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oracle dba 常用sql

原创 Oracle 作者:m77m78 时间:2004-08-25 09:59:07 0 删除 编辑

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1.查询系统中不能自动扩展(即无足够空间)的对象

select a.owner||'.'||a.segment_name,

a.segment_type ,

a.bytes/1024/1024 ,

a.next_extent/1024/1024 ,

a.tablespace_name

from sys.dba_segments a

where a. next_extent * 3 > (

select max(b.bytes)

from dba_free_space b

where a.tablespace_name = b.tablespace_name)

order by 3 desc

select bytes/1024/1024,TABLESPACE_NAME from dba_free_space where tablespace_name='MES_USER' ORDER BY BYTES DESC

***********************************************************************************************

[@more@]

***********************************************************************************************

1.查询系统中不能自动扩展(即无足够空间)的对象

select a.owner||'.'||a.segment_name,

a.segment_type ,

a.bytes/1024/1024 ,

a.next_extent/1024/1024 ,

a.tablespace_name

from sys.dba_segments a

where a. next_extent * 3 > (

select max(b.bytes)

from dba_free_space b

where a.tablespace_name = b.tablespace_name)

order by 3 desc

select bytes/1024/1024,TABLESPACE_NAME from dba_free_space where tablespace_name='MES_USER' ORDER BY BYTES DESC

***********************************************************************************************

*************查询当前运行的sql****************************

select a.username,a.machine,a.program,b.spid,c.sql_text from v$session a,v$process b,v$sqlarea c

where a.paddr=b.addr and c.hash_value=a.sql_hash_value and c.address=a.sql_address and b.spid=

***********************************************************************************************

*************查询当前运行的程序****************************

select a.username,a.machine,a.program,b.spid,a.serial#,a.sid from v$session a,v$process b

where a.paddr=b.addr and b.spid in ()

select a.username,a.machine,a.program,b.spid,a.serial#,a.sid from v$session a,v$process b

where a.paddr=b.addr and a.sid in ()

***********************************************************************************************

*************查看数据库中对象空间是否成几何增长***************

select * from dba_segments where pct_increase='50' and owner not in ('SYS','SYSTEM')

***********************************************************************************************

*************查看当前用户使用的操作****************************

SELECT a.machine,a.terminal,a.osuser, a.username, b.sql_text

from v$session a, v$sqlarea b

where a.sql_address =b.address order by b.address

***********************************************************************************************

*************监控事例的等待****************************

select event,sum(decode(wait_Time,0,0,1)) "Prev",

sum(decode(wait_Time,0,1,0)) "Curr",count(*) "Tot"

from v$session_Wait

group by event order by 4;

***********************************************************************************************

2. 回滚段的使用情况

select name, waits, gets, waits/gets "Ratio"

from v$rollstat a, v$rollname b

where a.usn = b.usn;

***********************************************************************************************

3. 监控表空间的 I/O 比例

select df.tablespace_name name,df.file_name "file",f.phyrds pyr,

f.phyblkrd pbr,f.phywrts pyw, f.phyblkwrt pbw

from v$filestat f, dba_data_files df

where f.file# = df.file_id

order by df.tablespace_name;

***********************************************************************************************

4. 监控文件系统的 I/O 比例

select substr(a.file#,1,2) "#", substr(a.name,1,30) "Name",

a.status, a.bytes, b.phyrds, b.phywrts

from v$datafile a, v$filestat b

where a.file# = b.file#;

***********************************************************************************************

5.在某个用户下找所有的索引

select user_indexes.table_name, user_indexes.index_name,uniqueness, column_name

from user_ind_columns, user_indexes

where user_ind_columns.index_name = user_indexes.index_name

and user_ind_columns.table_name = user_indexes.table_name

order by user_indexes.table_type, user_indexes.table_name,

user_indexes.index_name, column_position;

***********************************************************************************************

6. 监控 SGA 的命中率

select a.value + b.value "logical_reads", c.value "phys_reads",

round(100 * ((a.value+b.value)-c.value) / (a.value+b.value)) "BUFFER HIT RATIO"

from v$sysstat a, v$sysstat b, v$sysstat c

where a.statistic# = 38 and b.statistic# = 39

and c.statistic# = 40;

***********************************************************************************************

7. 监控 SGA 中字典缓冲区的命中率

select parameter, gets,Getmisses , getmisses/(gets+getmisses)*100 "miss ratio",

(1-(sum(getmisses)/ (sum(gets)+sum(getmisses))))*100 "Hit ratio"

from v$rowcache

where gets+getmisses <>0

group by parameter, gets, getmisses;

***********************************************************************************************

8. 监控 SGA 中共享缓存区的命中率,应该小于1%

select sum(pins) "Total Pins", sum(reloads) "Total Reloads",

sum(reloads)/sum(pins) *100 libcache

from v$librarycache;

select sum(pinhits-reloads)/sum(pins) "hit radio",sum(reloads)/sum(pins) "reload percent"

from v$librarycache;

