统大中型企业 CIO,整体策略是自顶向下;

  • CNCF 立足于整个云计算生态和技术创新、变革者,偏重于技术、工具链和底层基础设施,主要用户是开源社区的开发者、互联网及新兴企业,影响力可想而知,整体策略是自底向上。

结论:Pivotal 是 Cloud Native 概念和方法论的先行者, CNCF 是 Cloud Native 的最佳实践者。

目前,针对定义唯一让我感到困惑的是 Pivotal 提 “概念” 把容器技术放进来,CNCF 提 “技术” 把微服务概念放进来,难道这两项是目前互联网圈最 “火” 的,为了吸引大众眼球?

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