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(FI/CO)学习日志

原创 Linux操作系统 作者:alexzhou618 时间:2009-04-28 01:43:21 0 删除 编辑
SAP IDES 4.6c FI/CO)学习日志

作者:江南一枫叶


本人学习SAP是因为本人在会计师事务所工作,有些客户已上了或准备上SAP,本人作为CPA有必要了解点SAP的知识,再加上从事会计电算化培训和财务软件的实施多年,故对ERP方面颇感兴趣,但本人的专业是审计和财税咨询,SAP纯属业余爱好!(以下安装部分以IDES 4.6C简体中文版为准,IMG和日常操作部分以4.7为准)

系统安装篇

因有客户单位已上SAP系统,故觉得有必要了解SAP,通过有关渠道弄到IDES 4.6C 一套(13张光盘,数据库是oracle8.1 SAP专版),然后准备开始漫长而考验耐心的系统安装旅程。

看了看说明书,得知系统安装要求如下:
硬件:
80G
以上 硬盘(SAP有关的数据库实例要占用45G空间)
512M
以上内存
网卡一张(如无,则需装一虚拟网卡)
操作系统:
win2000 server+sp3
系统分区应为NTFS

于是升级电脑到上面配置后,开始格式化硬盘,分二个区,c10G FAT32,D70G NTFS,把有关硬件驱动程序,win2000 server+sp4,所有SAP安装光盘(7.2G)拷贝到C,开始系统安装,操作系统,数据库,SAP全部安装在D,D盘格式为NTFS
本人试过二张不同的win2000server安装盘安装,其中有一种在后面安装SAP时总是死在77%,试了N次都是如此,最后只有格式化了硬盘,换了另一张win2000server安装盘重装操作系统后,SAP才能顺利到100%

经过NN小时重复操作后,操作系统算是安装好了,然后安装其他常用软件,office,在此要说明的是,本机除实际网卡一张外,本人还装了VNN虚拟网卡,VNN软件功能及作用后面再说,早前一次本人是先装了SAP再装VNN的结果造成装了VNNSAP服务无法正常启动,后面打听证实可能是装了SAP后再装VNN,它会产生一个新的VNN虚拟网卡,故硬件配置有了变化造成SAP无法启动,故得出教训:有关软件,硬件最好在安装SAP前安装好.
然后按照说明书开始安装数据库及SAP,在安装SAP前要把服务器系统时间改为20281231,在安装好SAP客户端第一次正常登录SAP,方能把服务器系统时间改回来

具体安装说明见图一(针对是4.6c+oracle版本,不一定适合别的版本哟)


图一

1 安装时一定要严格安装说明书安装,注意有关细节和步骤,中文包安装需四五个小时且比较复杂,可以在SAP安装好,正常试用一段时间后再安装中文包(本人将在后面详细说明);
2
安装SAP数据库及实例后,再手动安装客户端,然后启动SAP服务,就是桌面上的SAP MMC console,进入右击,再点start,过一段间C11实例会变为绿色(----绿)(启动前保证网卡已正常连接到交换机,即本地连接是正常的)
3
然后运行桌面上的saplogon ,点新建,说明为SAP(可随意填),应用服务器为服务器电脑名或本地网卡IP,系统编号为00,确定,然后就可登录了
4
第一次登录时client000,userddic,password19920706,language不用填,然后回车,会出现一提示窗口,提示系统会在2029-1-2X日到期,点左下角的绿钩,就进去了,可看到激动人心的SAP 主界面了,然后退出,把系统时间改回正常时间即可
5 SAP
安装需要的是时间和耐心再加细心,这其中可能要反复N,所以最好在晚上装,早上醒来,你要是发现SAP安装进度条已是90%以上,那就要祝贺你了....

系统装好了,可以进入SAP,可惜全是英文的,现在我们开始来导入中文包吧:
还是以DDIC登录进入client 000 ,然后按上面的安装全攻略说明进行导入中文包

注意事项:
1
中文安装说明有4,我们只要做到第3步完成(P34))即可,第四步不要按说明做了
2
关键点在第32(P32),就是说出错了如何处理的,要按该处理办法处理,直到前面的标志变成绿色(这一步时间较长可能会要3-4小时)
3
做完这一步后,就退出系统,直接修改参数文件,我的参数文件在D,用记事本就可打开编辑
假定为D,路径为D:\usr\sap\C11\sys\profile\C11_DVEBMGS00_cpa (后面CPA为我的计算机名),NOTEPAD手动编辑该文件(本帖第七页有更好的方法,不用修改该文件,而达到在登录界面自由选择中文或英文的目的)

SAPSYSTEMNAME = C11
INSTANCE_NAME = DVEBMGS00
SAPSYSTEM = 00
SAPGLOBALHOST = cpa (
这个是我的计算机名)
rdisp/wp_no_dia = 4
rdisp/wp_no_vb = 2
rdisp/wp_no_vb2 = 1
rdisp/wp_no_enq = 1
rdisp/wp_no_btc = 2
rdisp/wp_no_spo = 1
zcsa/system_language = 1 (
关键是从此行开始的以下5,如没有则自己添加或修改)
zcsa/installed_languages = 1
install/codepage/appl_server = 8400
install/codepage/db/non_transp = 8400
install/codepage/db/transp = 8400
PHYS_MEMSIZE = 360


