ITPub博客

首页 > Linux操作系统 > Linux操作系统 > SAP MRP Made Easy -[1.1]概览[翻译]

SAP MRP Made Easy -[1.1]概览[翻译]

原创 Linux操作系统 作者:baiboyd 时间:2009-05-31 17:35:17 0 删除 编辑

Overview 概览

The overall goal of production planning—and the use of planning strategies—is to better serve your customers by reducing:

Storage costs

Replenishment lead times

生产计划以及使用计划策略的总的目的是为了更好地为客户减少库存成本和补货提前期。

To reach that goal you should group your materials according to their individual needs. You should create as few groups as possible (for better transparency on the shop floor) and as many as necessary (for flexibility). The following examples may provide the criteria to group:

为了达到这个目的,你需要根据物料各自的需求来组织你的物料。尽可能的使用少量的组(在生产控制中有更好的透明性)而且有根据需要尽可能的使用组(为了灵活性)。下面的例子可以作为分组的标准:

Cheap materials, which could be planned-consumption based.

廉价物料,可以有作基于消耗计划

It is more important to have these materials permanently available than to run out of them. The effort to plan these materials should be minimal.

@? 保证这些物料不断料是很重要的,不要等到用完它们(再买)。计划这些物料的花费是最小的。

Expensive materials, or those with long replenishment lead times, which need a more sophisticated planning approach.

昂贵的物料或需要比较长的提前期的物料,这些物料需要更完善的计划方法。

Consider the following questions when grouping the materials:

当你分组物料时,需要考虑以下问题:

Who is responsible for the production plan?

由谁来负责作生产计划?

Are the materials produced before or after the arrival of sales orders?

销售订单在物料生产之前还是生产之后到达?

How should the actual stock level affect production?

实际库存怎么影响生产?

Do you need a consumption of planned quantities? When should this consumption take place?

你需要一个计划的消耗数量吗?什么时候应该有消耗数量?

Consumption of planned production quantities (planned independent requirements) allows for a permanent reevaluation of planned quantities based on actual sales orders.

计划生产数量的消耗(计划独立需求)基于实际的销售订单。

On what level in the product structure does your planning take place (finished product vs. subassembly)

你的计划发生在你的产品结构的哪一层?(成品还是组装层)

Production planning usually takes place only on one level of your product structure. For example, you either perform. production planning (“forecast” of demand) on the finished product level or on the subassembly level.

生产计划通常发生在你的产品结构中其中一层。例如,要么你在你的成品层制定的生产计划(“预测”的需求),要么在组装层制定计划。

Disclaimer 声明

All scheduling information in the sample scenarios (stock/requirements lists), including the screens, is subject to your scheduling settings. The actual results depend on your configuration and the setup of your master data. The data is intended to give you typical examples.

在例子情形中的所有计划信息(库存/需求清单),包括屏幕,都是和你的计划设置有关的,实际的结果根据你的配置和你的主数据的设置。这里的数据只是一种典型的例子。

Questions 问题

To select the most appropriate planning strategies, answer the questions for each material group (remember to use different strategies for different purposes). To make this guidebook easier to use, we have structured similar strategy groups in such a way as to minimize the time you spend reading the entire document.

为了选择最合适的计划策略,回答每一个物料群组的问题(记住使用不同的策略是为了不同的目的)。为了使本手册更易使用,我们组织了一个比较小的策略组,使用这种方法来加速你阅读本书的速度。

Planning Level 计划层

On which of the following levels do you want to plan component procurement:

在以下层次中你需要计划你的组件获取:

Finished product level 成品层

Subassembly or component level 组装或组件层

Characteristics or characteristics value level 特性或特性值层

Finished Product Level 成品层

Finished product level planning is used when there is a stable and predictable demand pattern at the finished product level (the material sold in sales orders).

当在成品层上有一个稳定的、可预见的需求模式时,使用成品层计划(物料使用销售订单销售)。

Subassembly or Component Level 组装或组件层

Planning on the component level is used when there is a stable and predictable demand pattern at component or subassembly level (the material used in production orders).

