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PostgreSQL 源码解读(53)- 查询语句#38(make_one_rel函数#3-顺...

原创 PostgreSQL 作者:husthxd 时间:2018-09-21 15:18:52 0 删除 编辑

本节继续介绍make_one_rel函数中的set_base_rel_pathlists函数及其子函数。set_base_rel_pathlists函数的目的是为每一个base rel找出所有可用的访问路径(包括顺序扫描和所有可用的索引),每一个可用的路径都会添加到pathlist链表中。这一小节主要介绍常规(区别于并行)顺序扫描部分。

make_one_rel源代码:

 RelOptInfo *
 make_one_rel(PlannerInfo *root, List *joinlist)
 {
     //...

     /*
      * Compute size estimates and consider_parallel flags for each base rel,
      * then generate access paths.
      */
     set_base_rel_sizes(root);//估算Relation的Size并且设置consider_parallel标记
     set_base_rel_pathlists(root);//生成Relation的扫描(访问)路径
 
     /*
      * Generate access paths for the entire join tree.
      * 通过动态规划或遗传算法生成连接路径 
      */
     rel = make_rel_from_joinlist(root, joinlist);
 
     /*
      * The result should join all and only the query's base rels.
      */
     Assert(bms_equal(rel->relids, root->all_baserels));
   //返回最上层的RelOptInfo
     return rel;
 }

一、数据结构

RelOptInfo

 typedef struct RelOptInfo
 {
     NodeTag     type;//节点标识
 
     RelOptKind  reloptkind;//RelOpt类型
 
     /* all relations included in this RelOptInfo */
     Relids      relids;         /*Relids(rtindex)集合 set of base relids (rangetable indexes) */
 
     /* size estimates generated by planner */
     double      rows;           /*结果元组的估算数量 estimated number of result tuples */
 
     /* per-relation planner control flags */
     bool        consider_startup;   /*是否考虑启动成本?是,需要保留启动成本低的路径 keep cheap-startup-cost paths? */
     bool        consider_param_startup; /*是否考虑参数化?的路径 ditto, for parameterized paths? */
     bool        consider_parallel;  /*是否考虑并行处理路径 consider parallel paths? */
 
     /* default result targetlist for Paths scanning this relation */
     struct PathTarget *reltarget;   /*扫描该Relation时默认的结果 list of Vars/Exprs, cost, width */
 
     /* materialization information */
     List       *pathlist;       /*访问路径链表 Path structures */
     List       *ppilist;        /*路径链表中使用参数化路径进行 ParamPathInfos used in pathlist */
     List       *partial_pathlist;   /* partial Paths */
     struct Path *cheapest_startup_path;//代价最低的启动路径
     struct Path *cheapest_total_path;//代价最低的整体路径
     struct Path *cheapest_unique_path;//代价最低的获取唯一值的路径
     List       *cheapest_parameterized_paths;//代价最低的参数化路径链表
 
     /* parameterization information needed for both base rels and join rels */
     /* (see also lateral_vars and lateral_referencers) */
     Relids      direct_lateral_relids;  /*使用lateral语法,需依赖的Relids rels directly laterally referenced */
     Relids      lateral_relids; /* minimum parameterization of rel */
 
     /* information about a base rel (not set for join rels!) */
     //reloptkind=RELOPT_BASEREL时使用的数据结构
     Index       relid;          /* Relation ID */
     Oid         reltablespace;  /* 表空间 containing tablespace */
     RTEKind     rtekind;        /* 基表?子查询?还是函数等等?RELATION, SUBQUERY, FUNCTION, etc */
     AttrNumber  min_attr;       /* 最小的属性编号 smallest attrno of rel (often <0) */
     AttrNumber  max_attr;       /* 最大的属性编号 largest attrno of rel */
     Relids     *attr_needed;    /* 数组 array indexed [min_attr .. max_attr] */
     int32      *attr_widths;    /* 属性宽度 array indexed [min_attr .. max_attr] */
     List       *lateral_vars;   /* 关系依赖的Vars/PHVs LATERAL Vars and PHVs referenced by rel */
     Relids      lateral_referencers;    /*依赖该关系的Relids rels that reference me laterally */
     List       *indexlist;      /* 该关系的IndexOptInfo链表 list of IndexOptInfo */
     List       *statlist;       /* 统计信息链表 list of StatisticExtInfo */
     BlockNumber pages;          /* 块数 size estimates derived from pg_class */
     double      tuples;         /* 元组数 */
     double      allvisfrac;     /* ? */
     PlannerInfo *subroot;       /* 如为子查询,存储子查询的root if subquery */
     List       *subplan_params; /* 如为子查询,存储子查询的参数 if subquery */
     int         rel_parallel_workers;   /* 并行执行,需要多少个workers? wanted number of parallel workers */
 
     /* Information about foreign tables and foreign joins */
     //FDW相关信息
     Oid         serverid;       /* identifies server for the table or join */
     Oid         userid;         /* identifies user to check access as */
     bool        useridiscurrent;    /* join is only valid for current user */
     /* use "struct FdwRoutine" to avoid including fdwapi.h here */
     struct FdwRoutine *fdwroutine;
     void       *fdw_private;
 
     /* cache space for remembering if we have proven this relation unique */
     //已知的,可保证唯一元组返回的Relids链表
     List       *unique_for_rels;    /* known unique for these other relid
                                      * set(s) */
     List       *non_unique_for_rels;    /* 已知的,返回的数据不唯一的Relids链表 known not unique for these set(s) */
 
