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Oracle 11.1.0.6 for linux X86 64的SILENT安装

原创 Linux操作系统 作者:yangtingkun 时间:2007-10-23 00:00:00 0 删除 编辑

Oracle11g64Linux版终于推出了,下载了Oracle Enterprise Linux 5 for X86 64,测试一下在上面安装64位的Oracle11.1.0.6

从来没有试过SLIENT模式下安装数据库,就拿这个版本练手了。


首先是检查系统硬件情况:

[root@enterprice64 ~]# grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo
MemTotal: 8178836 kB
[root@enterprice64 ~]# grep SwapTotal /proc/meminfo
SwapTotal: 8385888 kB
[root@enterprice64 ~]# free
total used free shared buffers cached
Mem: 8178836 5297744 2881092 0 122512 4773424
-/+ buffers/cache: 401808 7777028
Swap: 8385888 0 8385888
[root@enterprice64 ~]# df -k /dev/shm
Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on
tmpfs 4089416 0 4089416 0% /dev/shm
[root@enterprice64 ~]# df -k /tmp
Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda7 10153988 428132 9201740 5% /
[root@enterprice64 ~]# df -k /data
Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda9 207275064 3933228 192642952 3% /data

要求内存不小于1G,在内存小于2G,SWAP应该是内存的1.5倍,内存2到8G,SWAP和内存相同大小即可,内存超过8G,SWAP是内存的0.75倍。

由于11g对于共享内存要求变大,因此系统共享内存应该大于512*进程数,如果共享内存不足的话,会造成ORA-845ORA-1078错误。

要求临时表空间不少于200M,安装目录应大于4G。

下面检查系统软件情况:

[root@enterprice64 ~]# cat /proc/version
Linux version 2.6.18-8.el5 (mockbuild@ca-build14) (gcc version 4.1.1 20070105 (Red Hat 4.1.1-52)) #1 SMP Tue Jun 5 23:25:19 EDT 2007
[root@enterprice64 ~]# uname -a
Linux enterprice64 2.6.18-8.el5 #1 SMP Tue Jun 5 23:25:19 EDT 2007 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux

[root@enterprice64 ~]# more /etc/issue
Enterprise Linux Enterprise Linux Server release 5 (Carthage)
Kernel r on an m

对操作系统要求:

Asianux 2.0

Asianux 3.0

Oracle Enterprise Linux 4.0

Oracle Enterprise Linux 5.0

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.0

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.0

SUSE Enterprise Linux 10.0

系统内核为2.6.9(Asianux 2.0Oracle Enterprise Linux 4.0Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.0)2.6.18(Asianux 3.0Oracle Enterprise Linux 5.0Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.0),或2.6.16.21(SUSE Enterprise Linux 10.0)

对于ES4oracle需要一下包:

binutils-2.17.50.0.6
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3 (32 bit)
elfutils-libelf-0.125
elfutils-libelf-devel-0.125
gcc-4.1.1
gcc-c++-4.1.1
glibc-2.5-12
glibc-2.5-12 (32 bit)
glibc-common-2.5
glibc-devel-2.5
glibc-devel-2.5-12 (32 bit)
libaio-0.3.106
libaio-0.3.106 (32 bit)
libaio-devel-0.3.106
libgcc-4.1.1
libgcc-4.1.1 (32 bit)
libstdc++-4.1.1
libstdc++-4.1.1 (32 bit)
libstdc++-devel 4.1.1
make-3.81
sysstat-7.0.0

通过rpm qa查询是否所有需要的包都以及安装,如果没有安装的通过rpm ivh命令进行安装。

检查网络情况:

[root@enterprice64 ~]# cat /etc/nsswitch.conf|grep hosts
#hosts: db files nisplus nis dns
hosts: files dns
[root@enterprice64 ~]# hostname
enterprice64
[root@enterprice64 ~]# domainname
(none)
[root@enterprice64 ~]# more /etc/hosts
# Do not remove the following line, or various programs
# that require network functionality will fail.
127.0.0.1 enterprice64 localhost.localdomain localhost
172.25.13.195 enterprice64

建立Oracle用户和dba组:

