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SAP MRP Made Easy -[1.1]概览[翻译]

原创 Linux操作系统 作者:baiboyd 时间:2009-05-31 17:35:17 0 删除 编辑

Overview 概览

The overall goal of production planning—and the use of planning strategies—is to better serve your customers by reducing:

Storage costs

Replenishment lead times


To reach that goal you should group your materials according to their individual needs. You should create as few groups as possible (for better transparency on the shop floor) and as many as necessary (for flexibility). The following examples may provide the criteria to group:


Cheap materials, which could be planned-consumption based.


It is more important to have these materials permanently available than to run out of them. The effort to plan these materials should be minimal.

@? 保证这些物料不断料是很重要的,不要等到用完它们(再买)。计划这些物料的花费是最小的。

Expensive materials, or those with long replenishment lead times, which need a more sophisticated planning approach.


Consider the following questions when grouping the materials:


Who is responsible for the production plan?


Are the materials produced before or after the arrival of sales orders?


How should the actual stock level affect production?


Do you need a consumption of planned quantities? When should this consumption take place?


Consumption of planned production quantities (planned independent requirements) allows for a permanent reevaluation of planned quantities based on actual sales orders.


On what level in the product structure does your planning take place (finished product vs. subassembly)


Production planning usually takes place only on one level of your product structure. For example, you either perform. production planning (“forecast” of demand) on the finished product level or on the subassembly level.


Disclaimer 声明

All scheduling information in the sample scenarios (stock/requirements lists), including the screens, is subject to your scheduling settings. The actual results depend on your configuration and the setup of your master data. The data is intended to give you typical examples.


Questions 问题

To select the most appropriate planning strategies, answer the questions for each material group (remember to use different strategies for different purposes). To make this guidebook easier to use, we have structured similar strategy groups in such a way as to minimize the time you spend reading the entire document.


Planning Level 计划层

On which of the following levels do you want to plan component procurement:


Finished product level 成品层

Subassembly or component level 组装或组件层

Characteristics or characteristics value level 特性或特性值层

Finished Product Level 成品层

Finished product level planning is used when there is a stable and predictable demand pattern at the finished product level (the material sold in sales orders).


Subassembly or Component Level 组装或组件层

Planning on the component level is used when there is a stable and predictable demand pattern at component or subassembly level (the material used in production orders).


For the following reasons, it is often more convenient to plan at the component, rather than on the finished product, level:


The demand pattern at finished product may be unstable


Many similar variants of finished products require the same component or subassembly


Finished products may be consumption based


Characteristics or Characteristics Value Level 特性或特性值层

Planning on the characteristics (value) level is used when, for each configurable product, you have a stable and predictable demand patterns at characteristics (value). The use of characteristics requires the use of the variant configurator (see chapter 5, Characteristics Planning). Characteristics selection is translated into component selection. Therefore, when planning at characteristics (value) level, you are planning, for example, the characteristic “blue” paint. This characteristic results in the selection of the component “blue paint.” A more complex example is to plan the characteristic “stick shift,” which results in the selection of components related to that characteristic’s value.


Production Level 产品层

Would you like to produce the planned product in stock before a sales order is entered?


If “Yes,” use a make-to-stock strategy (for example, 10, 11, 40).

如果“是”,使用按库存生产策略(MTS: Make-To-Stock)(例如:10、11、40)。

If “No,” use either a make-to-order or a strategy without final assembly (for example, 30, 52, 63, 20, 25,

26, 54, 55, 56, 65, 89)

如果“不是”,要么是用按单生产(MTO: Make-To-Order)策略或无最终组装的策略(例如:30、52、63、20、25、26、54、55、56、65、89)

Procuring Components 获取组件

Would you like to procure the components before the entry of sales orders?


PS. 在MM和MRP中,procure/procuring/procurement均是不同词性的“获取”,即物料的取得方式,可以是外部采购,也可以是内部生产得到。

To procure or produce the entire product (the part that you sell) in stock before sales orders can be placed, you should use a make-to-stock planning strategy (40, 10, 11). The components are automatically procured before the sales order entry.


To procure or produce only subassemblies—essentially planning on a finished product level—you will most likely use strategies without final assembly (for example, 50, 52, 55, 60, 63 or 65).

获取或生产仅在组装层——实际的计划在成品层——你最可能使用的策略是“无最终组装”的策略(例如:50、52、55、60、63、或65) 。

To procure or produce subassemblies based on plans, which are independent of finished products, you will most likely use strategies for the planning of components (70 or 59).


Responsibility for Production 生产职责

Who is responsible for the production quantities?


If your production department is responsible for production quantities and the resulting stock levels (and they do not want to rely on sales forecast for the finished products), you can use strategies for planning components and de-couple the two departments.


Influence of Stock 库存影响

Should the stock level influence the production quantities?


Strategy 11 allows for production that relies only on the planned quantities from Demand Management (without netting stock quantities). This strategy is particularly useful if you want to have a determined production plan (for example, if you have to deal with a seasonal demand pattern but want to have constant production).

策略11(Make-to-stock production/gross requirements planning)依赖需求管理中的计划数量来生产(没有净库存数量)。如果你需要一个确定的生产计划时,这个策略是比较有用的(例如:如果你需要处理季节性需求模式但又需要一个恒定的产量时)。

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