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PostgreSQL 源码解读(149)- PG Tools#1(pg_basebackup主函数)

原创 PostgreSQL 作者:husthxd 时间:2019-03-14 15:28:36 0 删除 编辑

本节简单介绍了PostgreSQL的备份工具pg_basebackup源码中的主函数.

一、数据结构

option
使用工具时存储选项的数据结构


#ifndef HAVE_STRUCT_OPTION
//工具软件选项
struct option
{
    const char *name;//名称
    int         has_arg;//是否包含参数,no_argument/required_argument/optional_argument
    int        *flag;//标记
    int         val;//参数值
};
#define no_argument 0
#define required_argument 1
#define optional_argument 2
#endif
/*
 * On OpenBSD and some versions of Solaris, opterr and friends are defined in
 * core libc rather than in a separate getopt module.  Define these variables
 * only if configure found they aren't there by default; otherwise, this
 * module and its callers will just use libc's variables.  (We assume that
 * testing opterr is sufficient for all of these.)
 */
#ifndef HAVE_INT_OPTERR
int         opterr = 1,         /* if error message should be printed */
            optind = 1,         /* index into parent argv vector */
            optopt;             /* character checked for validity */
char       *optarg;             /* argument associated with option */
#endif
#define BADCH   (int)'?'
#define BADARG  (int)':'
#define EMSG    ""

二、源码解读

pg_basebackup主函数,源码较为简单,获取选项,校验,调用BaseBackup()函数进行备份.