[root@enterprice64 ~]# groupadd oinstall
[root@enterprice64 ~]# groupadd dba
[root@enterprice64 ~]# groupadd asadmin
[root@enterprice64 ~]# useradd -g oinstall -G dba,asadmin oracle
[root@enterprice64 ~]# passwd oracle
Changing password for user oracle.
New UNIX password:
BAD PASSWORD: it is based on a dictionary word
Retype new UNIX password:
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.
[root@enterprice64 ~]# id nobody
uid=99(nobody) gid=99(nobody) groups=99(nobody) context=root:system_r:unconfined_t:SystemLow-SystemHigh

建立oinstalldbaasadmin组。创建好用户后,检查nobody用户是否存在。不存在的话,建立该用户。

检测并修改系统的核心参数,编辑/etc/sysctl.conf文件,添加下面的配置,保存后重启系统。注意,如果系统默认的配置比这里给出的值大,不要修改原有配置。

fs.file-max = 512 * PROCESSES
kernel.shmall = 2097152
kernel.shmmax = 2147483648
kernel.shmmni = 4096
kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024 65000
net.core.rmem_default = 4194304
net.core.rmem_max = 4194304
net.core.wmem_default = 262144
net.core.wmem_max = 262144

配置oracle用户的环境变量和shell限制,编辑/etc/security/limits.conf,添加下面的内容:

oracle soft nproc 2047
oracle hard nproc 16384
oracle soft nofile 1024
oracle hard nofile 65536

编辑/etc/pam.d/login文件,添加下面的内容:

session required /lib/security/pam_limits.so
session required pam_limits.so

编辑oracle用户目录下的.bash_rc文件,添加下列环境变量:

umask 022
if [ $USER = "oracle" ]; then
if [ $SHELL = "/bin/ksh" ]; then
ulimit -p 16384
ulimit -n 65536
else
ulimit -u 16384 -n 65536
fi
fi


export TMP=/tmp
export TMPDIR=/tmp

export ORACLE_BASE=/data/oracle
export ORACLE_SID=ora11g64
export ORACLE_HOME=/data/oracle/product/11.1

最后建立安装Oracle所需的目录结构。

[root@enterprice64 ~]# mkdir -p /data/oracle/product/11.1
[root@enterprice64 ~]# chown -R oracle.oinstall /data

准备工作做完了下面开始进行Silent方式的安装。

首先设置oraInst.loc文件:

[root@enterprice64 ~]# ls -l /etc/oraInst.loc
-rw-rw-r-- 1 oracle dba 61 Oct 19 17:25 /etc/oraInst.loc
[root@enterprice64 ~]# more /etc/oraInst.loc
inventory_loc=/data/oracle/oraInventory
inst_group=oinstall

确保/etc/oraInst.loc中包含上面的信息,且Oracle包含访问权限。

根据希望安装的数据库类型选择Silentresponse_file文件的类似,比如:enterprise.rspstandard.rsp还是custom.rsp

这里选择enterpise.rsp类型,安装盘中的database/response目录下对应的response文件拷贝出来,根据文件里面的提示对输入值进行修改。

比如这个例子中对如下的参数进行设置:

UNIX_GROUP_NAME="oinstall"
FROM_LOCATION="/data/database/stage/products.xml"
ORACLE_BASE="/data/oracle"
ORACLE_HOME="/data/oracle/product/11.1"
ORACLE_HOME_NAME="ORADBHOME11"
SHOW_ROOTSH_CONFIRMATION=false
RESTART_SYSTEM=false
RESTART_REMOTE_SYSTEM=false
COMPONENT_LANGUAGES={"zh_CN"}
s_nameForDBAGrp="dba"
s_nameForOPERGrp="oinstall"
s_nameForASMGrp="asadmin"
n_configurationOption=3
s_ASMSYSPassword="asm"
s_ASMSYSPasswordAgain="asm"

注意,所有的字符串需要放在双引号中,注意大小写。数字和布尔变量直接写就可以。

由于这里没有选择建立数据库而只安装软件,因此没有设置数据库相关的配置参数。

[oracle@enterprice64 data]$ chmod 700 enterprise.rsp

下面可以开始SILENT安装了:

[oracle@enterprice64 database]$ ./runInstaller -silent -noconfig -responseFile /data/database/enterprise.rsp

注意,响应文件需要使用绝对路径。

[oracle@enterprice64 database]$ ./runInstaller -silent -noconfig -responseFile /data/database/enterprise.rsp
Starting Oracle Universal Installer...