改好后,停止SAP服务然后再启动SAP服务,修改SAPLOGON的登录语言为中文(ZH),(属性---高级--去掉默认代码页前面的钩,把语言改成zh)登录即可看见中文界面
如果想改登录时默认的cllient(集团)800的话,可在上述参数文件中加一行
login/system_client = 800

 

假如说我们用了中文界面后又想改回英文界面怎么办呢???还是修改上面那个参数文件: (比这个更好的方法见本帖第七页)

SAPSYSTEMNAME = C11
INSTANCE_NAME = DVEBMGS00
SAPSYSTEM = 00
SAPGLOBALHOST = cpa (
这个是我的计算机名)
rdisp/wp_no_dia = 4
rdisp/wp_no_vb = 2
rdisp/wp_no_vb2 = 1
rdisp/wp_no_enq = 1
rdisp/wp_no_btc = 2
rdisp/wp_no_spo = 1
zcsa/system_language = E(
关键是从此行开始的以下5,如没有则自己添加或修改)
zcsa/installed_languages = E
install/codepage/appl_server = 1100
install/codepage/db/non_transp = 1100
install/codepage/db/transp = 1100
PHYS_MEMSIZE = 360


改好后,停止SAP服务然后再启动SAP服务,修改SAPLOGON的登录语言为英文,(属性---高级--钩中默认代码页前面的钩)登录即可看见英文界面

 

其实我们要想使用中文界面,有二个前提条件:
1 SAP
系统中要有中文包,SAP默认安装后是没有的,这个需要我们导入,就是说明中的1-3
2
要修改SAP启动参数,使之启动时默认为中文
第一点我们只要做一次就可以了
第二点我们可以修改参数文件来达到目的 ,也可修改参数来换成其他语言

 

窃以为学习象SAP这等ERP软件正确的方法应是先了解其管理思想,管理理念,管理方法和软件实现这些管理思想的方法和流程,而不是在装好软件后急急忙忙在某些具体操作上下功夫,因为那样会让你只见树木不见森林,不能从全局上站在一个比较高的起点来了解一个软件,就好比搞建筑一样,你可能只是个技术娴熟的技工,而不是一个建筑工程师
简言之:应是从理论----实践----再归纳总结-上升到理论 如是不断循环反复

目标:不仅知其然而且知其所以然 能举一反三 触类旁通

附:IMG(Implementation Guide )

目前在看SAP 4.6C的在线library,http://help.sap.com/saphelp_46c/hel...3b/frameset.htm,现将IMG(Implementation Guide )中有关内容摘抄并翻译如下:
General settings
In this section, you define application-independent system settings. These settings are a prerequisite for handling all business transactions
一般设置:
在这一章节,你要定义一套独立的应用系统的设置,这些设置是处理后面所有业务的先决条件
Set countries
In this chapter you configure the country keys
设置国家:
在此章你要配置国家关键值
Define countries
You must include all countries with which your company has business relationships. You need the following information for each country:

General data
Foreign trade characteristics
Further test data
This data is then checked during master data maintenance.

Standard settings
In the SAP standard delivery system, all countries are defined according to the international ISO standard.

SAP recommendation
SAP recommends that you use the ISO standard for your additional entries.

If your entries do not correspond to the ISO standard, you cannot implement data exchange in international communication (e.g. payment transactions with banks).

Activities
1. Check that the country entries are complete.
2. Add the missing countries, if necessary.
3. Use the ISO standard for your entries.
4. For each country, maintain the associated
detail screen. In the detail screen you must, for example, create test data.
定义国家:
你须定义所有与你公司有业务往来关系的国家,每个国家你都需要下列信息:
一般数据
外贸特征
进一步的测试数据
这些数据将在后面的主数据维护中被核查
标准设置:
SAP标准的供应系统中,所有国家都必须按国际ISO标准来定义
SAP
建议:
SAP
建议你在附加的输入中使用ISO标准
如果你的输入与ISO标准不一致的话,你可能在国际交往中不能进行数据交换(例如银行的付款业务)
操作要点:
1
检查每个国家的录入是否完整
2
必要时,增加遗漏的国家
3
输入时使用ISO标准
4
为每个国家维护相关的细节屏幕,在细节屏幕中你须做些例如创建测试数据的工作

 

Currencies
In this section, you

check the preset currencies
add new currencies according to your requirements
货币:
在这一章你要检查预设的货币并根据需要增加新的货币
Check currency codes
The currency table must have entries for all currencies which occur in your business transactions.
检查货币代码:
货币表必须录入有你的经济活动所涉及的所有货币
Standard settings
In the SAP standard recipient system, all currencies are defined according to the international ISO standard.
标准设置:
SAP标准收货系统中,所有货币都要依国际ISO标准而定义
SAP recommendation
SAP recommends that you use the ISO standard for your additional entries.

