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Journey into Partitioning Methods

原创 IT综合 作者:liang573728 时间:2019-05-13 12:24:05 0 删除 编辑
Partitioning, the best thing that happened to Oracle since sliced bread — perhaps that trite analogy has a grain of truth in this case. Sliced bread gave mankind the ability to tackle the monolithic loaf by breaking it into bite-sized pieces, not unlike what partitioning does for our Oracle tables. The slices hold patties, tomatoes, cheese, and all the relishes you may want to fit in — analogous to data in the table. However, a sandwich made from the slices is still a logical entity — just like a table. If a slice gets soggy, all you need to do is to replace it with a fresh one — sounds familiar to an operation called partition exchange, doesn't it? It's therefore no wonder that partitioning was embraced so quickly by the DBA community. Implementation, however, was not so swift; there were doubts about Cost Based Optimizer (CBO), and since partitioning required it, most users shunned the new technology. With the gradual improvement and widespread acceptance of CBO, partitioning has come to adorn not just data warehouses, but also OLTP databases.[@more@]

Previously in DBAZine, I have explored some pitfalls and potential problems that you should be aware of while designing and maintaining a partitioning scheme in my articles, "Perils and Pitfalls in Partitioning," Part 1 and Part 2. After you have decided to move to partitioning, the next logical question is how to convert the existing tables. There are various methods to achieve the results, from the plain and simple export/import to the sophisticated online redefinition in Oracle9i. Each method is unique in some or other way — making it perfect for your specific situation. This article explains them all and their relative merits and drawbacks so that you can decide on their suitability at your site.

Apart from the already documented and known techniques to convert existing tables, this article also explains another means developed by the author, which is undocumented. In case the table has to be available for changes during the conversion process, the article describes a way to allow that.

Example Setup
For the sake of illustration, let's assume the existing table, named MYTAB, as follows:

COL1 NUMBER(10)
COL2 VARCHAR2(200)
COL3 NUMBER(10)
COL4 DATE
The table has an index IN_MYTAB on COL2 and a check constraint CK_MYTAB on COL4. We need to convert this table to a range partitioned one on column COL1. Each partition of the table should be in a different tablespace. The index should be LOCAL with tablespaces defined separately.

Deciding Factors
Before starting with any particular conversion approach, think about the exact criteria that will temper your decision. The criteria that you have to consider are:

Availability: Does the table have to be available while being converted? Or, can it be easily shut off from users for the duration? Can the table be available for read-only operation while being converted? If there can be shut-off time for the table, how long is that? The degree of availability needs affects the choice of a proper method.
Quiet Time: Some databases are equally loaded all over the 24-hour period, 7 days a week. However, most databases follow a pattern in which a specific spread of time — e.g., Sunday nights on a non-month-end date — may be a period of little activity. (This does not mean no activity, just lessened load on the database.) Does your database have such a window of quiet time? If so, for how long and how often?
Space: Do you have extra space in the database to spare? If so, how much and where? In the case of a typical Storage Area Network (SAN) system with virtualization in place, you may have a huge filesystem with plenty of room to spare. In this case, location does not make a difference; but in for a system in which the filesystems are carefully defined for tables keeping in mind their access patterns, the location where the free space is available makes a difference. You also have to consider whether the space available can be added to the database while taking away a similar chunk from the database elsewhere. And, is this temporary space available on some temporary filesystem where a database file cannot be created (e.g. '/tmp') but sufficient space is available there for doing some other work?
Redo Generation: Some operations are designed to minimize redo. Large redo information generation means a larger number of archived log files, which may overwhelm your tape backup system. Of course, if your database runs in NOARCHIVELOG mode, this lessens the problem, but your production system is most likely in ARCHIVELOG mode.
Rollback Segment: How big are rollback segments in your databases? This is the second most important factor in the selection of a conversion method. Some techniques rely on reading the source tables. Due to the read consistency requirement of the Oracle database engine, the database must provide the image of the block that was present when the query started. This past image is constructed from the data stored in rollback segment. If the query is long, the rollback segment may eventually run out of extents to store the past image data. When the long running query tries to get the data from the segment, it faces an error called ORA-1555 Snapshot Too Old. Even if the RBSs are huge, there is a good chance that the query will face the ORA-1555 error if the run time is too long.
Special Datatypes: Some datatypes such as LONGs in your table may make some conversion approaches inapplicable. If you have such columns in your table, you need to rethink your strategy.
Bear in mind these important factors while evaluating the following methods for your particular situation.