int
main(int argc, char **argv)
{
    static struct option long_options[] = {
        {"help", no_argument, NULL, '?'},
        {"version", no_argument, NULL, 'V'},
        {"pgdata", required_argument, NULL, 'D'},
        {"format", required_argument, NULL, 'F'},
        {"checkpoint", required_argument, NULL, 'c'},
        {"create-slot", no_argument, NULL, 'C'},
        {"max-rate", required_argument, NULL, 'r'},
        {"write-recovery-conf", no_argument, NULL, 'R'},
        {"slot", required_argument, NULL, 'S'},
        {"tablespace-mapping", required_argument, NULL, 'T'},
        {"wal-method", required_argument, NULL, 'X'},
        {"gzip", no_argument, NULL, 'z'},
        {"compress", required_argument, NULL, 'Z'},
        {"label", required_argument, NULL, 'l'},
        {"no-clean", no_argument, NULL, 'n'},
        {"no-sync", no_argument, NULL, 'N'},
        {"dbname", required_argument, NULL, 'd'},
        {"host", required_argument, NULL, 'h'},
        {"port", required_argument, NULL, 'p'},
        {"username", required_argument, NULL, 'U'},
        {"no-password", no_argument, NULL, 'w'},
        {"password", no_argument, NULL, 'W'},
        {"status-interval", required_argument, NULL, 's'},
        {"verbose", no_argument, NULL, 'v'},
        {"progress", no_argument, NULL, 'P'},
        {"waldir", required_argument, NULL, 1},
        {"no-slot", no_argument, NULL, 2},
        {"no-verify-checksums", no_argument, NULL, 3},
        {NULL, 0, NULL, 0}
    };//(完整)选项
    //选项的ASCII值
    int         c;
    //选项索引编号
    int         option_index;
    //程序名称
    progname = get_progname(argv[0]);
    set_pglocale_pgservice(argv[0], PG_TEXTDOMAIN("pg_basebackup"));
    if (argc > 1)
    {
        //显示帮助信息
        if (strcmp(argv[1], "--help") == 0 || strcmp(argv[1], "-?") == 0)
        {
            usage();
            exit(0);
        }
        else if (strcmp(argv[1], "-V") == 0
                 || strcmp(argv[1], "--version") == 0)
        {
            //显示版本信息
            puts("pg_basebackup (PostgreSQL) " PG_VERSION);
            exit(0);
        }
    }
    atexit(cleanup_directories_atexit);
    //getopt_long --> 获取选项
    while ((c = getopt_long(argc, argv, "CD:F:r:RS:T:X:l:nNzZ:d:c:h:p:U:s:wWkvP",
                            long_options, &option_index)) != -1)
    {
        switch (c)//根据选项设置参数
        {
            case 'C':
                create_slot = true;
                break;
            case 'D':
                basedir = pg_strdup(optarg);
                break;
            case 'F':
                if (strcmp(optarg, "p") == 0 || strcmp(optarg, "plain") == 0)
                    format = 'p';//不压缩
                else if (strcmp(optarg, "t") == 0 || strcmp(optarg, "tar") == 0)
                    format = 't';//tar包
                else
                {
                    fprintf(stderr,
                            _("%s: invalid output format \"%s\", must be \"plain\" or \"tar\"\n"),
                            progname, optarg);
                    exit(1);
                }
                break;
            case 'r':
                maxrate = parse_max_rate(optarg);
                break;
            case 'R':
                writerecoveryconf = true;
                break;
            case 'S':
                /*
                 * When specifying replication slot name, use a permanent
                 * slot.
                 * 指定复制槽名称,则使用持久化槽
                 */
                replication_slot = pg_strdup(optarg);
                temp_replication_slot = false;
                break;
            case 2:
                no_slot = true;
                break;
            case 'T':
                tablespace_list_append(optarg);
                break;
            case 'X':
                if (strcmp(optarg, "n") == 0 ||
                    strcmp(optarg, "none") == 0)
                {
                    includewal = NO_WAL;
                }
                else if (strcmp(optarg, "f") == 0 ||
                         strcmp(optarg, "fetch") == 0)
                {
                    includewal = FETCH_WAL;
                }
                else if (strcmp(optarg, "s") == 0 ||
                         strcmp(optarg, "stream") == 0)
                {
                    includewal = STREAM_WAL;
                }
                else
                {
                    fprintf(stderr,
                            _("%s: invalid wal-method option \"%s\", must be \"fetch\", \"stream\", or \"none\"\n"),
                            progname, optarg);
                    exit(1);
                }
                break;
            case 1:
                xlog_dir = pg_strdup(optarg);
                break;
            case 'l':
                label = pg_strdup(optarg);
                break;
            case 'n':
                noclean = true;
                break;
            case 'N':
                do_sync = false;
                break;
            case 'z':
#ifdef HAVE_LIBZ
                compresslevel = Z_DEFAULT_COMPRESSION;
#else
                compresslevel = 1;  /* will be rejected below */
#endif
                break;
            case 'Z':
                compresslevel = atoi(optarg);
                if (compresslevel < 0 || compresslevel > 9)
                {
                    fprintf(stderr, _("%s: invalid compression level \"%s\"\n"),
                            progname, optarg);
                    exit(1);
                }
                break;