     /* used by various scans and joins: */
     List       *baserestrictinfo;   /* 如为基本关系,则存储约束条件 RestrictInfo structures (if base rel) */
     QualCost    baserestrictcost;   /* 解析约束表达式的成本? cost of evaluating the above */
     Index       baserestrict_min_security;  /* 最低安全等级 min security_level found in
                                              * baserestrictinfo */
     List       *joininfo;       /* 连接语句的约束条件信息 RestrictInfo structures for join clauses
                                  * involving this rel */
     bool        has_eclass_joins;   /* 是否存在等价类连接? True意味着joininfo并不完整,,T means joininfo is incomplete */
 
     /* used by partitionwise joins: */
       //是否尝试partitionwise连接,这是PG 11的一个新特性.
     bool        consider_partitionwise_join;    /* consider partitionwise
                                                  * join paths? (if
                                                  * partitioned rel) */
     Relids      top_parent_relids;  /* Relids of topmost parents (if "other"
                                      * rel) */
 
     /* used for partitioned relations */
     //分区表使用
     PartitionScheme part_scheme;    /* 分区的schema Partitioning scheme. */
     int         nparts;         /* 分区数 number of partitions */
     struct PartitionBoundInfoData *boundinfo;   /* 分区边界信息 Partition bounds */
     List       *partition_qual; /* 分区约束 partition constraint */
     struct RelOptInfo **part_rels;  /* 分区的RelOptInfo数组 Array of RelOptInfos of partitions,
                                      * stored in the same order of bounds */
     List      **partexprs;      /* 非空分区键表达式 Non-nullable partition key expressions. */
     List      **nullable_partexprs; /* 可为空的分区键表达式 Nullable partition key expressions. */
     List       *partitioned_child_rels; /* RT Indexes链表 List of RT indexes. */
 } RelOptInfo;

ParamPathInfo

 /*
  * ParamPathInfo
  *
  * All parameterized paths for a given relation with given required outer rels
  * link to a single ParamPathInfo, which stores common information such as
  * the estimated rowcount for this parameterization.  We do this partly to
  * avoid recalculations, but mostly to ensure that the estimated rowcount
  * is in fact the same for every such path.
  *
  * Note: ppi_clauses is only used in ParamPathInfos for base relation paths;
  * in join cases it's NIL because the set of relevant clauses varies depending
  * on how the join is formed.  The relevant clauses will appear in each
  * parameterized join path's joinrestrictinfo list, instead.
  */
 typedef struct ParamPathInfo
 {
     NodeTag     type;//节点类型
 
     Relids      ppi_req_outer;  /* 访问路径需要使用的Relids参数,rels supplying parameters used by path */
     double      ppi_rows;       /* 估算的结果元组数,estimated number of result tuples */
     List       *ppi_clauses;    /* 外部rels提供的可用连接条件链表,join clauses available from outer rels */
 } ParamPathInfo;

Cost相关
注意:实际使用的参数值通过系统配置文件定义,而不是这里的常量定义!

/*
  * The cost estimate produced by cost_qual_eval() includes both a one-time
  * (startup) cost, and a per-tuple cost.
  */
 typedef struct QualCost
 {
     Cost        startup;        /* 启动成本,one-time cost */
     Cost        per_tuple;      /* 每个元组的成本,per-evaluation cost */
 } QualCost;
 
typedef double Cost; /* execution cost (in page-access units) */

 /* defaults for costsize.c's Cost parameters */
 /* NB: cost-estimation code should use the variables, not these constants! */
 /* 注意:实际值通过系统配置文件定义,而不是这里的常量定义! */
 /* If you change these, update backend/utils/misc/postgresql.sample.conf */
 #define DEFAULT_SEQ_PAGE_COST  1.0       //顺序扫描page的成本
 #define DEFAULT_RANDOM_PAGE_COST  4.0      //随机扫描page的成本
 #define DEFAULT_CPU_TUPLE_COST  0.01     //处理一个元组的CPU成本
 #define DEFAULT_CPU_INDEX_TUPLE_COST 0.005   //处理一个索引元组的CPU成本
 #define DEFAULT_CPU_OPERATOR_COST  0.0025    //执行一次操作或函数的CPU成本
 #define DEFAULT_PARALLEL_TUPLE_COST 0.1    //并行执行,从一个worker传输一个元组到另一个worker的成本
 #define DEFAULT_PARALLEL_SETUP_COST  1000.0  //构建并行执行环境的成本
 
 #define DEFAULT_EFFECTIVE_CACHE_SIZE  524288    /*先前已有介绍, measured in pages */

 double      seq_page_cost = DEFAULT_SEQ_PAGE_COST;
 double      random_page_cost = DEFAULT_RANDOM_PAGE_COST;
 double      cpu_tuple_cost = DEFAULT_CPU_TUPLE_COST;
 double      cpu_index_tuple_cost = DEFAULT_CPU_INDEX_TUPLE_COST;
 double      cpu_operator_cost = DEFAULT_CPU_OPERATOR_COST;
 double      parallel_tuple_cost = DEFAULT_PARALLEL_TUPLE_COST;
 double      parallel_setup_cost = DEFAULT_PARALLEL_SETUP_COST;
 
 int         effective_cache_size = DEFAULT_EFFECTIVE_CACHE_SIZE;
 
 Cost        disable_cost = 1.0e10;//1后面10个0,通过设置一个巨大的成本,让优化器自动放弃此路径
 
 int         max_parallel_workers_per_gather = 2;//每次gather使用的worker数
 

二、源码解读

set_base_rel_pathlists函数遍历RelOptInfo数组,为每一个Rel构造访问路径.