Method 1: Direct Creation
In this method, you would simply create a table as partitioned for the first time by selecting from the target table. For example, you would issue

CREATE TABLE MYTAB_NEW
PARTITION BY RANGE (COL1) (
PARTITION P1 VALUES LESS THAN (101) TABLESPACE TS_P1,
PARTITION P2 VALUES LESS THAN (201) TABLESPACE TS_P2,
PARTITION P3 VALUES LESS THAN (301) TABLESPACE TS_P3,
PARTITION PM VALUES LESS THAN (MAXVALUE) TABLESPACE TS_PM
)
NOLOGGING
AS
SELECT * FROM MYTAB;
This creates a new table named MYTAB_NEW as a partitioned table and with all the data from the table MYDATA. The use of NOLOGGING at the end makes sure the data is created with minimum redo. If necessary, you can also use the PARALLEL clause to create this table in parallel.

After the table is created, drop the original table and rename this new table to the original table name.

DROP TABLE MYTAB;
RENAME MYTAB_NEW TO MYTAB;
Then you can create the indexes and constraints on this table to match what existed earlier.

Advantages
The operation is quite simple.
Use of NOLOGGING ensures minimal redo generation.
Parallel Query can be used to speed up processing.
Disadvantages
The space requirement is significantly high. There should be enough space for both the source and target tables at any given point. This could be a serious problem if your database is strained for space. Since the probable reason you are trying to make a table partitioned is that it is large, this problem can be quite challenging.
Space is required in a filesystem in which the database files can be created, not just in any filesystem. For instance, you may have a large /tmp filesystem, but that can't be used in this conversion method. In the case of Oracle Parallel Server or Real Application Cluster, the space should be available in the shared storage area, not in the local area.
There is a need for rollback segments. While creating the table as select from another table, Oracle uses the snapshot of the table at the beginning of the query. This creates considerable load on the rollback segment space. If you are dealing with a huge table, the rollback segment space may not be sufficient; worse, in an active system, the create table may produce an ORA-1555 Snapshot Too Old error.
The constraints, indexes, and triggers must be created separately after the new table is created. Indexes and constraints, like primary keys that also create indexes, may require a long time to be created. This adds to the overall elapsed time. The new table must be analyzed after being created, too.
High space, time, and resource consumption makes the Direct Creation option less attractive if you are dealing with medium to big databases. However, for smaller databases, the simplicity of the option makes it quite attractive.

Method 2: Direct Load Insert
In this method, the partitioned table is created empty. This can be easily done by running the listing provided for Method 1, but adding the line, WHERE 1 = 2 to the very end of the script after SELECT * FROM MYTAB line. By adding this line, the table is created but the data is not loaded, since the condition 1 = 2 is never satisfied.

After the table is created, the data is loaded from the source table using

INSERT /*+ APPEND */ INTO MYTAB_NEW
SELECT * FROM MYTAB;
This use of hint APPEND above, called direct load insert, loads the table data after the high-water mark of the target table, and therefore generates minimal redo information. Redo Log generation is comparable to the first method, but considerably less time is required since the data loading patterns are different. In a Direct Load operation, the rows are not inserted as regular inserts, unlike an INSERT statement or IMPORT. Rather, the data blocks are formatted and placed directly over the high-water mark. Since this operation does not require that an insert statement be processed, the SQL buffer is completely bypassed, for significant savings. However, since the source table is still read, the problem of large rollback segment usage remains, and that could cause ORA-1555 errors.