If your entries do not correspond to the ISO standard, you will not be able to use data exchange in international communication (e.g. bank clearing transactions).
见前面国家定义部分

Actions
1. Check the currency entries for completeness.
2. Add the missing currency entries as required.
3. Use the ISO standard for your additional entries.
操作要点:
1
检查所有货币录入的完整性
2
增加需要的被遗漏的货币
3
在附加输入中使用ISO标准

Set decimal places for currencies
Each currency has a different number of decimal places.
设置货币小数位
If you are adding new currencies, which do not have two decimal places, you have to enter these currencies in the menu option 'Decimal places'.
如果你正在增加一种新的货币,其小数位不是二位,那你须在'小数位'菜单栏中输入此货币

Example
Currencies with different decimal places
1. The German mark has two decimal places for amounts less than a mark.
2. The Kuwaiti dinar, on the other hand, has three decimal places.
3. The Italian lira does not allow any decimal places.
例如下列货币的小数位就不是常用的二位而显得与众不同:
1
德国马克只是在小于一马克时才使用二位小数
2
科威特第纳尔就是三位小数
3
意大利里拉就不允许有任何小数

Standard Settings
In the settings delivered with the system, the most important currencies which do not have two decimal places are pre-set according to the ISO standard.
标准设置:
SAP系统随机设置中,小数位不是二位但又非常重要的货币已按ISO标准预设好

Activities
1. Check whether in your company currencies are in use which do not have two decimal places, in addition to those delivered.
2. Set the appropriate number of decimal places for these currencies.
操作要点:
1
检查你的公司所用货币中除了已随机预设外是否还有小数位不是二位的货币
2
为这些货币设置好小数位

Time Zones
维护好时区

 

Field Display Characteristics
字段显示特性
Field display characteristics can be defined globally or for a transaction. This technique was developed to hide the complexity of the SAP System from the user when possible. The user is spared from entering data in fields that are always the same.
字段显示特性既能全局定义亦能为单个业务定义.开发这种技术旨在为用户简化SAP系统的复杂性
By defining global field characteristics (or "global fields") certain fields in screens can be influenced in all the transactions where they appear. Ready-for-input screen fields can be preset with a value. They can can be set so as not to accept field entries, and they can be hidden.
通过定义全局字段特性(或全局字段),屏幕中出现的某些字段能够影响到所有的交易.待输入的屏幕字段能够预设一个默认值,亦能够被设成不可输入字段从而被隐藏起来
Using transaction-related field characteristics ("transaction variants") you can preset fields occurring in a transaction, define characteristics of fields, or hide whole screens in a transaction if they are not required there.
使用与业务相关的字段特性(业务变量),你能预设一项业务中出现的字段,定义字段的特性,或者在不需要时隐藏整个屏幕

 

综上所述,国家\货币\时区 这三种设置是SAP设置中的基础设置,是后面其他设置的先决条件,这三种设置在后面的许多设置中都将被用到

 

现在我们来学习'企业结构'这一部分内容
Enterprise Structure
In this section, you will learn how to portray the specific organizational structure of your business in the R/3 System.
企业结构:
在这一部分,你将学到在R/3系统里如何描画你们企业具体的组织结构
To help you portray your company structure, different Accounting, Logistics and Human Resources organization units are provided.
为了帮助你们描画你们的公司结构,系统中提供了一些不同的财务,物流和人力资源组织单元
First analyze the structures and procedures in your company, and then match them to the SAP structures. There are various organization elements defined as examples in the standard version. Normally these would not cover all your needs. Extend the elements as required.
首先要做的就是分析你们公司的组织结构和办事程序,然后使之与SAP中相应结构相匹配,SAP标准版中已定义了几种结构元素做为范例,一般情况下,它们不可能涉及到你们的所有需要,你自己亦须应需而扩充一些组织元素
During the clarification stage, work with the structures delivered by SAP. In order to obtain a high degree of indentification and acceptance from project members and user departments from the start, you may have to change some of SAP's terminology.
在净化阶段,请使用SAP中随带的组织结构,为了得到项目组成员和用户单位各部门的认同,你可能还需要改变SAP中的一些专业术语,使之更通俗易懂.

You should limit the number of persons authorized to maintain organization elements. Define the authorization profiles accordingly. As soon as your organization units are ready, access should be locked so that no other changes can be made.
你应该限制能够维护企业组织结构的人员数量,并定义好相应的用户权限参数文件,一旦企业组织结构定了下来,就应该锁定对其的接触,以保证企业组织结构不会被随意改动

Note
The definition of organization units is a fundamental step in your project. It is a critical factor in how the project will be structured.
注意事项:
企业组织结构的定义是你的项目最基本的步骤,亦是关系项目结构的关键因素

You should not use more organization units than necessary. Only use new organization units if this is required by the existing data structures.
你最好不要使用过多而不必要的组织结构,只有在已存有数据的组织结构需要时才能使用新的组织单元
Once you have decided on an organizational structure it is not easy to change it.
一旦你制定好了一个组织结构,它就很难改变,所以需格外谨慎,三思而后行

 