//--------------------------------------------------------
 /*
  * set_base_rel_pathlists
  *    Finds all paths available for scanning each base-relation entry.
  *    Sequential scan and any available indices are considered.
  *    Each useful path is attached to its relation's 'pathlist' field.
  *
  *    为每一个base rels找出所有可用的访问路径(包括顺序扫描和所有可用的索引)
  *    每一个可用的路径都会添加到pathlist链表中
  *
  */
 static void
 set_base_rel_pathlists(PlannerInfo *root)
 {
     Index       rti;
 
     for (rti = 1; rti < root->simple_rel_array_size; rti++)//遍历RelOptInfo数组
     {
         RelOptInfo *rel = root->simple_rel_array[rti];
 
         /* there may be empty slots corresponding to non-baserel RTEs */
         if (rel == NULL)
             continue;
 
         Assert(rel->relid == rti);  /* sanity check on array */
 
         /* ignore RTEs that are "other rels" */
         if (rel->reloptkind != RELOPT_BASEREL)
             continue;
 
         set_rel_pathlist(root, rel, rti, root->simple_rte_array[rti]);
     }
 }

//-------------------------------------------------------- set_rel_pathlist

 /*
  * set_rel_pathlist
  *    Build access paths for a base relation
  */
 static void
 set_rel_pathlist(PlannerInfo *root, RelOptInfo *rel,
                  Index rti, RangeTblEntry *rte)
 {
     if (IS_DUMMY_REL(rel))
     {
         /* We already proved the relation empty, so nothing more to do */
     }
     else if (rte->inh)//inherit
     {
         /* It's an "append relation", process accordingly */
         set_append_rel_pathlist(root, rel, rti, rte);
     }
     else//常规
     {
         switch (rel->rtekind)
         {
             case RTE_RELATION://数据表
                 if (rte->relkind == RELKIND_FOREIGN_TABLE)//FDW
                 {
                     /* Foreign table */
                     set_foreign_pathlist(root, rel, rte);
                 }
                 else if (rte->tablesample != NULL)//采样表
                 {
                     /* Sampled relation */
                     set_tablesample_rel_pathlist(root, rel, rte);
                 }
                 else//常规数据表
                 {
                     /* Plain relation */
                     set_plain_rel_pathlist(root, rel, rte);
                 }
                 break;
             case RTE_SUBQUERY://子查询
                 /* Subquery --- 已在set_rel_size处理,fully handled during set_rel_size */
         /* 函数:set_subquery_pathlist */
                 break;
             case RTE_FUNCTION:
                 /* RangeFunction */
                 set_function_pathlist(root, rel, rte);
                 break;
             case RTE_TABLEFUNC:
                 /* Table Function */
                 set_tablefunc_pathlist(root, rel, rte);
                 break;
             case RTE_VALUES:
                 /* Values list */
                 set_values_pathlist(root, rel, rte);
                 break;
             case RTE_CTE:
                 /* CTE reference --- fully handled during set_rel_size */
                 break;
             case RTE_NAMEDTUPLESTORE:
                 /* tuplestore reference --- fully handled during set_rel_size */
                 break;
             default:
                 elog(ERROR, "unexpected rtekind: %d", (int) rel->rtekind);
                 break;
         }
     }
 
     /*
      * If this is a baserel, we should normally consider gathering any partial
      * paths we may have created for it.
      *
      * However, if this is an inheritance child, skip it.  Otherwise, we could
      * end up with a very large number of gather nodes, each trying to grab
      * its own pool of workers.  Instead, we'll consider gathering partial
      * paths for the parent appendrel.
      *
      * Also, if this is the topmost scan/join rel (that is, the only baserel),
      * we postpone this until the final scan/join targelist is available (see
      * grouping_planner).
      */
     if (rel->reloptkind == RELOPT_BASEREL &&
         bms_membership(root->all_baserels) != BMS_SINGLETON)
         generate_gather_paths(root, rel, false);
 
     /*
      * Allow a plugin to editorialize on the set of Paths for this base
      * relation.  It could add new paths (such as CustomPaths) by calling
      * add_path(), or delete or modify paths added by the core code.
      */
     if (set_rel_pathlist_hook)//钩子函数
         (*set_rel_pathlist_hook) (root, rel, rti, rte);
 
     /* Now find the cheapest of the paths for this rel */
     set_cheapest(rel);//找出代价最低的访问路径
 
 #ifdef OPTIMIZER_DEBUG
     debug_print_rel(root, rel);
 #endif
 }

//-------------------------------------------------------- set_plain_rel_pathlist

 /*
  * set_plain_rel_pathlist
  *    Build access paths for a plain relation (no subquery, no inheritance)
  */
 static void
 set_plain_rel_pathlist(PlannerInfo *root, RelOptInfo *rel, RangeTblEntry *rte)
 {
     Relids      required_outer;
 
     /*
      * We don't support pushing join clauses into the quals of a seqscan, but
      * it could still have required parameterization due to LATERAL refs in
      * its tlist.
      */
     required_outer = rel->lateral_relids;//需依赖的上层Relids
 
     /* 顺序扫描,Consider sequential scan */
     add_path(rel, create_seqscan_path(root, rel, required_outer, 0));
 
     /* 如合适,尝试并行顺序扫描,If appropriate, consider parallel sequential scan */
     if (rel->consider_parallel && required_outer == NULL)
         create_plain_partial_paths(root, rel);
 
     /* 索引扫描,Consider index scans */
     create_index_paths(root, rel);
 