After the table is created, the original table is dropped and the new table is renamed as the original table. After that, all the indexes, constraints, and so on, can be created in the newly created table.

Advantages
Loading the target is quite fast because the APPEND option is used (this loads data above the high-water mark).
It is a relatively simple operation.
Parallel query servers can be used, which will enhance the speed of the operation.
Disadvantages
Free space equal to at least the total size of the table must be available. In medium to large databases, this may mean that a substantial amount of size is required, which may be difficult to obtain, even temporarily.
As in the case of the previously discussed methods, the space must be available in a filesystem where database files can be created.
Since read consistency on the source table is still necessary, there is a high rollback segment requirement, which may lead to ORA-1555 errors.
The total conversion process time required is still high, when the index and constraint creation tasks are added. Local index partitions can't be exploited.
The relative simplicity of this approach makes it an attractive option, but the high rollback segment requirement makes it unsuitable for large databases. If your database is medium size, your storage array has some room to spare and needed downtime can be obtained, so this method is strongly recommended.

Method 3: Export/Import
The previous methods are efficient, but require space inside the database. If space is available in some filesystem like /tmp, which cannot be added to the database, export the data from the source table MYTAB to a dump file in the filesystem using the export utility. (Using the option DIRECT=Y and setting RECORDSIZE and BUFFER parameters to proper values will speed up the process.) Then drop the table MYTAB, create a partitioned table MYTAB in its place, and import the data back.

Another variation of the process is exporting parts of the table that correspond to the data in the partitions using a where clause in the export utility, then compressing the dump file to make room for the other parts. While importing, a single dump file can be uncompressed, imported to a single partition, and then dropped.

Advantages
The biggest advantage of this method is that significantly less space is required. Export typically consumes less space than the source table. But the need for space in a regular filesystem like /tmp, and not in the database, makes the process attractive.
If needed, the export dump file can be created on a tape, an optical drive, a NAS, or even in a separate system, using a UNIX pipe. This flexibility may open up several other avenues for space.
If a table contains LONG columns, this is one of the only two possible options.
Disadvantages
Imports cannot be tweaked to minimize logging, unlike the direct loader option. Therefore, the redo generation and consequently, the archived log generation, are quite high.
The rollback segment requirement is also quite high. This can be lessened somehow by importing partition by partition, and by committing with buffer sizes in the import command line parameter.
This makes the table unavailable for the whole operation.
Since the table is dropped and recreated, all other operations, such as creation of indexes, have to be performed later, and this may consume time.
The import utility does not take advantage of parallel query servers.
Method 4: SQL*Loader
Instead of using the direct load insert, you could use SQL*Loader with the DIRECT option to load the data, too. To do this, create a flat file from the source table using SQL*Plus and load the data into the table. With the DIRECT option, the table data is loaded after the high-water mark, as in the case of a direct load insert; this generates minimal redo information. In addition, since the load is from a static file, there is no rollback requirement to hold the "before" image copy of the source data. This dramatically reduces the rollback segment use and eliminates the rollback segment overflow and ORA-1555 errors.

In Oracle 9i, external tables can be used for such operations. Besides the static file requirement, the advantages and disadvantages to this option are identical to those for the direct load insert method. However, since SQL*Loader must read from a flat file, the extra step of creating a flat file is necessary, and that might make the process slightly more complicated. Oracle does not provide a utility to dump the contents into a flat file; you must write your own (however, there are several scripts for this available on the Internet, so this does not pose a real problem). The use of a static file as a source mandates that the tables remain unchanged until the conversion process is complete, affecting availability. On the positive side, though, the loading can be done partition by partition, so the space requirement may be somewhat less than that required for other methods.

