ITPub博客

首页 > 数据库 > PostgreSQL > PostgreSQL DBA(59) - Index(Bloom)

PostgreSQL DBA(59) - Index(Bloom)

翻译 PostgreSQL 作者:husthxd 时间:2019-07-18 17:12:39 0 删除 编辑

本节简单介绍了PostgreSQL中的Bloom索引,包括Bloom索引的基础知识和结构等.

简介
Bloom Index源于Bloom filter(布隆过滤器),布隆过滤器用于在使用少量的空间的情况下可以很快速的判定某个值是否在集合中,其缺点是存在假阳性 False Positives ,因此需要Recheck来判断该值是否在集合中,但布隆过滤器不存在假阴性,也就是说,对于某个值如果过滤器返回不存在,那就是不存在.
在PostgreSQL中,Bloom Index用于:

Bloom indexes are very helpful when we have a table that stores huge amounts of data and a lot of columns, where we find it difficult to create a large number of indexes, especially in OLAP environments where data is loaded from several sources and maintained for reporting. You could consider testing a single bloom index to see if you can avoid implementing a huge number of individual or composite indexes that could take additional disk space without much performance gain.

结构
其结构如下图所示:

第一个page为metadata,然后每一行都会有一个bit array(signature)和TID与其对应.

示例
创建数据表,插入数据


testdb=# drop table if exists t_bloom;
DROP TABLE
testdb=# CREATE TABLE t_bloom (id int, dept int, id2 int, id3 int, id4 int, id5 int,id6 int,id7 int,details text, zipcode int);
CREATE TABLE
testdb=# 
testdb=# INSERT INTO t_bloom 
testdb-# SELECT (random() * 1000000)::int, (random() * 1000000)::int,
testdb-# (random() * 1000000)::int,(random() * 1000000)::int,(random() * 1000000)::int,(random() * 1000000)::int, 
testdb-# (random() * 1000000)::int,(random() * 1000000)::int,md5(g::text), floor(random()* (20000-9999 + 1) + 9999) 
testdb-# from generate_series(1,16*1024*1024) g;
INSERT 0 16777216
testdb=# 
testdb=# analyze t_bloom;
ANALYZE
testdb=# 
testdb=# select pg_size_pretty(pg_table_size('t_bloom'));
 pg_size_pretty 
----------------
 1619 MB
(1 row)

创建Btree索引


testdb=# 
testdb=# create index idx_t_bloom_btree on t_bloom using btree(id,dept,id2,id3,id4,id5,id6,id7,zipcode);
CREATE INDEX
testdb=# \di+ idx_t_bloom_btree
                              List of relations
 Schema |       Name        | Type  | Owner |  Table  |  Size  | Description 
--------+-------------------+-------+-------+---------+--------+-------------
 public | idx_t_bloom_btree | index | pg12  | t_bloom | 940 MB | 
(1 row)

执行查询


testdb=# EXPLAIN ANALYZE select * from t_bloom where id4 = 305294 and zipcode = 13266;
                                                              QUERY PLAN                                                     
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Index Scan using idx_t_bloom_btree on t_bloom  (cost=0.56..648832.73 rows=1 width=69) (actual time=2648.215..2648.215 rows=0
 loops=1)
   Index Cond: ((id4 = 305294) AND (zipcode = 13266))
 Planning Time: 3.244 ms
 Execution Time: 2659.804 ms
(4 rows)
testdb=# EXPLAIN ANALYZE select * from t_bloom where id5 = 241326 and id6 = 354198;
                                                              QUERY PLAN                                                     
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Index Scan using idx_t_bloom_btree on t_bloom  (cost=0.56..648832.73 rows=1 width=69) (actual time=2365.533..2365.533 rows=0
 loops=1)
   Index Cond: ((id5 = 241326) AND (id6 = 354198))
 Planning Time: 1.918 ms
 Execution Time: 2365.629 ms
(4 rows)

创建Bloom索引


testdb=# create extension bloom;
CREATE EXTENSION
testdb=# CREATE INDEX idx_t_bloom_bloom ON t_bloom USING bloom(id, dept, id2, id3, id4, id5, id6, id7, zipcode) 
testdb-# WITH (length=64, col1=4, col2=4, col3=4, col4=4, col5=4, col6=4, col7=4, col8=4, col9=4);
CREATE INDEX
testdb=# \di+ idx_t_bloom_bloom
                              List of relations
 Schema |       Name        | Type  | Owner |  Table  |  Size  | Description 
--------+-------------------+-------+-------+---------+--------+-------------
 public | idx_t_bloom_bloom | index | pg12  | t_bloom | 225 MB | 
(1 row)

执行查询


testdb=# EXPLAIN ANALYZE select * from t_bloom where id4 = 305294 and zipcode = 13266;
                                                              QUERY PLAN                                                     
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Bitmap Heap Scan on t_bloom  (cost=283084.16..283088.18 rows=1 width=69) (actual time=998.727..998.727 rows=0 loops=1)
   Recheck Cond: ((id4 = 305294) AND (zipcode = 13266))
   Rows Removed by Index Recheck: 12597
   Heap Blocks: exact=12235
   ->  Bitmap Index Scan on idx_t_bloom_bloom  (cost=0.00..283084.16 rows=1 width=0) (actual time=234.893..234.893 rows=12597
 loops=1)
         Index Cond: ((id4 = 305294) AND (zipcode = 13266))
 Planning Time: 31.482 ms
 Execution Time: 998.975 ms
(8 rows)
testdb=# EXPLAIN ANALYZE select * from t_bloom where id5 = 241326 and id6 = 354198;
                                                              QUERY PLAN                                                     
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Bitmap Heap Scan on t_bloom  (cost=283084.16..283088.18 rows=1 width=69) (actual time=1019.621..1019.621 rows=0 loops=1)
   Recheck Cond: ((id5 = 241326) AND (id6 = 354198))
   Rows Removed by Index Recheck: 13033
   Heap Blocks: exact=12633
   ->  Bitmap Index Scan on idx_t_bloom_bloom  (cost=0.00..283084.16 rows=1 width=0) (actual time=204.873..204.873 rows=13033
 loops=1)
         Index Cond: ((id5 = 241326) AND (id6 = 354198))
 Planning Time: 0.441 ms
 Execution Time: 1019.811 ms
(8 rows)

从执行结果来看,在查询条件中没有非前导列(上例中为id1)的情况下多列任意组合查询,bloom index会优于btree index.

参考资料
Bloom Indexes in PostgreSQL
Indexes in PostgreSQL — 10 (Bloom)

来自 “ ITPUB博客 ” ,链接:http://blog.itpub.net/6906/viewspace-2651022/,如需转载,请注明出处,否则将追究法律责任。

请登录后发表评论 登录
全部评论
ITPUB数据库版块资深版主,对Oracle、PostgreSQL有深入研究。现就职于广州云图数据技术有限公司,系统架构师。

注册时间:2007-12-28

  • 博文量
    1347
  • 访问量
    3809504