     /* TID扫描,Consider TID scans */
     create_tidscan_paths(root, rel);
 }


//-------------------------------------------------------- create_seqscan_path

 /*
  * create_seqscan_path
  *    Creates a path corresponding to a sequential scan, returning the
  *    pathnode.
  */
 Path *
 create_seqscan_path(PlannerInfo *root, RelOptInfo *rel,
                     Relids required_outer, int parallel_workers)
 {
     Path       *pathnode = makeNode(Path);//顺序扫描路径
 
     pathnode->pathtype = T_SeqScan;//顺序扫描
     pathnode->parent = rel;//RelOptInfo
     pathnode->pathtarget = rel->reltarget;//投影列
     pathnode->param_info = get_baserel_parampathinfo(root, rel,
                                                      required_outer);//获取参数化路径信息ParamPathInfo
     pathnode->parallel_aware = parallel_workers > 0 ? true : false;//并行
     pathnode->parallel_safe = rel->consider_parallel;//
     pathnode->parallel_workers = parallel_workers;//并行数
     pathnode->pathkeys = NIL;   /* 顺序扫描,不执行排序,seqscan has unordered result */
 
     cost_seqscan(pathnode, root, rel, pathnode->param_info);
 
     return pathnode;
 }

//-------------------------------------------- get_baserel_parampathinfo

 /*
  * get_baserel_parampathinfo
  *      Get the ParamPathInfo for a parameterized path for a base relation,
  *      constructing one if we don't have one already.
  *
  *    获取base rel的参数化路径,存储在结构体ParamPathInfo中.如果没有,那么构造一个.
  *
  * This centralizes estimating the rowcounts for parameterized paths.
  * We need to cache those to be sure we use the same rowcount for all paths
  * of the same parameterization for a given rel.  This is also a convenient
  * place to determine which movable join clauses the parameterized path will
  * be responsible for evaluating.
  *
  * 统一/集中估计参数化路径的行数。通过缓存这些数据,对于相同的参数,可以快速给出相应的行数。
  */
 ParamPathInfo *
 get_baserel_parampathinfo(PlannerInfo *root, RelOptInfo *baserel,
                           Relids required_outer)
 {
     ParamPathInfo *ppi;//ppi变量
     Relids      joinrelids;//参与连接的relids
     List       *pclauses;//条件链表
     double      rows;//行数
     ListCell   *lc;//临时变量
 
     /* Unparameterized paths have no ParamPathInfo */
     if (bms_is_empty(required_outer))
         return NULL;
 
     Assert(!bms_overlap(baserel->relids, required_outer));
 
     /* If we already have a PPI for this parameterization, just return it */
     if ((ppi = find_param_path_info(baserel, required_outer)))//已有缓存?
         return ppi;//直接返回
 
     /*
      * Identify all joinclauses that are movable to this base rel given this
      * parameterization.
      * 在给定参数条件下,识别所有可移动到此基础关系的连接子句。
      */
     joinrelids = bms_union(baserel->relids, required_outer);//合并relids
     pclauses = NIL;
     foreach(lc, baserel->joininfo)//遍历连接条件
     {
         RestrictInfo *rinfo = (RestrictInfo *) lfirst(lc);//连接条件
 
         if (join_clause_is_movable_into(rinfo,
                                         baserel->relids,
                                         joinrelids))
             pclauses = lappend(pclauses, rinfo);//如可以移动,添加到链表中
     }
 
     /*
      * Add in joinclauses generated by EquivalenceClasses, too.  (These
      * necessarily satisfy join_clause_is_movable_into.)
      * 通过等价类产生的连接条件一并合并到链表中
      */
     pclauses = list_concat(pclauses,
                            generate_join_implied_equalities(root,
                                                             joinrelids,
                                                             required_outer,
                                                             baserel));
 
     /* Estimate the number of rows returned by the parameterized scan */
     rows = get_parameterized_baserel_size(root, baserel, pclauses);//获取估算行数
 
     /* And now we can build the ParamPathInfo */
     ppi = makeNode(ParamPathInfo);//构造PPI返回节点
     ppi->ppi_req_outer = required_outer;
     ppi->ppi_rows = rows;
     ppi->ppi_clauses = pclauses;
     baserel->ppilist = lappend(baserel->ppilist, ppi);
 
     return ppi;
 }
 

//--------------------------------- get_parameterized_baserel_size

 /*
  * get_parameterized_baserel_size
  *      Make a size estimate for a parameterized scan of a base relation.
  *    估算参数化扫描基础关系的大小
  *
  * 'param_clauses' lists the additional join clauses to be used.
  * param_clauses是使用的连接条件链表
  * 
  * set_baserel_size_estimates must have been applied already.
  * 调用此函数前,要求已调用set_baserel_size_estimates函数
  */
 double
 get_parameterized_baserel_size(PlannerInfo *root, RelOptInfo *rel,
                                List *param_clauses)
 {
     List       *allclauses;
     double      nrows;
 
     /*
      * Estimate the number of rows returned by the parameterized scan, knowing
      * that it will apply all the extra join clauses as well as the rel's own
      * restriction clauses.  Note that we force the clauses to be treated as
      * non-join clauses during selectivity estimation.
      */
     allclauses = list_concat(list_copy(param_clauses),
                              rel->baserestrictinfo);//合并条件
     nrows = rel->tuples *
         clauselist_selectivity(root,
                                allclauses,
                                rel->relid,  /* do not use 0! */
                                JOIN_INNER,
                                NULL);//获取行数
     nrows = clamp_row_est(nrows);
     /* For safety, make sure result is not more than the base estimate */
     if (nrows > rel->rows)
         nrows = rel->rows;
     return nrows;//返回
 }