Method 5: Individual Partition Creation
This is a more complex but controllable operation. In this method, you would create small tables resembling the partitions of the target tablespace. Using the previously cited example, issue the following statements:

CREATE TABLE MYTAB_P1
TABLESPACE TS_P1
NOLOGGING
AS
SELECT *
FROM MYTAB
WHERE COL1 < 101;
This creates a table with data identical to what would be present in the partition P1 of the target table. Next, create index and constraints of the table:

CREATE INDEX IN_MYTAB_P1
ON MYTAB_P1 (COL2)
TABLESPACE INDX_P1
NOLOGGING;
If necessary, use parallelism to speed up the process. Next, analyze the table to make sure the data has proper partition-level statistics. Creating the indexes and generating stats at this stage are not mandatory; that can be put off until later.

Create similar tables corresponding partitions, naming then MYTAB_P2, MYTAB_P3, and so on, and create the indexes and constraints accordingly. When all these tables are ready, create a target table using the table creation script. Then, exchange the partitions of the target table with the corresponding source tables. For instance, you would issue the following:

ALTER TABLE MYTAB
EXCHANGE PARTITION P1
WITH TABLE MYTAB_P1
INCLUDING INDEX
WITHOUT VALIDATION;
This operation replaces the empty partition P1 of the table with the standalone table MYTAB_P1. The standalone index IN_MYTAB_P1 also replaces the corresponding partition of the local index IN_MYTAB. And the stats gathered on the standalone table are transferred to the partition of the target table. In reality, the partition and the table data are not exchanged; pointers inside the data dictionary are simply updated to point to the appropriate objects. Since no data is actually moved, the redo generation is negligible.

Any global indexes can now be formed on the newly produced table. The constraints of the old table are now placed on the new table with the NOVALIDATE option. (If you have not yet created the local indexes, you can do so at this point.) You can produce the indexes with the NOLOGGING option and by using the parallel operation to decrease elapsed time.

Advantages
Creation of individual partitions is separately controlled, and sometimes offers significant advantages. For example, in a sales table, the rows related to past sales may be static, so they can be converted to part tables at any time. The more current and changing data could then be transferred at a quieter time, ensuring minimal downtime for operations. With the other methods cited, the entire table is converted as a whole; finding a longer quiet and down time may be impossible.
Since you can form part tables and indexes in parallel, the process is actually a little faster if sufficient free space and CPU power is available.
If space is a problem, the partitions can be done one by one, increasing the elapsed time, but minimizing the need for space.
Disadvantages
This option requires space. If the entire table is converted as a whole, the space requirement is double the size of the table, which can be substantial. Even if the partitions are done one after the other, the size necessity is still high — double the size of the biggest partition size.
There is also the possibility of ORA-1555 errors in case of large tables.
Apart from the already documented and known partitioning methods, this article also explains another method developed by the author, which is undocumented. In case the table has to be available for changes during the conversion process, the article describes a way to facilitate that.

Previously, we explored five ways to convert a table into a partitioned table. In this article, we will continue with the sixth one.

Method 6: Online Redefinition
Oracle 9i has introduced a new package, dbms_redefinition, to reorganize tables online. A table can be changed without taking away access from the users. Under the hood, dbms_redefinition uses the Materialized View technology to convert the tables. This feature can be exploited to convert a non-partitioned table to a partitioned one. There are several restrictions on how this package can be used, however; for example, the table should not have a snapshot log (or materialized view log) defined on it, should not have columns of datatype BFILE, LONG, and so on.

It is much easier to convert a table using online redefinition when the table has a primary key. If there is no primary key, some non-default parameters must be passed to complete the definition process. To better explain the general concepts, I'll assume that the table has no primary key.