            case 'c':
                if (pg_strcasecmp(optarg, "fast") == 0)
                    fastcheckpoint = true;
                else if (pg_strcasecmp(optarg, "spread") == 0)
                    fastcheckpoint = false;
                else
                {
                    fprintf(stderr, _("%s: invalid checkpoint argument \"%s\", must be \"fast\" or \"spread\"\n"),
                            progname, optarg);
                    exit(1);
                }
                break;
            case 'd':
                connection_string = pg_strdup(optarg);
                break;
            case 'h':
                dbhost = pg_strdup(optarg);
                break;
            case 'p':
                dbport = pg_strdup(optarg);
                break;
            case 'U':
                dbuser = pg_strdup(optarg);
                break;
            case 'w':
                dbgetpassword = -1;
                break;
            case 'W':
                dbgetpassword = 1;
                break;
            case 's':
                standby_message_timeout = atoi(optarg) * 1000;
                if (standby_message_timeout < 0)
                {
                    fprintf(stderr, _("%s: invalid status interval \"%s\"\n"),
                            progname, optarg);
                    exit(1);
                }
                break;
            case 'v':
                verbose++;
                break;
            case 'P':
                showprogress = true;
                break;
            case 3:
                verify_checksums = false;
                break;
            default:
                /*
                 * getopt_long already emitted a complaint
                 * 非法参数
                 */
                fprintf(stderr, _("Try \"%s --help\" for more information.\n"),
                        progname);
                exit(1);
        }
    }
    /*
     * Any non-option arguments?
     * 不识别的参数
     */
    if (optind < argc)
    {
        fprintf(stderr,
                _("%s: too many command-line arguments (first is \"%s\")\n"),
                progname, argv[optind]);
        fprintf(stderr, _("Try \"%s --help\" for more information.\n"),
                progname);
        exit(1);
    }
    /*
     * Required arguments
     * 必须的参数
     */
    if (basedir == NULL)
    {
        fprintf(stderr, _("%s: no target directory specified\n"), progname);
        fprintf(stderr, _("Try \"%s --help\" for more information.\n"),
                progname);
        exit(1);
    }
    /*
     * Mutually exclusive arguments
     * 互斥的参数
     */
    if (format == 'p' && compresslevel != 0)
    {
        fprintf(stderr,
                _("%s: only tar mode backups can be compressed\n"),
                progname);
        fprintf(stderr, _("Try \"%s --help\" for more information.\n"),
                progname);
        exit(1);
    }
    if (format == 't' && includewal == STREAM_WAL && strcmp(basedir, "-") == 0)
    {
        fprintf(stderr,
                _("%s: cannot stream write-ahead logs in tar mode to stdout\n"),
                progname);
        fprintf(stderr, _("Try \"%s --help\" for more information.\n"),
                progname);
        exit(1);
    }
    if (replication_slot && includewal != STREAM_WAL)
    {
        fprintf(stderr,
                _("%s: replication slots can only be used with WAL streaming\n"),
                progname);
        fprintf(stderr, _("Try \"%s --help\" for more information.\n"),
                progname);
        exit(1);
    }
    if (no_slot)
    {
        if (replication_slot)
        {
            fprintf(stderr,
                    _("%s: --no-slot cannot be used with slot name\n"),
                    progname);
            fprintf(stderr, _("Try \"%s --help\" for more information.\n"),
                    progname);
            exit(1);
        }
        temp_replication_slot = false;
    }
    if (create_slot)
    {
        if (!replication_slot)
        {
            fprintf(stderr,
                    _("%s: %s needs a slot to be specified using --slot\n"),
                    progname, "--create-slot");
            fprintf(stderr, _("Try \"%s --help\" for more information.\n"),
                    progname);
            exit(1);
        }
        if (no_slot)
        {
            fprintf(stderr,
                    _("%s: --create-slot and --no-slot are incompatible options\n"),
                    progname);
            fprintf(stderr, _("Try \"%s --help\" for more information.\n"),
                    progname);
            exit(1);
        }
    }
    if (xlog_dir)
    {
        if (format != 'p')
        {
            fprintf(stderr,
                    _("%s: WAL directory location can only be specified in plain mode\n"),
                    progname);
            fprintf(stderr, _("Try \"%s --help\" for more information.\n"),
                    progname);
            exit(1);
        }
        /* clean up xlog directory name, check it's absolute */
        canonicalize_path(xlog_dir);
        if (!is_absolute_path(xlog_dir))
        {
            fprintf(stderr, _("%s: WAL directory location must be "
                              "an absolute path\n"), progname);
            fprintf(stderr, _("Try \"%s --help\" for more information.\n"),
                    progname);
            exit(1);
        }
    }
#ifndef HAVE_LIBZ
    if (compresslevel != 0)
    {
        fprintf(stderr,