//-------------------------------------------- cost_seqscan

 /*
  * cost_seqscan
  *    Determines and returns the cost of scanning a relation sequentially.
  *    计算顺序扫描Rel的成本并返回
  *
  * 'baserel' is the relation to be scanned
  * baserel:即将被扫描的Rel
  *
  * 'param_info' is the ParamPathInfo if this is a parameterized path, else NULL
  * param_info:ppi结构体
  */
 void
 cost_seqscan(Path *path, PlannerInfo *root,
              RelOptInfo *baserel, ParamPathInfo *param_info)
 {
     Cost        startup_cost = 0;//启动成本
     Cost        cpu_run_cost;//CPU成本
     Cost        disk_run_cost;//IO成本
     double      spc_seq_page_cost;//
     QualCost    qpqual_cost;//表达式成本
     Cost        cpu_per_tuple;//每个元组的CPU成本
 
     /* Should only be applied to base relations */
     Assert(baserel->relid > 0);
     Assert(baserel->rtekind == RTE_RELATION);
 
     /* Mark the path with the correct row estimate */
     if (param_info)//存在PPI
         path->rows = param_info->ppi_rows;//行数
     else
         path->rows = baserel->rows;//直接取基础关系行数
 
     if (!enable_seqscan)
         startup_cost += disable_cost;//不允许顺序扫描,disable_cost=1.0e10,即1后面10个0,这样的路径无需考虑
 
     /* fetch estimated page cost for tablespace containing table */
     get_tablespace_page_costs(baserel->reltablespace,
                               NULL,
                               &spc_seq_page_cost);//获取顺序访问表空间page的成本
 
     /*
      * disk costs
      */
     disk_run_cost = spc_seq_page_cost * baserel->pages;//IO成本
 
     /* CPU costs */
     get_restriction_qual_cost(root, baserel, param_info, &qpqual_cost);//CPU成本
 
     startup_cost += qpqual_cost.startup;//启动成本
     cpu_per_tuple = cpu_tuple_cost + qpqual_cost.per_tuple;//处理每个元组的成本
     cpu_run_cost = cpu_per_tuple * baserel->tuples;//CPU执行过程中的成本
     /* tlist eval costs are paid per output row, not per tuple scanned */
     startup_cost += path->pathtarget->cost.startup;//加上获取最终投影列的成本
     cpu_run_cost += path->pathtarget->cost.per_tuple * path->rows;//加上获取最终投影列的成本
 
     /* Adjust costing for parallelism, if used. */
     if (path->parallel_workers > 0)//并行执行
     {
         double      parallel_divisor = get_parallel_divisor(path);//拆分多少份
 
         /* The CPU cost is divided among all the workers. */
         cpu_run_cost /= parallel_divisor;//每一份的成本
 
         /*
          * It may be possible to amortize some of the I/O cost, but probably
          * not very much, because most operating systems already do aggressive
          * prefetching.  For now, we assume that the disk run cost can't be
          * amortized at all.
          */
 
         /*
          * In the case of a parallel plan, the row count needs to represent
          * the number of tuples processed per worker.
          */
         path->rows = clamp_row_est(path->rows / parallel_divisor);//每一份的行数
     }
 
     path->startup_cost = startup_cost;//赋值
     path->total_cost = startup_cost + cpu_run_cost + disk_run_cost;//总成本=启动 + 执行期的CPU和IO成本
 }

//-------------------------------- get_tablespace_page_costs

 /*
  * get_tablespace_page_costs
  *      Return random and/or sequential page costs for a given tablespace.
  *    返回给定表空间的随机/顺序读取page的成本
  *
  *      This value is not locked by the transaction, so this value may
  *      be changed while a SELECT that has used these values for planning
  *      is still executing.
  */
 void
 get_tablespace_page_costs(Oid spcid,//表空间Oid
                           double *spc_random_page_cost,
                           double *spc_seq_page_cost)
 {
     TableSpaceCacheEntry *spc = get_tablespace(spcid);
 
     Assert(spc != NULL);
 
     if (spc_random_page_cost)//随机读取
     {
         if (!spc->opts || spc->opts->random_page_cost < 0)
             *spc_random_page_cost = random_page_cost;
         else
             *spc_random_page_cost = spc->opts->random_page_cost;
     }
 
     if (spc_seq_page_cost)//顺序读取
     {
         if (!spc->opts || spc->opts->seq_page_cost < 0)
             *spc_seq_page_cost = seq_page_cost;
         else
             *spc_seq_page_cost = spc->opts->seq_page_cost;
     }
 }


//-------------------------------- get_restriction_qual_cost

 /*
  * get_restriction_qual_cost
  *    Compute evaluation costs of a baserel's restriction quals, plus any
  *    movable join quals that have been pushed down to the scan.
  *    Results are returned into *qpqual_cost.
  *    计算base rel限制条件的估算成本,包括被下推到限制条件的连接条件
  *
  * This is a convenience subroutine that works for seqscans and other cases
  * where all the given quals will be evaluated the hard way.  It's not useful
  * for cost_index(), for example, where the index machinery takes care of
  * some of the quals.  We assume baserestrictcost was previously set by
  * set_baserel_size_estimates().
  */
 static void
 get_restriction_qual_cost(PlannerInfo *root, RelOptInfo *baserel,
                           ParamPathInfo *param_info,
                           QualCost *qpqual_cost)
 {
     if (param_info)//参数化信息
     {
         /* Include costs of pushed-down clauses */
         cost_qual_eval(qpqual_cost, param_info->ppi_clauses, root);//评估成本
 
         qpqual_cost->startup += baserel->baserestrictcost.startup;
         qpqual_cost->per_tuple += baserel->baserestrictcost.per_tuple;
     }
     else
         *qpqual_cost = baserel->baserestrictcost;//没有参数化信息,直接返回
 }