Checking Temp space: must be greater than 120 MB. Actual 8886 MB Passed
Checking swap space: must be greater than 150 MB. Actual 8189 MB Passed
Preparing to launch Oracle Universal Installer from /tmp/OraInstall2007-10-19_06-40-04PM. Please wait ...[oracle@enterprice64 database]$ Oracle Universal Installer, Version 11.1.0.6.0 Production
Copyright (C) 1999, 2007, Oracle. All rights reserved.

You can find the log of this install session at:
/data/oracle/oraInventory/logs/installActions2007-10-19_06-40-04PM.log
.................................................................................................... 100% Done.


Loading Product Information
................................................................................................................ 100% Done.


Starting execution of Prerequisites...
Total No of checks: 14

Performing check for CertifiedVersions
Checking operating system requirements ...
Expected result: One of enterprise-4,enterprise-5,redhat-4,redhat-5,SuSE-10,asianux-2,asianux-3
Actual Result: enterprise-5
Check complete. The overall result of this check is: Passed


Check complete: Passed
========================================================
Performing check for Packages
Checking operating system package requirements ...
Checking for make-3.81; found make-1:3.81-1.1-x86_64. Passed
Checking for binutils-2.17.50.0.6; found binutils-2.17.50.0.6-2.el5-x86_64. Passed
Checking for gcc-4.1.1; found gcc-4.1.1-52.el5-x86_64. Passed
.
.
.
Check complete. The overall result of this check is: Passed


Check complete: Passed
========================================================
Performing check for Kernel
Checking kernel parameters
Checking for semmsl=250; found semmsl=250. Passed
.
.
.
Checking for wmem_max=262144; found wmem_max=262144. Passed
Check complete. The overall result of this check is: Passed


Check complete: Passed
========================================================
Performing check for GLIBC
Checking Recommended glibc version
Expected result: ATLEAST=2.5-12
Actual Result: 2.5-12
Check complete. The overall result of this check is: Passed


Check complete: Passed
========================================================
Performing check for TotalMemory
Checking physical memory requirements ...
Expected result: 922MB
Actual Result: 7984MB
Check complete. The overall result of this check is: Passed


Check complete: Passed
========================================================
Performing check for SwapSpace
Checking available swap space requirements ...
Expected result: 7984MB
Actual Result: 8189MB
Check complete. The overall result of this check is: Passed


Check complete: Passed
========================================================
Performing check for DetectIfDHCPAssignedIP
Checking Network Configuration requirements ...
Check complete. The overall result of this check is: Not executed <<<<


Check complete: Not executed <<<<
Recommendation: Oracle supports installations on systems with DHCP-assigned public IP addresses. However, the primary network interface on the system should be configured with a static IP address in order for the Oracle Software to function properly. See the Installation Guide for more details on installing the software on systems configured with DHCP.

========================================================
Performing check for CheckPathForOtherOracleHomes
Checking PATH environment variable...
Check complete. The overall result of this check is: Passed


Check complete: Passed
========================================================
Performing check for CheckTempDiskSpace
Checking for sufficient diskspace in TEMP location...
Check complete. The overall result of this check is: Passed


Check complete: Passed
========================================================
Performing check for CheckLdLibraryPath
Checking LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable...
Check complete. The overall result of this check is: Passed


Check complete: Passed
========================================================
Performing check for OracleBase
Validating ORACLE_BASE location (if set) ...
Check complete. The overall result of this check is: Passed


Check complete: Passed
========================================================
Performing check for OracleHomeSpace
Checking Oracle Home path for spaces...
Check complete. The overall result of this check is: Passed


Check complete: Passed
========================================================
Performing check for DetectAnyInvalidASMHome
Checking for proper system clean-up....
Check complete. The overall result of this check is: Passed


Check complete: Passed
========================================================
Performing check for CompatibilityChecks_DB
Checking for Oracle Home incompatibilities ....
Actual Result: NEW_HOME
Check complete. The overall result of this check is: Passed


Check complete: Passed
========================================================
PrereqChecks complete


Analyzing dependencies
..................................................................................................... 100% Done.