Financial Accounting Definition
企业结构定义之财务会计篇
In this step, you create the units for the following components:
G/L Accounting
Accounts Receivable
Accounts Payable
You only define organizational units which are relevant for one component when configuring the respective components.
在该步,你要创建与下列组件相关的结构单元
总账会计
应收会计
应付会计
在配置上述各组件时,你只须定义与之相关的组织单元

 

Define company
In this step you can create companies. A company is an organizational unit in Accounting which represents a business organization according to the requirements of commercial law in a particular country.
公司定义:
在此步,你能创建公司,一个公司是按照一个具体国家的商业法的要求代表一个企业组织的会计组织单位
You store basic data for each company in company definition. You only specify particular functions when you customize in Financial Accounting. Company G0000 is preset in all foreign key tables.
在定义公司时你需为每个公司储存一些基本数据,在财务会计设置中你只能定义其一些个别的功能,系统在所有外键表中已预设一个代码为G000的公司
In the SAP system, consolidation functions in financial accounting are based on companies. A company can comprise one or more company codes.
SAP系统中,合并会计是基于公司的,一个公司可以由一个或多个公司代码组成
When you create a company you should bear in mind the following points relating to group accounting:
当你在创建一个公司时,你要牢牢记住下列这些与集团会计有关的要点:
If your organization uses several clients , the companies which only appear as group-internal business partners, and are not operational in each system, must be maintained in each client. This is a precondition for the account assignment of a group-internal trading partner.
如果你们单位使用几个集团,那些只是作为集团内部合作伙伴出现而并不是在每个系统中都实际运营的公司必须在各个集团中分别维护,这是会计分配集团内部贸易伙伴的先决条件
Companies must be cataloged in a list of company IDs which is consistent across the group. The parent company usually provides this list of company IDs.
公司必须在公司名册中编目(分门别类的意思),并在整个集团中连贯一致,公司名册通常由上一级公司提供
It is also acceptable to designate legally dependent branches 'companies' and join them together as a legal unit by consolidation.
把在法律上独立的分支机构视同公司从而做为一个法律实体加入合并亦是可行的
Recommendation
SAP recommends that you keep the preset company ID G00000 if you only require one company. In this way you reduce the number of tables which you need to adjust.
SAP
建议
SAP
建议:如果你只需要一个公司,你最好保留系统预设的G00000公司,这样的话,你可以减少你需要调整的表的数量
Activities
Create your companies.
操作:
创建好你的公司
Further Notes
All company codes for a company must work with the same operational chart of accounts and fiscal year . The currencies used can be different
进一步的说明:
一个公司下属的所有公司代码所用到营运会计科目表和财政年度都必须相同,但他们各自可以使用不同的货种(记账本位币)(何为营运科目表及财政年度将在以后章节中详述)

 

Define credit control area
In this step, you define your credit control areas. The credit control area is an organizational unit that specifies and checks a credit limit for customers.
定义信用控制区域:
在此步你要定义你们的信用控制区,信用控制区是一个设定和检查客户信用限额的组织单元
Note
A credit control area can include one or more codes. It is not possible to assign a company code to more than one control control area. Within a credit control area, the credit limits must be specified in the same currency.
说明:
一个信用控制区可以包括一个或多个公司代码,但一个公司代码不能分配给多个信用控制区,在一个信用控制区内,信用控制限额必须用同一种货币来设定
Standard Settings
The credit control area 0001 is defined in the SAP standard system.
标准设置:
标准的SAP系统中已预设了一个代码为0001的信用控制区
Activities
Define your credit control areas.
操作:
定义好你的信用控制区

 

Define, copy, delete, check company code
定义 复制 删除 检查公司代码
In this activity you create your company codes. The company code is an organizational unit used in accounting. It is used to structure the business organization from a financial accounting perspective.
在这次操作中,你将创建你们的公司代码 公司代码是会计上的一个组织机构,它把一个企业从财务上划分出一个个会计主体来
We recommend that you copy a company code from an existing company code. This has the advantage that you also copy the existing company code-specific parameters. If necessary, you can then change certain data in the relevant application. This is much less time-consuming than creating a new company code. See "Recommendations" for more details about copying a company code.
我们建议你从一个已存在的公司代码中copy公司代码,这样做的好处是你同时copy了那个公司代码的参数,这可比新建一个公司代码节省了不少配置时间,具体COPY公司代码方面的细节详见后面的'建议'部分

If you do not wish to copy an existing company code, you can create a new company code and make all the settings yourself. You define your company codes by specifying the following information:
如果你不想COPY已存在的公司代码,你当然可以新建一个,然后亲自做所有的配置工作,你的公司代码需做如下方面的定义:
Company code key
公司代码关键字(亦就是公司代码的编号)
You can select a four-character alpha-numeric key as the company code key. This key identifies the company code and must be entered when posting business transactions or creating company code-specific master data, for example.
你可以选一个四位的字符或阿位伯数字做为公司代码编号,这个编号是公司代码的惟一标识,当多们在业务过帐或创建公司代码主数据都必须输入公司代码编号的