//------------------- cost_qual_eval

 /*
  * cost_qual_eval
  *      Estimate the CPU costs of evaluating a WHERE clause.
  *      The input can be either an implicitly-ANDed list of boolean
  *      expressions, or a list of RestrictInfo nodes.  (The latter is
  *      preferred since it allows caching of the results.)
  *      The result includes both a one-time (startup) component,
  *      and a per-evaluation component.
  */
 void
 cost_qual_eval(QualCost *cost, List *quals, PlannerInfo *root)
 {
     cost_qual_eval_context context;
     ListCell   *l;
 
     context.root = root;
     context.total.startup = 0;
     context.total.per_tuple = 0;
 
     /* We don't charge any cost for the implicit ANDing at top level ... */
 
     foreach(l, quals)//遍历链表
     {
         Node       *qual = (Node *) lfirst(l);
 
         cost_qual_eval_walker(qual, &context);//遍历表达式
     }
 
     *cost = context.total;//返回总成本
 }
 

//------------ cost_qual_eval_walker
 static bool
 cost_qual_eval_walker(Node *node, cost_qual_eval_context *context)
 {
     if (node == NULL)
         return false;
 
     /*
      * RestrictInfo nodes contain an eval_cost field reserved for this
      * routine's use, so that it's not necessary to evaluate the qual clause's
      * cost more than once.  If the clause's cost hasn't been computed yet,
      * the field's startup value will contain -1.
      */
     if (IsA(node, RestrictInfo))//约束条件
     {
         RestrictInfo *rinfo = (RestrictInfo *) node;
 
         if (rinfo->eval_cost.startup < 0)//未计算成本,初始值为-1
         {
             cost_qual_eval_context locContext;
 
             locContext.root = context->root;
             locContext.total.startup = 0;
             locContext.total.per_tuple = 0;
 
             /*
              * For an OR clause, recurse into the marked-up tree so that we
              * set the eval_cost for contained RestrictInfos too.
              */
             if (rinfo->orclause)
                 cost_qual_eval_walker((Node *) rinfo->orclause, &locContext);//递归OR条件
             else
                 cost_qual_eval_walker((Node *) rinfo->clause, &locContext);//递归
 
             /*
              * If the RestrictInfo is marked pseudoconstant, it will be tested
              * only once, so treat its cost as all startup cost.
              */
             if (rinfo->pseudoconstant)//pseudoconstant标志为T
             {
                 /* count one execution during startup */
                 locContext.total.startup += locContext.total.per_tuple;
                 locContext.total.per_tuple = 0;
             }
             rinfo->eval_cost = locContext.total;
         }
         context->total.startup += rinfo->eval_cost.startup;
         context->total.per_tuple += rinfo->eval_cost.per_tuple;
         /* do NOT recurse into children */
         return false;
     }
 
     /*
      * For each operator or function node in the given tree, we charge the
      * estimated execution cost given by pg_proc.procost (remember to multiply
      * this by cpu_operator_cost).
      *
      * Vars and Consts are charged zero, and so are boolean operators (AND,
      * OR, NOT). Simplistic, but a lot better than no model at all.
      *
      * Should we try to account for the possibility of short-circuit
      * evaluation of AND/OR?  Probably *not*, because that would make the
      * results depend on the clause ordering, and we are not in any position
      * to expect that the current ordering of the clauses is the one that's
      * going to end up being used.  The above per-RestrictInfo caching would
      * not mix well with trying to re-order clauses anyway.
      *
      * Another issue that is entirely ignored here is that if a set-returning
      * function is below top level in the tree, the functions/operators above
      * it will need to be evaluated multiple times.  In practical use, such
      * cases arise so seldom as to not be worth the added complexity needed;
      * moreover, since our rowcount estimates for functions tend to be pretty
      * phony, the results would also be pretty phony.
      */
     if (IsA(node, FuncExpr))//函数表达式
     {
         context->total.per_tuple +=
             get_func_cost(((FuncExpr *) node)->funcid) * cpu_operator_cost;//调用get_func_cost函数
     }
     else if (IsA(node, OpExpr) ||
              IsA(node, DistinctExpr) ||
              IsA(node, NullIfExpr))//操作符/Distinct/NullIf判断,调用get_func_cost
     {
         /* rely on struct equivalence to treat these all alike */
         set_opfuncid((OpExpr *) node);
         context->total.per_tuple +=
             get_func_cost(((OpExpr *) node)->opfuncid) * cpu_operator_cost;
     }
     else if (IsA(node, ScalarArrayOpExpr))//数组
     {
         /*
          * Estimate that the operator will be applied to about half of the
          * array elements before the answer is determined.
          */
         ScalarArrayOpExpr *saop = (ScalarArrayOpExpr *) node;
         Node       *arraynode = (Node *) lsecond(saop->args);
 
         set_sa_opfuncid(saop);
         context->total.per_tuple += get_func_cost(saop->opfuncid) *
             cpu_operator_cost * estimate_array_length(arraynode) * 0.5;
     }
     else if (IsA(node, Aggref) ||
              IsA(node, WindowFunc))//聚合函数或者窗口函数
     {
         /*
          * Aggref and WindowFunc nodes are (and should be) treated like Vars,
          * ie, zero execution cost in the current model, because they behave
          * essentially like Vars at execution.  We disregard the costs of
          * their input expressions for the same reason.  The actual execution
          * costs of the aggregate/window functions and their arguments have to
          * be factored into plan-node-specific costing of the Agg or WindowAgg
          * plan node.
          */
         return false;           /* 0成本,不再递归到子节点中,don't recurse into children */
     }
     else if (IsA(node, CoerceViaIO))//CoerceViaIO
     {
         CoerceViaIO *iocoerce = (CoerceViaIO *) node;
         Oid         iofunc;
         Oid         typioparam;
         bool        typisvarlena;
 
