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【SQL优化】UNION替换OR效率测试及总结

原创 Linux操作系统 作者:secooler 时间:2009-09-24 14:07:30 0 删除 编辑
大家在做SQL优化的过程中,可能都知道一个事实:某些情况下使用UNION替换OR可以提高SQL的运行效率。

您知道这个“某些情况”指的是什么么?

解释一下,“某些情况”指的是:使用的表字段要有索引。

这个实验,给大家展示一下这个结论

1.创建测试表
sec@ora10g> drop table t;

Table dropped.

sec@ora10g> create table t as select * from all_objects;

Table created.

sec@ora10g> alter table t rename column owner to x;

Table altered.

sec@ora10g> alter table t rename column object_name to y;

Table altered.

sec@ora10g> update t set x = 'secooler';

4785 rows updated.

OK,通过上面的初始化,我们得到了这个测试表T,我们关心它的第一个和第二个字段,修改名字后是x字段和y字段
x字段内容统一修改为“secooler”,以便模拟使用这个字段得到大量返回结果
y字段指定特定值后,模拟返回一条记录

2.开启autotrace,跟踪不同的SQL执行(为使执行计划稳定,请多次执行,得到稳定输出结果)
用到的测试SQL语句是以下三条
1)返回记录多的条件放在where子句的前面
select * from t where x = 'secooler' or y = 'T';
2)返回记录多的条件放在where子句的后面
select * from t where y = 'T' or x = 'secooler';
3)使用UNION改写上面的OR语句
select * from t where x = 'secooler'
union
select * from t where y = 'T'
/

3.先看一下,在没有创建索引情况下的实验效果
sec@ora10g> set autotrace traceonly
sec@ora10g> select * from t where x = 'secooler' or y = 'T';

4782 rows selected.


Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 1601196873

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation         | Name | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT  |      |  4583 |   572K|    16   (0)| 00:00:01 |
|*  1 |  TABLE ACCESS FULL| T    |  4583 |   572K|    16   (0)| 00:00:01 |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------

   1 - filter("X"='secooler' OR "Y"='T')

Note
-----
   - dynamic sampling used for this statement


Statistics
----------------------------------------------------------
          0  recursive calls
          0  db block gets
        111  consistent gets
          0  physical reads
          0  redo size
     206142  bytes sent via SQL*Net to client
       1009  bytes received via SQL*Net from client
         49  SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client
          0  sorts (memory)
          0  sorts (disk)
       4782  rows processed

sec@ora10g> select * from t where y = 'T' or x = 'secooler';

4782 rows selected.


Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 1601196873

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation         | Name | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT  |      |  4583 |   572K|    16   (0)| 00:00:01 |
|*  1 |  TABLE ACCESS FULL| T    |  4583 |   572K|    16   (0)| 00:00:01 |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------

   1 - filter("Y"='T' OR "X"='secooler')

Note
-----
   - dynamic sampling used for this statement


Statistics
----------------------------------------------------------
          0  recursive calls
          0  db block gets
        111  consistent gets
          0  physical reads
          0  redo size
     206142  bytes sent via SQL*Net to client
       1009  bytes received via SQL*Net from client
         49  SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client
          0  sorts (memory)
          0  sorts (disk)
       4782  rows processed

sec@ora10g> select * from t where x = 'secooler'
union
select * from t where y = 'T'
/
  2    3    4
4782 rows selected.


Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 2618920678

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation           | Name | Rows  | Bytes |TempSpc| Cost (%CPU)| Time     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT    |      |  4584 |   573K|       |   168  (12)| 00:00:03 |
|   1 |  SORT UNIQUE        |      |  4584 |   573K|  1448K|   168  (12)| 00:00:03 |
|   2 |   UNION-ALL         |      |       |       |       |            |          |
|*  3 |    TABLE ACCESS FULL| T    |  4583 |   572K|       |    16   (0)| 00:00:01 |
|*  4 |    TABLE ACCESS FULL| T    |     1 |   128 |       |    16   (0)| 00:00:01 |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------

   3 - filter("X"='secooler')
   4 - filter("Y"='T')