Company code name
公司代码名称
Address data
地址数据
The address data is necessary for correspondence and is printed on reports, such as the advance return for tax on sales/purchases.
为了函电的需要,地址数据是必须要有的,也是为了方便在各种报告上打印地址,比中在销售/采购时都会有传真方面的联系
Country currency
国家货币
Your accounts must be managed in the national currency. This currency is also known as the local currency or the company code currency. Amounts that are posted in foreign currency are translated into local currency.
你的会计处理必须是基于当地的国家货币,亦称为本位币或公司代码货币,外币业务的金额最终都会转换为本位币
Country key
国家关键字(国家编号)
The country key specifies which country is to be seen as the home country; all other countries are interpreted as "abroad". This is significant for business and payment transactions because different forms are used for foreign payment transactions. This setting also enables you to use different address formatting for foreign correspondence.
国家编号标明哪个国家是做为本国,那么其他的国家都会被当作国外,这个对企业和支付交易非常重要,因为对外支付业务的格式各不相同 该设置亦能让你在对外函电中使用不同的地址格式
Language key
The system uses the language key to determine text automatically in the language of the relevant country. This is necessary when creating checks, for example.
语言编号
SAP
系统使用语言编号来自动决定相关国家语言的文本格式,这在创建检查时有很有必要
You do not specify the functional characteristic of the company code until configuring the relevant application.
公司代码的功能特性你可在配置相关的应用时才定义
You can set up several company codes per client to manage the accounts of independent organizations simultaneously. At least one company code must be set up in each client.
你可以每个集团设置数个公司代码来同时管理这些独立组织机构的科目,每个集团至少要设置一个公司代码
To take full advantage of SAP system integration, you must link company codes to the organizational units of other applications. If, for example, you specify a CO account assignment (for example, cost center or internal order ) when entering a document in FI, then the system must determine a controlling area to transfer this data to CO. You must specify how the system is to determine the appropriate controlling area.
为了充分利用SAP系统的集成性,你必须把公司代码连接到其他应用的组织机构,例如,当你在FI中录入一张凭证时要定义一个CO科目分配时(比如说成本中心\内部订单什么的),系统必须决定一个控制区域来把这些数据传输给CO模块,这时你也必须指定系统如何决定相应的控制区域

The system derives the controlling area from the company code if you assign it directly to a company code. You can also assign several company codes to one controlling area.
如果你直接把某个控制区域分配给了一个公司代码的话,系统就会直接从该公司代码中获取控制区域,而且你还可把几个公司代码分配给一个控制区域
Standard Settings
Company code 0001 has already been created in clients 000 and 001 for the country DE (Germany). All country-specific information ("parameters") is preset in this company code, such as the payment methods, tax calculation procedures, and chart of accounts typical for this country.
标准设置:
在德国的000001集团中已创建了一个编号为0001的公司代码,这个公司代码中的所有与国家有关的信息(参数),比如说支付方法,税金计算流程,国家会计科目表,都已经预设好,
If you want to create a company code for the USA and its legal requirements, you must first of all run the country installation program in client 001. The country of company code 0001 is then set to "US" and all country-specific parameters related to it are set to the USA. For more information, see the Set Up Clients activity under "Basic Functions" in the Customizing menu.
如果你要创建一个符合美国法律要求的公司代码,你必须首先在集团001运行国家安装程序,这样一来这个公司代码中与国家有关的参数都设置成了美国,相关的详细信息可参见设置菜单中的'BASIC Funtions'部分