当在组件或组装层上有一个稳定的、可预见的需求模式时,就使用组装或组件层(物料使用在生产订单中)。

For the following reasons, it is often more convenient to plan at the component, rather than on the finished product, level:

具有以下原因时,使用组件层比使用成品层计划更加方便:

The demand pattern at finished product may be unstable

在成品层的产品需求模式可能不稳定

Many similar variants of finished products require the same component or subassembly

很少有成品需要用相同的组件或组装

Finished products may be consumption based

成品可能是基于消耗的

Characteristics or Characteristics Value Level 特性或特性值层

Planning on the characteristics (value) level is used when, for each configurable product, you have a stable and predictable demand patterns at characteristics (value). The use of characteristics requires the use of the variant configurator (see chapter 5, Characteristics Planning). Characteristics selection is translated into component selection. Therefore, when planning at characteristics (value) level, you are planning, for example, the characteristic “blue” paint. This characteristic results in the selection of the component “blue paint.” A more complex example is to plan the characteristic “stick shift,” which results in the selection of components related to that characteristic’s value.

对于可配置产品,按照特性值具有稳定的、可预测需求模式时,使用特性或特性值计划。特性的使用需要变式配置(见第5章,特性计划)。特性选择被传输到组件选择。因此,当计划在特性(值)层时,你要计划,例如,特性“蓝色”油漆。组件就按照特性的治选择“蓝色”的油漆。更复杂的例子是计划特性“辊轴”,这种情况下组件的选择要依赖特性的值。

Production Level 产品层

Would you like to produce the planned product in stock before a sales order is entered?

销售订单到来之前你的计划产品是否在库存?

If “Yes,” use a make-to-stock strategy (for example, 10, 11, 40).

如果“是”,使用按库存生产策略(MTS: Make-To-Stock)(例如:10、11、40)。

If “No,” use either a make-to-order or a strategy without final assembly (for example, 30, 52, 63, 20, 25,

26, 54, 55, 56, 65, 89)

如果“不是”,要么是用按单生产(MTO: Make-To-Order)策略或无最终组装的策略(例如:30、52、63、20、25、26、54、55、56、65、89)

Procuring Components 获取组件

Would you like to procure the components before the entry of sales orders?

在创建销售订单之前你已经获取组件了吗?

PS. 在MM和MRP中,procure/procuring/procurement均是不同词性的“获取”,即物料的取得方式,可以是外部采购,也可以是内部生产得到。

To procure or produce the entire product (the part that you sell) in stock before sales orders can be placed, you should use a make-to-stock planning strategy (40, 10, 11). The components are automatically procured before the sales order entry.

在销售订单创建以前,为了把完整的产品获取或生产在库存中(你也出售部件),你应该使用对库存生产(make-to-stock)的计划策略(40,10,11)。这样组件在销售订单创建以前就自动获取了。

To procure or produce only subassemblies—essentially planning on a finished product level—you will most likely use strategies without final assembly (for example, 50, 52, 55, 60, 63 or 65).

获取或生产仅在组装层——实际的计划在成品层——你最可能使用的策略是“无最终组装”的策略(例如:50、52、55、60、63、或65) 。

To procure or produce subassemblies based on plans, which are independent of finished products, you will most likely use strategies for the planning of components (70 or 59).

获取或生产在组装层基于成品的独立计划执行,最可能的策略是组件计划的策略(70/59)。

Responsibility for Production 生产职责

Who is responsible for the production quantities?

谁来负责产品数量?

If your production department is responsible for production quantities and the resulting stock levels (and they do not want to rely on sales forecast for the finished products), you can use strategies for planning components and de-couple the two departments.

如果你的生产部门负责产品数量和库存水平(他们不依赖成品的销售预测),你可以使用计划策略来分散到两个部门中。

Influence of Stock 库存影响

Should the stock level influence the production quantities?

库存水平影响生产数量吗?

Strategy 11 allows for production that relies only on the planned quantities from Demand Management (without netting stock quantities). This strategy is particularly useful if you want to have a determined production plan (for example, if you have to deal with a seasonal demand pattern but want to have constant production).

策略11(Make-to-stock production/gross requirements planning)依赖需求管理中的计划数量来生产(没有净库存数量)。如果你需要一个确定的生产计划时,这个策略是比较有用的(例如:如果你需要处理季节性需求模式但又需要一个恒定的产量时)。

来自 “ ITPUB博客 ” ,链接:http://blog.itpub.net/451283/viewspace-604556/,如需转载,请注明出处,否则将追究法律责任。

请登录后发表评论 登录
全部评论

注册时间:2007-12-15

  • 博文量
    121
  • 访问量
    587744