Note
-----
   - dynamic sampling used for this statement


Statistics
----------------------------------------------------------
          0  recursive calls
          0  db block gets
        126  consistent gets
          0  physical reads
          0  redo size
     253890  bytes sent via SQL*Net to client
       1009  bytes received via SQL*Net from client
         49  SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client
          1  sorts (memory)
          0  sorts (disk)
       4782  rows processed

4.在没有创建索引情况下的实验结论
1)无论是返回记录多的条件放在where子句的前面还是后面,从执行计划上看,效率是一样的。
2)没有创建索引的情况下,使用UNION改写后效率没有提高,反而下降了

5.在看一下,创建所需的索引情况后的实验效果
sec@ora10g> create index idx1_t on t(x);

Index created.

sec@ora10g> create index idx2_t on t(y);

Index created.

sec@ora10g> select * from t where x = 'secooler' or y = 'T';

4782 rows selected.


Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 1601196873

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation         | Name | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT  |      |  4583 |   572K|    16   (0)| 00:00:01 |
|*  1 |  TABLE ACCESS FULL| T    |  4583 |   572K|    16   (0)| 00:00:01 |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------

   1 - filter("X"='secooler' OR "Y"='T')

Note
-----
   - dynamic sampling used for this statement


Statistics
----------------------------------------------------------
          0  recursive calls
          0  db block gets
        111  consistent gets
          0  physical reads
          0  redo size
     206142  bytes sent via SQL*Net to client
       1009  bytes received via SQL*Net from client
         49  SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client
          0  sorts (memory)
          0  sorts (disk)
       4782  rows processed

sec@ora10g> select * from t where y = 'T' or x = 'secooler';

4782 rows selected.


Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 1601196873

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation         | Name | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT  |      |  4583 |   572K|    16   (0)| 00:00:01 |
|*  1 |  TABLE ACCESS FULL| T    |  4583 |   572K|    16   (0)| 00:00:01 |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------

   1 - filter("Y"='T' OR "X"='secooler')

Note
-----
   - dynamic sampling used for this statement


Statistics
----------------------------------------------------------
          0  recursive calls
          0  db block gets
        111  consistent gets
          0  physical reads
          0  redo size
     206142  bytes sent via SQL*Net to client
       1009  bytes received via SQL*Net from client
         49  SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client
          0  sorts (memory)
          0  sorts (disk)
       4782  rows processed

sec@ora10g> select * from t where x = 'secooler'
union
select * from t where y = 'T'
/
  2    3    4
4782 rows selected.


Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 4276936497

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation                     | Name   | Rows  | Bytes |TempSpc| Cost (%CPU)| Time     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT              |        |  4584 |   573K|       |   153   (3)| 00:00:02 |
|   1 |  SORT UNIQUE                  |        |  4584 |   573K|  1448K|   153   (3)| 00:00:02 |
|   2 |   UNION-ALL                   |        |       |       |       |            |          |
|*  3 |    TABLE ACCESS FULL          | T      |  4583 |   572K|       |    16   (0)| 00:00:01 |
|   4 |    TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID| T      |     1 |   128 |       |     2   (0)| 00:00:01 |
|*  5 |     INDEX RANGE SCAN          | IDX2_T |     1 |       |       |     1   (0)| 00:00:01 |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------

   3 - filter("X"='secooler')
   5 - access("Y"='T')

Note
-----
   - dynamic sampling used for this statement


Statistics
----------------------------------------------------------
          0  recursive calls
          0  db block gets
         66  consistent gets
          0  physical reads
          0  redo size
     253890  bytes sent via SQL*Net to client
       1009  bytes received via SQL*Net from client
         49  SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client
          1  sorts (memory)
          0  sorts (disk)
       4782  rows processed


6.在创建所需的索引后的实验结果
1)无论是返回记录多的条件放在where子句的前面还是后面,从执行计划上看,效率还是一样的。
2)从“consistent gets”参数上看,使用UNION改写OR后,效率得到有效的提升。

7.小结
通过上面的实验,可以得到在CBO模式下,无论是返回记录多的条件放在where子句的前面还是后面,从执行计划上看,效率是一样的。
另外一个重要结论就是:在考虑使用UNION改写OR的时候,一定要注意查看使用的字段是否已经创建了索引。

Goodluck.

-- The End --

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