                _("%s: this build does not support compression\n"),
                progname);
        exit(1);
    }
#endif
    /* connection in replication mode to server */
    //以复制模式连接到数据库
    conn = GetConnection();
    if (!conn)
    {
        /* Error message already written in GetConnection() */
        //连接不成功
        exit(1);
    }
    atexit(disconnect_atexit);
    /*
     * Set umask so that directories/files are created with the same
     * permissions as directories/files in the source data directory.
     * 设置umask以便目录/文件可以源数据目录的相同的权限创建
     *
     * pg_mode_mask is set to owner-only by default and then updated in
     * GetConnection() where we get the mode from the server-side with
     * RetrieveDataDirCreatePerm() and then call SetDataDirectoryCreatePerm().
     * pg_mode_mask默认设置为owner-only,在GetConnection()更新,
     *   在该函数中通过RetrieveDataDirCreatePerm()获得服务器端的模式,
     *   然后调用SetDataDirectoryCreatePerm()函数.
     */
    umask(pg_mode_mask);
    /*
     * Verify that the target directory exists, or create it. For plaintext
     * backups, always require the directory. For tar backups, require it
     * unless we are writing to stdout.
     * 验证目标目录是否存在,如不存在则创建该目录.
     * 对于普通的备份,通常需要目录.
     * 对于tar备份,除非写入到stdout,也需要目录.
     */
    if (format == 'p' || strcmp(basedir, "-") != 0)
        verify_dir_is_empty_or_create(basedir, &made_new_pgdata, &found_existing_pgdata);
    /* determine remote server's xlog segment size */
    //确定远程服务器的xlog segment大小
    if (!RetrieveWalSegSize(conn))
        exit(1);
    /* Create pg_wal symlink, if required */
    //如需要,创建pg_wal目录链接
    if (xlog_dir)
    {
        char       *linkloc;
        //
        verify_dir_is_empty_or_create(xlog_dir, &made_new_xlogdir, &found_existing_xlogdir);
        /*
         * Form name of the place where the symlink must go. pg_xlog has been
         * renamed to pg_wal in post-10 clusters.
         * pg_xlog在PG 10+后已重命名为pg_wal
         */
        linkloc = psprintf("%s/%s", basedir,
                           PQserverVersion(conn) < MINIMUM_VERSION_FOR_PG_WAL ?
                           "pg_xlog" : "pg_wal");
#ifdef HAVE_SYMLINK
        if (symlink(xlog_dir, linkloc) != 0)
        {
            fprintf(stderr, _("%s: could not create symbolic link \"%s\": %s\n"),
                    progname, linkloc, strerror(errno));
            exit(1);
        }
#else
        fprintf(stderr, _("%s: symlinks are not supported on this platform\n"), progname);
        exit(1);
#endif
        free(linkloc);
    }
    //执行备份
    BaseBackup();
    //成功标记
    success = true;
    return 0;
}
/*
 *  set_pglocale_pgservice
 *
 *  Set application-specific locale and service directory
 *  设置应用相关的locale和service目录
 *
 *  This function takes the value of argv[0] rather than a full path.
 *  该函数只提取argv[0]的值而不是全路径
 *
 * (You may be wondering why this is in exec.c.  It requires this module's
 * services and doesn't introduce any new dependencies, so this seems as
 * good as anyplace.)
 * (你可能会感觉疑惑:该函数在exec.c文件中)
 * 这需要该模块中的服务,而不需要介绍其他新的依赖,因此看起来与其他地方没有什么区别.
 */
void
set_pglocale_pgservice(const char *argv0, const char *app)
{
    char        path[MAXPGPATH];
    char        my_exec_path[MAXPGPATH];
    char        env_path[MAXPGPATH + sizeof("PGSYSCONFDIR=")];  /* longer than
                                                                 * PGLOCALEDIR */
    char       *dup_path;
    /* don't set LC_ALL in the backend */
    //不要在后台进程中设置LC_ALL
    if (strcmp(app, PG_TEXTDOMAIN("postgres")) != 0)
    {
        setlocale(LC_ALL, "");
        /*
         * One could make a case for reproducing here PostmasterMain()'s test
         * for whether the process is multithreaded.  Unlike the postmaster,
         * no frontend program calls sigprocmask() or otherwise provides for
         * mutual exclusion between signal handlers.  While frontends using
         * fork(), if multithreaded, are formally exposed to undefined
         * behavior, we have not witnessed a concrete bug.  Therefore,
         * complaining about multithreading here may be mere pedantry.
         * 在这里可以重新执行PostmasterMain()的测试,检查进程是否多线程.
         * 与postmaster不同,没有前台程序调用sigprocmask(),
         *   否则的话需要为多个信号控制器提供mutual exclusion.
         * 如为多线程方式,则前台程序使用fork(),会导致不可预测的行为,我们不会有这种严重的bug.
         * 因此,在这里对于多线程方式报错是多余的.
         */
    }
    if (find_my_exec(argv0, my_exec_path) < 0)
        return;
#ifdef ENABLE_NLS
    get_locale_path(my_exec_path, path);
    bindtextdomain(app, path);
    textdomain(app);
    if (getenv("PGLOCALEDIR") == NULL)
    {
        //------ PGLOCALEDIR
        /* set for libpq to use */
        //设置libpq
        snprintf(env_path, sizeof(env_path), "PGLOCALEDIR=%s", path);
        canonicalize_path(env_path + 12);
        dup_path = strdup(env_path);
        if (dup_path)
            putenv(dup_path);
    }
#endif
    if (getenv("PGSYSCONFDIR") == NULL)
    {
        //---- PGSYSCONFDIR
        get_etc_path(my_exec_path, path);
        /* set for libpq to use */
        snprintf(env_path, sizeof(env_path), "PGSYSCONFDIR=%s", path);
        canonicalize_path(env_path + 13);
        dup_path = strdup(env_path);
        if (dup_path)
            putenv(dup_path);
    }
}

三、跟踪分析

N/A

四、参考资料

PG Source Code

来自 “ ITPUB博客 ” ,链接:http://blog.itpub.net/6906/viewspace-2638379/,如需转载,请注明出处,否则将追究法律责任。

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长期从事政务、金融等行业产品研发和架构设计工作,对Oracle、PostgreSQL以及大数据等相关技术有深入研究。现就职于广州云图数据技术有限公司,系统架构师。

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