First, check to see whether the table can be reorganized using dbms_redefinition by issuing the following:

begin
dbms_redefinition.can_redef_table (
'SCOTT',
'MYTAB',
dbms_redefinition.cons_use_rowid);
end;

If the table has a primary key, use the following syntax instead.

begin
dbms_redefinition.can_redef_table (
'SCOTT',
'MYTAB');
end;

Note the use of the fixed value dbms_redefinition.cons_use_rowid, which instructs the package to use only the rowid as the mechanism to test. If the table can be reorganized with the package, the above command does not return anything. If there is a reason why dbms_redefinition can't be used to reorganize the table, the package throws out a self-explanatory error.

Assuming that the redefinition can be done, the next step is to create the target table as follows:

CREATE TABLE MYTAB_NEW
PARTITION BY RANGE (COL1)
(
PARTITION P1 VALUES LESS THAN (101) TABLESPACE TS_P1,
PARTITION P2 VALUES LESS THAN (201) TABLESPACE TS_P2,
PARTITION P3 VALUES LESS THAN (301) TSBALESPACE TS_P3,
PARTITION PM VALUES LESS THAN (MAXVALUE) TABLESPACE TS_PM
)
AS
SELECT * FROM MYTAB
WHERE 1=2;
This creates an empty table in the form we want it to be. Next, it's time to start the redefinition process. Issue the following:

begin
dbms_redefinition.start_redef_table (
'SCOTT',
'MYTAB',
'MYTAB_NEW',
null,
dbms_redefinition.cons_use_rowid
);
end;
Note the use of NULL as the fourth parameter. This parameter is for mapping columns of the original table to the new table, if they are different. Since we are not changing the column names, this parameter is left to null. The last parameter instructs the package that the table does not have a primary key and the rowid should be used to redefine. If there is a primary key, you can leave this parameter as the default value dbms_redefinition.cons_use_pk.

Behind the scenes, Oracle creates several objects to facilitate the conversion — for instance, a materialized view log is created on the table MYTAB, a trigger is created to populate the log, a materialized view is created using the prebuilt table MYTAB_NEW, and so on. (Note: Since a materialized view log is created on the table MYTAB, the table should not have a view log before the process starts.)

While Oracle creates these objects, the source table is fully accessible and the changes are captured in the MV log. From time to time, you should use the following command to synchronize the table and materialized view.

begin
dbms_redefinition.sync_interim_table (
'SCOTT',
'MYTAB',
'MYTAB_NEW'
);
end;
When the sync-up operations are complete and you have reached a relatively quite time, finish off the synchronization process.

begin
dbms_redefinition.finish_redef_table (
'SCOTT',
'MYTAB',
'MYTAB_NEW'
);
end;
This operation does the final sync-up of the materialized view with the main table, drops the MV logs, etc. and renames the main table to the target table. While doing the final step, it holds a lock on the table momentarily, restricting access. That is why you should do it at a relatively quiet time. Since the finish process also does a sync up, that step can be shortened if the sync ups are done prior to calling the procedure. That is the reason for calling the sync_interim_table() procedure several times. The interim table MYTAB_NEW can then be dropped.

Advantages of Online Redefinition
The immediate advantage of this option is clear: — it can be done online. Apart from the brief moment when the final synchronization is done, the table MYTAB is fully accessible.

Online redefinition sounds great, but should you automatically use it if you have Oracle9i? Not necessarily.

Disadvantages of Online Redefinition
The biggest disadvantage is the space requirement. You'll need space equivalent to twice the size of the entire table, plus space for the MV logs, and so on. So, space requirements for online redefinition might be a constraint in some cases.

Another restriction placed on the table is that it should not have an MV log. This can render many tables ineligible for online redefinition, particularly in DW and replication environments, where there is the greatest need to convert to a partitioned table.

If you are dealing with a large table, the MV log can be substantially large, affecting performance. And since these are created in your default tablespace, which may also contain the parent table, sometimes there may be contention at the disk level for access.

Typically, with large snapshots, the efficient method for conversion is to create a table first using direct load insert, then to use that table to create the snapshot with the "prebuilt table" clause. Since the snapshot is created automatically by Oracle and the user has no control over it, the initial population cannot take advantage of such load reducing features. Therefore, the initial load could severely strain resources like rollback segments, temporary tablespaces, and so on. And the rollback segment usage may trigger ORA-1555 errors.