         /* check the result type's input function */
         getTypeInputInfo(iocoerce->resulttype,
                          &iofunc, &typioparam);
         context->total.per_tuple += get_func_cost(iofunc) * cpu_operator_cost;
         /* check the input type's output function */
         getTypeOutputInfo(exprType((Node *) iocoerce->arg),
                           &iofunc, &typisvarlena);
         context->total.per_tuple += get_func_cost(iofunc) * cpu_operator_cost;
     }
     else if (IsA(node, ArrayCoerceExpr))//ArrayCoerceExpr
     {
         ArrayCoerceExpr *acoerce = (ArrayCoerceExpr *) node;
         QualCost    perelemcost;
 
         cost_qual_eval_node(&perelemcost, (Node *) acoerce->elemexpr,
                             context->root);
         context->total.startup += perelemcost.startup;
         if (perelemcost.per_tuple > 0)
             context->total.per_tuple += perelemcost.per_tuple *
                 estimate_array_length((Node *) acoerce->arg);
     }
     else if (IsA(node, RowCompareExpr))//RowCompareExpr
     {
         /* Conservatively assume we will check all the columns */
         RowCompareExpr *rcexpr = (RowCompareExpr *) node;
         ListCell   *lc;
 
         foreach(lc, rcexpr->opnos)
         {
             Oid         opid = lfirst_oid(lc);
 
             context->total.per_tuple += get_func_cost(get_opcode(opid)) *
                 cpu_operator_cost;
         }
     }
     else if (IsA(node, MinMaxExpr) ||
              IsA(node, SQLValueFunction) ||
              IsA(node, XmlExpr) ||
              IsA(node, CoerceToDomain) ||
              IsA(node, NextValueExpr))//最小最大值/SQLValueFunction/XML表达式/CoerceToDomain/NextValueExpr
     {
         /* Treat all these as having cost 1 */
         context->total.per_tuple += cpu_operator_cost;
     }
     else if (IsA(node, CurrentOfExpr))//CurrentOfExpr
     {
         /* Report high cost to prevent selection of anything but TID scan */
         context->total.startup += disable_cost;//不考虑顺序扫描,使用TID扫描
     }
     else if (IsA(node, SubLink))
     {
         /* This routine should not be applied to un-planned expressions */
         elog(ERROR, "cannot handle unplanned sub-select");//子链接,报错
     }
     else if (IsA(node, SubPlan))//子计划
     {
         /*
          * A subplan node in an expression typically indicates that the
          * subplan will be executed on each evaluation, so charge accordingly.
          * (Sub-selects that can be executed as InitPlans have already been
          * removed from the expression.)
          */
         SubPlan    *subplan = (SubPlan *) node;
 
         context->total.startup += subplan->startup_cost;//直接相加
         context->total.per_tuple += subplan->per_call_cost;
 
         /*
          * We don't want to recurse into the testexpr, because it was already
          * counted in the SubPlan node's costs.  So we're done.
          */
         return false;
     }
     else if (IsA(node, AlternativeSubPlan))//AlternativeSubPlan
     {
         /*
          * Arbitrarily use the first alternative plan for costing.  (We should
          * certainly only include one alternative, and we don't yet have
          * enough information to know which one the executor is most likely to
          * use.)
          */
         AlternativeSubPlan *asplan = (AlternativeSubPlan *) node;
 
         return cost_qual_eval_walker((Node *) linitial(asplan->subplans),
                                      context);
     }
     else if (IsA(node, PlaceHolderVar))//PHV,成本为0
     {
         /*
          * A PlaceHolderVar should be given cost zero when considering general
          * expression evaluation costs.  The expense of doing the contained
          * expression is charged as part of the tlist eval costs of the scan
          * or join where the PHV is first computed (see set_rel_width and
          * add_placeholders_to_joinrel).  If we charged it again here, we'd be
          * double-counting the cost for each level of plan that the PHV
          * bubbles up through.  Hence, return without recursing into the
          * phexpr.
          */
         return false;
     }
 
     /* recurse into children */
     return expression_tree_walker(node, cost_qual_eval_walker,
                                   (void *) context);//递归到子节点中
 }

//------- get_func_cost

 /*
  * get_func_cost
  *      Given procedure id, return the function's procost field.
  */
 float4
 get_func_cost(Oid funcid)
 {
     HeapTuple   tp;
     float4      result;
 
     tp = SearchSysCache1(PROCOID, ObjectIdGetDatum(funcid));//获取函数Oid
     if (!HeapTupleIsValid(tp))
         elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for function %u", funcid);

   //查询数据字典:select proname,procost from pg_proc where procost > 1;
     result = ((Form_pg_proc) GETSTRUCT(tp))->procost;//直接获取函数的procost
     ReleaseSysCache(tp);
     return result;
 }

三、跟踪分析

启动gdb:

(gdb) b set_base_rel_pathlists
Breakpoint 1 at 0x73bfb5: file allpaths.c, line 296.
(gdb) c
Continuing.