Recommendation
建议
You should keep the preset company code number 0001 if you only require one company code. This keeps to a minimum the number of tables you need to set up.
如果你只需要一个公司代码的话,你应该保留系统中预设的0001公司代码,这样可使你要维护的表的数量降到最低程度
You can copy a company code using a special Customizing function. Company code-specific specifications are copied to your new company code. The target company code must not yet be defined, it is defined automatically during the copying procedure.
通过一个特定的配置功能你可以复制公司代码,与公司代码相关的一些具体的参数会一同复制到新的公司代码中,所以目标公司代码一定是还没有做过任何定义的,在复制过程中各种定义会自动设置好
SAP recommends the following procedure when creating company codes:
SAP
建议你采用如下的程序来创建公司代码:
1. Create the company code using the function "Copy Company Code".
2. Enter special company code data with the function "Edit Company Code Data".
1
通过'复制公司代码'功能来创建公司代码
2
通过''编辑公司代码数据'功能来软特定的公司代码数据
You can also use the function "Edit Company Code Data" to create a company code. However, in this instance, the company code "global data" is not copied. If you create a company code using the "Copy" function, most of the "global data" is also copied.
你亦能使用'编辑公司代码数据'功能来创建一个公司代码,不过,这样的话,公司代码的全局参数不会被复制过来,但如果你通过复制功能来创建公司代码的话,大多数全局参数都是能被复制过来的
Further Notes
You should create a company code according to tax law, commercial law, and other financial accounting criteria. As a rule, a company code in the SAP system represents a legally independent company. The company code can also represent a legally d
ependent operating unit based abroad if there are external reporting requirements for this operating unit, which can also be in the relevant local currency.
进一步的说明:
你应该根据税法\商业法和其他财务会计法规来创建公司代码,SAP系统中的一条规则就是一个公司代码必须是一个法律上独立的公司.公司代码亦能代表一个法律上独立的建立在国外的营业机构,如果这个机构有对外报送财务会计报告的需要的话,这种情况下这个机构亦能使用当地的本位币
For segment reporting according to Anglo-American accounting practices, you need to represent the regions in which the company has significant dealings. This reporting data can be generated entirely on the basis of company codes.
按照英美的会计准则,为了编制分部报告,你需要划分出公司有大量交易的地区,这种分部报告的数据完全能在公司代码的基础上产生出来
For processing company codes, there are extended functions that you can access with the function call "administer" or "Copy, delete, check company code". The entry in the company code table is processed in these functions as well as all dependent Customizing and system tables in which the plant is a key.
为了处理公司代码,你可以通过'管理''复制,删除,检查公司代码'功能来执行一些特殊的扩充的功能,在这些功能中公司代码表中的录入以及相应的所有配置和以工厂作为关键字的系统表都会同时得到处理
For more information on the extended functions, see Copy/Delete/Check/Process Project IMG.
关于这样扩充功能的进一步的详细信息请参见相关部分
In addition to these functions, there is also the "Replace" function. You use this function if you want to change a company code key. This is only possible if no postings have been made in the company code that is to be replaced. You should therefore only use this function for newly-created company codes.
除了这些功能之外,还有一个'替换'功能,如果你想要改变一个公司代码的编号的话,你可以使用此替换功能,不过该功能只能在公司代码中尚未发生过帐操作的前提下使用,所以你只能对新建的公司代码使用替换功能
Activities
1. Create your company codes based on the reference (company code 0001) delivered with the standard system. SAP recommends using the function "Copy Company Code" to create your company codes.
2. Go to the activity "Edit Company Code Data" and change the name, description, address, and currency. Maintain the company code data that has not been copied.
3. Use the project IMG view to postprocess data that is changed automatically. You can also carry out postprocessing at a later stage since the system keeps the generated project view.
操作:
1
参照系统自带的0001公司代码创建一个公司代码,SAP建议你使用复制公司代码功能来创建公司代码
2
然后进入'编辑公司代码数据'功能来修改新建的公司代码的名称\描述\地址和货币信息,并维护那些没有被复制过来的公司代码数据
3
使用IMG项目视图来事后处理那些自动改变的数据,在系统保持已产生的项目视图后,你亦可以在晚些j时候进行事后处理工作

 

财务会计定义之业务区域定义
Define business area
In this section you create business areas. A area is an organizational unit within accounting that represents a separate area of operations or responsibilities in a business organization.
定义业务区域:
在该部分你将创建业务区域,一个业务区域是一个企业内代表一个单独的营业或责任区域的会计组织单元
When defining a business area, you enter a four-character alphanumeric key and the name of the business area.
定义一个业务区域时你要输入一个四位字母或阿拉伯数字的区域编号及业务区域名称
In a client , you can set up several business areas to which the system can assign the postings made in all company codes defined in this client. To ensure consistency in document entry, you should give business areas the same name in all company codes.
在一个集团中,你能同时设置几个业务区域,并能把该集团中的所有公司代码的过帐分配给这些业务区域,为了确保会计凭证分录的一致性,在所有公司代码中各个业务区域要取同样的名字
You make all other specifications for your business areas in the Financial Accounting Implementation Guide.
FAIMG中你还可以为你的业务区域定义其他的参数
Activities
If necessary, create business areas.
操作:
如有必要,请创建业务区域
Further Notes
For more information about business areas, see Financial Accounting -> The Business Area in the R/3 Library.
进一步的说明:
如想了解业务区域的更多信息,请详见R/3 library的相关部分

 

财务会计定义之定义职能部门
Define Functional Area
In this activity you create your functional areas.
定义职能部门
Example
Typical functional areas are Sales, Production, Marketing, Administration and Research & Development.
例子:
典型的职能部门如销售部,生产部,市场部,企管部和研发部
Activities
Create the functional areas you require.
操作:
如有必要可创建相应的职能部门

 

财务会计定义之维护企业合并区域
Maintain consolidation business area
In this activity you create consolidation business areas. A consolidation business area is an accounting organizational unit that represents a central business segment within a business organization and that has a balance sheet which can be included in business area consolidation.
维护企业合并区域:
在该操作中你要创建企业合并区域.一个企业合并区域是一个会计组织单元,这个单元代表一个企业的一个集中的业务领域,而且这个业务单元能产生一张包含在合并企业内的资产负债表
In the SAP system, you execute the functions for consolidating business areas based on consolidation business areas.
SAP系统中,你须基于企业合并区域来执行企业合并区域
Activities
Define consolidation business areas by assigning them 4-character IDs.
操作:
定义企业合并区域并给予四个字符的编号

 