To summarize, if you use the online redefinition method of conversion

you can't take advantage of the capability to convert the table partition by partition, and
you must have Oracle9i.
So, this method should only be used when the database absolutely cannot be inaccessible at all. However, if you choose this option, make sure that you have plenty of disk space and rollback segment space, and try to do it during a relatively quiet time.

Method 7: Split-Split
This method is not documented by Oracle, but was devised by the author when all of the other methods were not viable because of the constraints of the system. All of the previously described methods require enough space to be available to hold at least the biggest partition in the system. While that generally might not be a problem, under certain circumstances, the space may not be available to achieve the objective. However, the split-split method uses no additional space.

First, create the partitioned table with only one partition, the maxvalue partition. Next, split this partition at the lowest boundary point and repeat the process until all the partitions are created. Let's see how this is done using the same example we cited previously.

First, create a table called MYTAB_NEW as follows:

create table MYPART_NEW
(
col1 number,
col2 varchar2(10),
col3 char(2)
)
NOLOGGING
partition by range (col1)
(
partition pm values less than (maxvalue)
tablespace TS_PM_DATA
);
Note that, even though our target table has several partitions, only the maximum value partition has been defined in this table. Although the table is defined, it does not contain any significant space at this time. The table is empty and contains only the minimum number of extents as defined for the tablespace TS_PM_DATA.

Next, create the indexes and constraints as seen in the table MYTAB:

CREATE INDEX IN_PART
ON PART (COL2) LOCAL
NOLOGGING;

ALTER TABLE PART
ADD CONSTRAINT CK_PART_01
CHECK (COL3 IS NOT NULL);
Next, we will exchange the table MYTAB with this partition

ALTER TABLE PART EXCHANGE PARTITION PM
WITH TABLE NOPART INCLUDING INDEXES;
This statement swaps the table's partition PM with the table MYTAB. The contents of MYTAB are now in the PM partition, and the MYTAB table is empty. Since this operation merely changes the data dictionary and doesn't physically move data, it doesn't generate redo and is extremely quick. The clause INCLUDING INDEXES swaps the indexes too,(i.e., the partition of the local index IN_MYTAB now contains the index information).

Next, split this single partition, starting with the lowest boundary (partition P1).

ALTER TABLE PART SPLIT PARTITION PM AT (101)
INTO (PARTITION P1, PARTITION PM);
This command creates a new partition called P1, and moves the rows with a COL1 value of less than 101 into this from PM. Since the table is defined as NOLOGGING, this doesn't generate much redo. After this operation, the partition PM contains data for the partitions other than P1. You should repeat this splitting process, but now with P2 in mind:

ALTER TABLE PART SPLIT PARTITION PM AT (201)
INTO (PARTITION P2, PARTITION PM);
This should be repeated until the partition PM is split up to P4, to the last partition but one. Since the index is defined as LOCAL, it will have been split, too, along with the table partition splitting command.

At the completion of the process, you will have a table called MYTAB_NEW with all the data from MYTAB and with the same indexes and constraints. You should now drop the table MYTAB and rename the table MYTAB_NEW to MYTAB so that applications will be able to access this table. Also, you should restore the privileges associated with NOPART to PART.

However, renaming table does not rename the constraints or indexes. Although applications may not be affected by the new name of the index and constraints, it may be necessary to change the names to avoid confusion. The names are changed by the following statements:

ALTER INDEX IN_PART RENAME TO IN_NOPART;
ALTER TABLE NOPART RENAME CONSTRAINT
CK_PART_01 TO CK_NOPART_01;
The latter command is available in Oracle9i only. If you are using V8i and cannot do this, you could drop the constraint from the MYTAB table first, then re-create the constraint with NOVALIDATE option.