Breakpoint 1, set_base_rel_pathlists (root=0x2fd9418) at allpaths.c:296
296   for (rti = 1; rti < root->simple_rel_array_size; rti++)

进入set_plain_rel_pathlist:

(gdb) 
452           set_plain_rel_pathlist(root, rel, rte);
(gdb) step
set_plain_rel_pathlist (root=0x2fd9418, rel=0x2f98278, rte=0x2eaa5d8) at allpaths.c:704
704   required_outer = rel->lateral_relids;

进入create_seqscan_path:

(gdb) step
create_seqscan_path (root=0x2fd9418, rel=0x2f98278, required_outer=0x0, parallel_workers=0) at pathnode.c:957
957   Path     *pathnode = makeNode(Path);
(gdb) 
969   cost_seqscan(pathnode, root, rel, pathnode->param_info);
(gdb) p *pathnode
$2 = {type = T_Path, pathtype = T_SeqScan, parent = 0x2f98278, pathtarget = 0x2f98488, param_info = 0x0, 
  parallel_aware = false, parallel_safe = true, parallel_workers = 0, rows = 0, startup_cost = 0, total_cost = 0, 
  pathkeys = 0x0}  

进入cost_seqscan:

...
(gdb) 
230     path->rows = baserel->rows;
#rows的获得上一节已作介绍
(gdb) p baserel->rows
$4 = 10926
...
#表空间顺序扫描的成本
(gdb) p spc_seq_page_cost
$5 = 1
#IO成本
(gdb) p disk_run_cost
$6 = 726

进入get_restriction_qual_cost:

(gdb) step
get_restriction_qual_cost (root=0x2fd9418, baserel=0x2f98278, param_info=0x0, qpqual_cost=0x7ffe12ca4620) at costsize.c:3999
3999    if (param_info)
#没有参数化信息,直接使用baserel->baserestrictcost
(gdb) n
4008      *qpqual_cost = baserel->baserestrictcost;
(gdb) p baserel->baserestrictcost
$7 = {startup = 0, per_tuple = 0.0050000000000000001}

回到cost_seqscan

(gdb) 
cost_seqscan (path=0x2f98990, root=0x2fd9418, baserel=0x2f98278, param_info=0x0) at costsize.c:248
248   startup_cost += qpqual_cost.startup;
...

执行cost_seqscan,最终的path:

(gdb) p *path
$8 = {type = T_Path, pathtype = T_SeqScan, parent = 0x2f98278, pathtarget = 0x2f98488, param_info = 0x0, 
  parallel_aware = false, parallel_safe = true, parallel_workers = 0, rows = 10926, startup_cost = 0, total_cost = 2226, 
  pathkeys = 0x0}
(gdb) p cpu_run_cost
$9 = 1500
(gdb) p disk_run_cost
$10 = 726

回到上层函数:

(gdb) n
create_seqscan_path (root=0x2fd9418, rel=0x2f98278, required_outer=0x0, parallel_workers=0) at pathnode.c:971
971   return pathnode;
(gdb) 
972 }
(gdb) 
set_plain_rel_pathlist (root=0x2fd9418, rel=0x2f98278, rte=0x2eaa5d8) at allpaths.c:710
710   if (rel->consider_parallel && required_outer == NULL)

继续执行构建索引扫描路径/TID扫描路径函数:

714   create_index_paths(root, rel);
(gdb) 
717   create_tidscan_paths(root, rel);
(gdb) n
718 }

索引扫描路径的结果,rows = 10926, startup_cost = 324.40899999999999,total_cost = 1214.299

(gdb) p *rel->pathlist
$14 = {type = T_List, length = 1, head = 0x2fe8d10, tail = 0x2fe8d10}
(gdb) p *(Path *)rel->pathlist->head->data.ptr_value
$15 = {type = T_BitmapHeapPath, pathtype = T_BitmapHeapScan, parent = 0x2f98278, pathtarget = 0x2f98488, param_info = 0x0, 
  parallel_aware = false, parallel_safe = true, parallel_workers = 0, rows = 10926, startup_cost = 324.40899999999999, 
  total_cost = 1214.299, pathkeys = 0x0}

结束调用

(gdb) 
set_base_rel_pathlists (root=0x2fd9418) at allpaths.c:296
296   for (rti = 1; rti < root->simple_rel_array_size; rti++)
(gdb) 
312 }
(gdb) 
make_one_rel (root=0x2fd9418, joinlist=0x2f985d8) at allpaths.c:185
185   rel = make_rel_from_joinlist(root, joinlist);
#DONE!

相应的SQL执行计划,cost=324.41..1214.30请参照索引扫描路径结果(这部分源码下一节分析):

testdb=# explain analyze verbose select t1.* from t_dwxx t1 where dwbh > '10000' and dwbh < '20000';
                                                           QUERY PLAN                                                        
   
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---
 Bitmap Heap Scan on public.t_dwxx t1  (cost=324.41..1214.30 rows=10926 width=23) (actual time=3.196..4.959 rows=11111 loops=
1)
   Output: dwmc, dwbh, dwdz
   Recheck Cond: (((t1.dwbh)::text > '10000'::text) AND ((t1.dwbh)::text < '20000'::text))
   Heap Blocks: exact=85
   ->  Bitmap Index Scan on t_dwxx_pkey  (cost=0.00..321.68 rows=10926 width=0) (actual time=3.159..3.159 rows=11111 loops=1)
         Index Cond: (((t1.dwbh)::text > '10000'::text) AND ((t1.dwbh)::text < '20000'::text))
 Planning Time: 0.315 ms
 Execution Time: 5.673 ms
(8 rows)

四、参考资料

allpaths.c
cost.h
costsize.c
PG Document:Query Planning

来自 “ ITPUB博客 ” ,链接:http://blog.itpub.net/6906/viewspace-2374855/,如需转载,请注明出处,否则将追究法律责任。

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