财务会计定义之维护财务管理区
Maintain financial management area
In this step, you create your financial management (FM) areas. The financial management area is an organizational unit within accounting which structures the business organization from the perspective of Cash Budget Management and Funds Management.
在此步你要创建你的财务管理区,财务管理区是一个会计组织单元,它是从企业的现金预算管理和基金管理的角度来划分的
You define the functional characteristics of FM areas separately for both Cash Budget Management and Funds Management in the implementation guide for each of these areas.
IMG时你可以为每个财务管理区单独定义现金预算管理和基金管理的功能特性
To be able to take advantage of the high degree of integration in the SAP system, you must link the FM areas with organization units from other applications. For example: if you assign a Financial Accounting document to a Funds Management object (such as a commitment item or funds center), the system has to determine an FM area, so that it can record the data in Funds Management. For this reason, you must specify how the appropriate FM area is to be determined.
为了利用好SAP系统的高度集成性能,你须把财务管理区与其他应用的组织单元联系起来
The FM area is taken from the company code when you assign a company code to an FM area. More than one company code can be assigned to an FM area.
当你分配一个公司代码给财务管理区时,财务管理区就可取之于公司代码.一个财务管理区可以同时分配一个以上的公司代码
Standard Settings
FM area 0001 has already been installed in the standard SAP system.
标准设置:
标准的SAP系统中已预设一个编号为0001的财务管理区
Activities
Create your FM areas under a four-character key and define a name and currency for each FM area you create. The FM area currency need not be the same as the currency in any of the assigned company codes.
操作:
创建一个编号为四个字符的财务管理区,并定义好它的名称和货币,财务管理区的货币并不强求与之分配的公司代码本位币相同
In the event that you later want to change the FM area currency, bear in mind that you cannot do this after you have posted any actual data for this FM area in the feeder systems (Financial Accounting, Materials Management).
如果你以后想要改变财务管理区的货币时,请你切记:如果该财务管理区已有实际的财会或物料等系统过帐数据的话,你就做不了修改了.
You maintain the other FM area parameters, such as the fiscal year variant, later.
你在晚些时候还要为财管区维护诸如财政年度变量等其他参数
Further Notes
For the purpose of creating budgets, you can group together in a single FM area company codes with different currencies, operational charts of accounts, and fiscal years.
进一步说明:
基于创建预算之目的,你可以把具有不同的货币\营运会计科目表和财政年度的公司代码组合在一个单独的财务管理区中

 

企业结构---定义--管理会计定义
Controlling Definition
In this step you define the units for the following components:
Cost Center Accounting
Order Settlement
Profitability Analysis
在此步我们要为如下组件定义组织结构:
1
成本中心会计
2
订单结算
3
获利性分析
Organizational units relevant to only one component are defined only during the configuration of their respective modules.
只与某一个组件相关的组织结构只能在相应的模块配置时定义

 

管理会计定义之维护管理会计区域
Maintain Controlling Area
In this IMG activity you

create new controlling areas or
Copy existing ones.
Thecontrolling area is an organizational unit in Accounting used to subdivide the business organization from a cost accounting standpoint.
在此步我们创建新的管理会计区域或复制已存在的管理会计区域
管理会计区域是一个会计组织单元,它是从成本会计的角度来划分企业结构的
The controlling area is embedded in the organizational structure as follows:
管理会计区域可以以如下的方式嵌入企业结构中:
A controlling area may be assigned one or more codes.
一个管理会计区域可以分配给一个或多个公司代码
1:1 relationship
You carry out cost accounting on a cross-company code basis.
The internal and external accounting viewpoints are identical.
第一种是 一一对应关系:你可以基于跨公司代码(此处疑为笔误,应是单一公司代码)来实施成本会计,内部会计与外部会计都采用同样的视角

1:n relationship
In cross-company-code cost accounting, all data relevant to cost accounting appears in a common controlling area and is available for allocations and evaluations. The internal and external accounting goals diverge. This method is preferred when, for example, a corporation posesses several independent subsidiaries and undertakes centralized cost accounting for all.
第二种是一对多的关系:在跨公司代码的成本会计中,与成本会计相关的所有数据都出现在一个公共的管理会计区域中,以用于分配和计价,此时内部会计和外部会计的目标是相分离的,这种方法优先采用于当一个公司拥有几个独立的分支机构但又需实行集权式的成本会计管理时
If you implement the CO (Controlling) component, you must maintain basic data and control indicators in the for the controlling area. You make these settings in the Controlling IMG.
如果你要实施CO模块,那你应在管理会计区域中为之维护基本数据和控制指示器
Recommendation
We recommend that you use the controlling area "0001" supplied by SAP "0001" or that you copy this controlling area to your own controlling area and then making adjustments to suit your needs. Preliminary settings such as the definition of number ranges are already maintained for this controlling area.
建议:
我们建议你使用集团0001中的0001管理会计区域或者把它复制给你自己的管理会计区域,然后按照你自己的需要做些相应的调整即可,这个管理会计区域中的一些基本的设置,如数据范围定义,都是已经维护好了的
Activities
Copy Controlling Area "0001"
操作:
复制0001管理会计区域
1. Adapt the default settings to your country.
a) To do this, choose Enterprise Structure -> Country-Specific Settings in Customizing.
b) Choose
Change Country-Specific Settings and Country version.
1
按你所在的国家修改默认设置
a
为此请选择企业结构---特定国家设置
b
选择 改变特定国家设置和国家版本
2. Create your own controlling area with company code as a Copy of controlling area "0001" with company code "0001".
2
通过复制公司代码0001的管理会计区域0001来创建你自己的管理会计区域
3. Adjust this copy to your requirements.
a) To do so, in the dialog box, choose Maintain controlling area.
b) Select your controlling area and change the settings.
依你所需调整复制的管理会计区域
a
为此请在对话框中选择维护管理会计区域 b 选择你自己的管理会计区域并相应修改设置