A slight variation of this method is to create the index and constraints at the very end of the process. This makes the splitting process quite fast, since there is no splitting of the indexes.

Advantages
By eliminating the need to have two copies of the data simultaneously, no additional space for the tables is consumed; the space is carved out from the original table. In space-starved environments, this could be a plus.

Also, when the data is moved from one partition to the other, a little but not-so-insignificant side effect is that the data is defragmented.

Finally, if the tablespaces for all the partitions are the same as that of the original table, then the splitting does not physically move data between files. This significantly reduces redo generation and load on the I/O subsystem.

Disadvantages
The partition split operation physically moves the data from one partition to the other. This is extremely time and resource consuming as compared to direct load insert method. Redo generation is minimized, not suppressed completely and the size of the redo is significantly larger than in case of the direct load insert method.

It needs the table to be inaccessible for the entire duration of the operation, even for read only tasks.

Method 8: Copy
This approach uses the SQL*Plus command COPY to copy rows from one table to the other. Usually, COPY is used to copy rows across databases over db links, but this option can be used in this case as well.

First, create the target table MYTAB_NEW with the full partitioning structure, then copy the rows from the source table MYTAB.

A word of caution here: the command COPY has few friends at Oracle Corporation. There's been no enhancements since Oracle8 and may be deprecated in future releases. At least in 9i, this command is available.

COPY FROM SCOTT/TIGER@MYDB -
INSERT MYTAB_NEW -
USING SELECT * FROM MYTAB
At this time, several important points are worth noting. First, COPY is a command in SQL*Plus, like CONNECT, SHOW, and so on; it's not a SQL command like SELECT. Therefore, you must use it inside SQL*Plus only and not inside a stored procedure.

Second, note the use of a hyphen at the end of each line. Since COPY is a SQL*Plus command, the command is expected to end after a carriage return. However, since our command is actually in three lines, we have indicated the continuation of the line using the hyphen.

So, what does COPY provide that the other methods don't? It is the support for LONG datatype. If your tables contain LONG datatype, you can't use Create Table As Select (CTAS) or Direct Load Insert to copy the table rows. COPY is the only option in addition to Export/Import.

By default, COPY commits only after the end of the process. However, this can be controlled using variables inside the SQL*Plus environment:

ARRAYSIZE : This number determines how many rows will be fetched in a single attempt.
COPYCOMMIT: This number determines after how many batches (each of ARRAYSIZE number of rows) the commit should occur.
These variables are set by the SET command in SQL*Plus. So, if ARRAYSIZE is 1000 and COPYCOMMIT is 100, a commit occurs at the end of every 100,000 records. Unfortunately, the transaction cannot be made to produce less redo data or suppress generation of undo data, unlike NOLOGGING or Direct Load Insert. Nevertheless, by making a judicious decision on these two parameters, a commit frequency can be obtained in such a way that the rollback segments are not filled up, and the excessive commits don't happen either.

After the table rows are copied, you can drop the original table, rename the table MYTAB_NEW to MYTAB, and then recreate the indexes and constraints.

Advantages
The only key advantage for the COPY method is its support for LONG. Obviously, if your table does not have this datatype, this is no longer an advantage.

Tables can be converted partition by partition. Temporary part tables can be created and populated as per the code below, and the space requirement will be less than a full table size.

COPY FROM SCOTT/TIGER@MYDB -
INSERT MYTAB_NEW -
USING SELECT * FROM MYTAB -
WHERE COL2 BETWEEN 101 AND 200
Note the use of a predicate after the USING clause, for filtering the rows.

Disadvantages
The only supported datatypes are DATE, NUMBER, CHAR, VARCHAR2, and LONG. If you have LOBs or other Oracle object types, you can't use the COPY method.

Other disadvantages include the fact that

the redo generation can't be suppressed
the rollback segment requirement is huge, so ORA-1555 errors are possible
the space requirement is twice the table size or at least twice that of the biggest partition
These disadvantages may make the COPY method seem worthless, but in key cases in which some LONG columns are present, this option will be useful.