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Summary
Global Settings
Source: /data/database/stage/products.xml
Oracle Base: /data/oracle
Oracle Home: /data/oracle/product/11.1 (ORADBHOME11)
Installation Type: Enterprise Edition
Product Languages
Simplified Chinese
English
Space Requirements
/ Required 226MB (only as temporary space) : Available 8.56GB
/data/ Required 3.63GB : Available 181.86GB
New Installations (126 products)
Oracle Database 11g 11.1.0.6.0
Enterprise Edition Options 11.1.0.6.0
Oracle Partitioning 11.1.0.6.0
.
.
.
Oracle Universal Installer 11.1.0.6.0
Oracle One-Off Patch Installer 11.1.0.6.0
Installer SDK Component 11.1.0.6.0
Sun JDK 1.5.0.11.0
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------


Installation in progress (Fri Oct 19 18:40:20 CST 2007)
............................................................... 6% Done.
............................................................... 12% Done.
............................................................... 19% Done.
............................................................... 25% Done.
............................................................... 31% Done.
............................................................... 38% Done.
............................................................... 44% Done.
............................................................... 50% Done.
............................................................... 57% Done.
............................................................... 63% Done.
............................................................... 69% Done.
............................................................... 76% Done.
................................................. 81% Done.
Install successful

Linking in progress (Fri Oct 19 18:42:27 CST 2007)
.. 81% Done.
Link successful

Setup in progress (Fri Oct 19 18:43:33 CST 2007)
................................... 100% Done.
Setup successful

End of install phases.(Fri Oct 19 18:43:36 CST 2007)
WARNING:
The following configuration scripts need to be executed as the "root" user.
#!/bin/sh
#Root script to run
/data/oracle/product/11.1/root.sh
To execute the configuration scripts:
1. Open a terminal window
2. Log in as "root"
3. Run the scripts

The installation of Oracle Database 11g was successful.
Please check '/data/oracle/oraInventory/logs/silentInstall2007-10-19_06-40-04PM.log' for more details.

最后使用root执行一下$ORACLE_HOME/root.sh脚本就可以了。

不过这里Oracle存在一个bug,在root.sh脚本中,自动将OUI_SILENT参数设置为TRUE,而后的检查中,如果发现这个值为TRUE,那么这个脚本运行会自动退出了。这里需要手工将其修改为FALSE,然后使用root执行:

[root@enterprice64 11.1]# ./root.sh
Running Oracle 11g root.sh script...

The following environment variables are set as:
ORACLE_OWNER= oracle
ORACLE_HOME= /data/oracle/product/11.1

Enter the full pathname of the local bin directory: [/usr/local/bin]:
The file "dbhome" already exists in /usr/local/bin. Overwrite it? (y/n)
[n]: y
Copying dbhome to /usr/local/bin ...
The file "oraenv" already exists in /usr/local/bin. Overwrite it? (y/n)
[n]: y
Copying oraenv to /usr/local/bin ...
The file "coraenv" already exists in /usr/local/bin. Overwrite it? (y/n)
[n]: y
Copying coraenv to /usr/local/bin ...

Entries will be added to the /etc/oratab file as needed by
Database Configuration Assistant when a database is created
Finished running generic part of root.sh script.
Now product-specific root actions will be performed.
Finished product-specific root actions.

对于root.sh的执行不要使用. root.sh的方式,这种方式可能造成脚本陷入死循环。

至此,数据库软件的安装已经完成,如果系统启动了SELINUX,那么这里还需要处理一个bug

利用root改变SELINUX的设置:

[root@enterprice64 ~]# setenforce 0

至此,Oracle软件已经安装完毕:

[oracle@enterprice64 ~]$ sqlplus "/ as sysdba"

SQL*Plus: Release 11.1.0.6.0 - Production on Mon Oct 22 14:07:28 2007

Copyright (c) 1982, 2007, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Connected to an idle instance.

SQL>

关于这个bug的详细描述,可以参考:http://yangtingkun.itpub.net/post/468/407258

来自 “ ITPUB博客 ” ,链接:http://blog.itpub.net/4227/viewspace-69473/,如需转载,请注明出处,否则将追究法律责任。

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