Create Controlling Area
1. Choose Maintain controlling area
2. Choose New entries and enter the basic data.
3. Enter a key and a name for your company code.
4. Specify the allocation of company codes and controlling area.
5. Make the currency settings .
6. Speciy a chart of accountsfor the controlling area.
7. Enter a fiscal year variant.
创建管理会计区域:
1
选择维护管理会计区域
2
选择新录入,然后输入基本数据
3
为你的公司代码确定一个编号和名称
4
把公司代码分配给管理会计区域
5
设置好货币
6
为管理会计区域指定一个会计科目表
7
输入财政年度变量

Delete controlling area
You can delete the controlling areas supplied by SAP if you:
Create all organizational units afresh.
Have created all organizational units using the SAP delivery data.
To do so, create your own controlling area with company code as a copy of the controlling area "0001" with company code "0001".
Now delete the controlling areas you no longer require.
To delete a controlling area supplied by SAP, proceed as follows:

1. In the dialog box, choose Delete SAP Delivery Data.
2. From the list, select the controlling areas you want to delete.
3. Choose Delete.
删除管理会计区域:
在下面情形下我们可以删除SAP系统提供的管理会计区域:
一种情形是我们需要重新创建所有组织结构
另一种情形是我们已经用SAP系统提供的数据创建好了所有的组织结构(也就是说系统提供的管理会计区域已完成其使命,已无使用价值,故可以删除了)
详细删除方法()
Note on deleting SAP delivery data

Further Notes
进一步说明:
In cross-company code cost accounting, where a controlling area includes several company codes with differing currencies, assign the group currency as controlling area currency. The related company codes must all use the same operative chart of accounts.
在跨公司代码的成本会计中,当一个管理会计区域包括几个使用不同货币的公司代码时,建议管理会计区域使用集团的货币,而且相关的公司代码要使用同一个营运会计科目表

During number assignment for organizational units in the controlling area ( cost center, profit center , etc.), keep the possible addition of other company codes in mind as you work.
当你在为管理会计区域中的组织单元分配数字时(如成本中心,利润中心等),别忘了可能要加上别的公司代码
All internal allocation transactions refer only to objects belonging to the same controlling area
所有内部分配业务只能归之于属于同一管理会计区域的对象

管理会计定义之创建营运公司
Create operating concern
In this activity, you define your operating concerns. The operating concern is an organizational unit in accounting which structures aenterprise from the Profitability Analysis point of view.
在这次操作中你要定义你们的营运公司,营运公司是从企业的盈利性分析角度来划分企业结构的一种会计上的组织单元
When you create an operating concern, you only define the organizational unit itself (that is, the name and description). The master data and the functional characteristics for the operating concern are not defined until you configure the system for the "Profitability Analysis" component. You do this by choosing Controlling -> Profitability Analysis . If you create an operating concern under Structures -> Define Operating Concern, the respective name and description is entered in automatically.
当你创建一个营利公司时,你只需定义这个组织单元本身的名称和描述,它的主数据和功能特性是在我们启用盈利性分析组件后进行系统配置才定义的

 

企业结构---分配篇
Assignment
In this section you create references between the organization units you have defined.

Once you have linked the organizational units, you have built the framework for processing business transactions
在分配这一部分,你需在你所定义的组织结构之间建立关联
一旦你把这些组织结构都联接起来后,你就为日常的企业业务处理搭建起了一个框架
FI
CO中分配较简单,主要是在公司\公司代码\会计科目表\业务范围\财管区\控制区等结构之间建立关联,详细步骤略

 

系统设置之财务会计篇
Financial Accounting
This section covers the introduction of Financial Accounting

 

财务会计之全局参数设置
Financial Accounting Global Settings
In the following activities, you will make the global settings for the central objects in Financial Accounting (i.e. company code, fiscal year document etc.).

 

全局参数设置之公司代码
Company Code
You have already defined the company codes you require in the Enterprise Structure Implementation Guide. For information on this, refer to Define, Copy, Delete, Check Company Code . You must now create other structures and master records and make control specifications for each company code in Financial Accounting.
为前面建立的公司代码创建财务会计方面的结构和主数据并设置有关控制参数

VAT Registration Numbers (VAT Reg.No.)
全局参数设置之增值税注册码
欧共体国家才需要

 

来自 “ ITPUB博客 ” ,链接:http://blog.itpub.net/445851/viewspace-592036/,如需转载,请注明出处,否则将追究法律责任。

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