Conversion in an Active Database
All these methods described above, with the exception of the Oracle9i Online Redefinition, rely on stopping all transactions during the conversion to a partitioned table. If the transactions are not stopped, the changes that occur from start to finish of the process are lost when the target table is renamed to the original table. Either the tablespaces should be made read-only, or the database should be brought down and brought up in read-only mode before starting the conversion process. This also alleviates the problem of running out of Rollback Segment space as well as the likelihood of ORA-1555 errors.

However, if it is not possible to stop the updates to this table during conversion, the setup needs to be modified. First, identify the primary key columns of the table. If the table does not have any primary key, it is advisable to establish some surrogate keys to identify a row uniquely. Make sure that the columns identified are not nullable. In the following example, assume the column is COL1, then create a table to hold changes to the table:

CREATE TABLE MYTAB_CHANGES
(
CHANGE_TYPECHAR(1) NOT NULL,
COL1_VALUE NUMBER(10) NOT NULL,
CHANGE_DATEDATE NOT NULL
);
Define a trigger on the table MYTAB as follows to capture changes to the table MYTAB:

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER TR_MYTAB_CHANGES
AFTER INSERT, DELETE or UPDATE ON MYTAB
FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN
IF INSERTING THEN
INSERT INTO MYTAB_CHANGES
VALUES ('I',:NEW.COL1,SYSDATE);
ELSIF DELETING THEN
INSERT INTO MYTAB_CHANGES
VALUES ('D',:NEW.COL1,SYSDATE);
ELSIF UPDATING THEN
INSERT INTO MYTAB_CHANGES
VALUES ('U',:NEW.COL1,SYSDATE);
ELSE
RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (-20001,'Wrong Operation');
END IF;
END;
This trigger places the changes (new records, deleted records, and updates) to the changes table. After the operation of creating the target table is over, further changes are to be disallowed, and the target table is updated from the join of this changes table and the main source table. (Note: the code segment given below is for demonstration purpose only; you should provide an extensive error handling facility before deploying in production.)

BEGIN
FOR CHGREC IN (
SELECT * FROM MYTAB_CHANGES
ORDER BY CHANGE_DATE) LOOP
IF (CHGREC.CHANGE_TYPE = 'I') THEN
BEGIN
INSERT INTO MYTAB_NEW
SELECT * FROM MYTAB
WHERE COL1 = CHGREC.COL1_VALUE;
EXCEPTION
WHEN DUP_VALUE_ON_IND THEN
NULL;
END;
IF (CHGREC.CHANGE_TYPE = 'D') THEN
BEGIN
DELETE MYTAB_NEW
WHERE COL1 = CHGREC.COL1_VALUE;
IF (SQL%NOTFOUND) THEN
NULL;
END IF;
EXCEPTION
WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN
NULL;
END;
IF (CHGREC.CHANGE_TYPE = 'I') THEN
BEGIN
DELETE MYTAB_NEW
WHERE COL1 = CHGREC.COL1_VALUE;
INSERT INTO MYTAB_NEW
SELECT * FROM MYTAB
WHERE COL1 = CHGREC.COL1_VALUE;
EXCEPTION
WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN
NULL;
WHEN OTHERS THEN
RAISE;
END;
END IF;
END IF;
END LOOP;
END;
This script will update the rows of MYTAB_NEW with the data from the changes table. After this process is over, the data in the table MYTAB_NEW will be identical to the data in the table MYTAB.

Conclusion
Converting the table from partitioned to non-partitioned structure is a process that consumes considerable time and effort, and DBAs managing different sites have different constraints to deal with when making this executing this process.

ref: http://www.rampant-books.com/art_nanda_partitioning1.htm

来自 “ ITPUB博客 ” ,链接:http://blog.itpub.net/640706/viewspace-1030670/,如需转载,请注明出处,否则将追究法律责任。

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