***********************************************************************************************

9. 显示所有数据库对象的类别和大小

select count(name) num_instances ,type ,sum(source_size) source_size ,

sum(parsed_size) parsed_size ,sum(code_size) code_size ,sum(error_size) error_size,

sum(source_size) +sum(parsed_size) +sum(code_size) +sum(error_size) size_required

from dba_object_size

group by type order by 2;

***********************************************************************************************

10. 监控 SGA 中重做日志缓存区的命中率,应该小于1%

SELECT name, gets, misses, immediate_gets, immediate_misses,

Decode(gets,0,0,misses/gets*100) ratio1,

Decode(immediate_gets+immediate_misses,0,0,

immediate_misses/(immediate_gets+immediate_misses)*100) ratio2

FROM v$latch WHERE name IN ('redo allocation', 'redo copy');

***********************************************************************************************

11. 监控内存和硬盘的排序比率,最好使它小于 .10,增加 sort_area_size

SELECT name, value FROM v$sysstat WHERE name IN ('sorts (memory)', 'sorts (disk)');

***********************************************************************************************

12. 监控当前数据库谁在运行什么SQL语句

SELECT osuser, username, sql_text from v$session a, v$sqltext b

where a.sql_address =b.address order by address, piece;

***********************************************************************************************

13. 监控字典缓冲区

SELECT (SUM(PINS - RELOADS)) / SUM(PINS) "LIB CACHE" FROM V$LIBRARYCACHE;

SELECT (SUM(GETS - GETMISSES - USAGE - FIXED)) / SUM(GETS) "ROW CACHE" FROM V$ROWCACHE;

SELECT SUM(PINS) "EXECUTIONS", SUM(RELOADS) "CACHE MISSES WHILE EXECUTING" FROM V$LIBRARYCACHE;

后者除以前者,此比率小于1%,接近0%为好。

SELECT SUM(GETS) "DICTIONARY GETS",SUM(GETMISSES) "DICTIONARY CACHE GET MISSES"

FROM V$ROWCACHE

***********************************************************************************************

14. ORACLE字符集

select * from sys.props$ where name='NLS_CHARACTERSET';

***********************************************************************************************

15. 监控 MTS

select busy/(busy+idle) "shared servers busy" from v$dispatcher;

此值大于0.5时,参数需加大

select sum(wait)/sum(totalq) "dispatcher waits" from v$queue where type='dispatcher';

select count(*) from v$dispatcher;

select servers_highwater from v$mts;

servers_highwater接近mts_max_servers时,参数需加大

***********************************************************************************************

16. 碎片程度

SELECT TABLESPACE_NAME,PERCENT_EXTENTS_COALESCED FROM DBA_FREE_SPACE_COALESCED

select tablespace_name,count(tablespace_name) from dba_free_space group by tablespace_name

having count(tablespace_name)>10;

alter tablespace name coalesce;

alter table name deallocate unused;

create or replace view ts_blocks_v as

select tablespace_name,block_id,bytes,blocks,'free space' segment_name from dba_free_space

union all

select tablespace_name,block_id,bytes,blocks,segment_name from dba_extents;

select * from ts_blocks_v;

select tablespace_name,sum(bytes),max(bytes),count(block_id) from dba_free_space

group by tablespace_name;

***********************************************************************************************

查看碎片程度高的表

SELECT segment_name table_name , COUNT(*) extents

FROM dba_segments WHERE owner NOT IN ('SYS', 'SYSTEM') GROUP BY segment_name

HAVING COUNT(*) = (SELECT MAX( COUNT(*) ) FROM dba_segments GROUP BY segment_name);

***********************************************************************************************

17. 表、索引的存储情况检查

select segment_name,sum(bytes),count(*) ext_quan from dba_extents where

tablespace_name='&tablespace_name' and segment_type='TABLE' group by tablespace_name,segment_name;

select segment_name,count(*) from dba_extents where segment_type='INDEX' and owner='&owner'

group by segment_name;

***********************************************************************************************

18、找使用CPU多的用户session

12cpu used by this session

select a.sid,spid,status,substr(a.program,1,40) prog,a.terminal,osuser,value/60/100 value

from v$session a,v$process b,v$sesstat c

where c.statistic#=12 and c.sid=a.sid and a.paddr=b.addr order by value desc;

***********************************************************************************************

19、查看Lock

SELECT sn.username, m.sid, m.type,

DECODE(m.lmode, 0, 'None',

1, 'Null',

2, 'Row Share',

3, 'Row Excl.',

4, 'Share',

5, 'S/Row Excl.',

6, 'Exclusive',

lmode, ltrim(to_char(lmode,'990'))) lmode,

DECODE(m.request,0, 'None',

1, 'Null',

2, 'Row Share',

3, 'Row Excl.',

4, 'Share',

5, 'S/Row Excl.',

6, 'Exclusive',

request, ltrim(to_char(m.request,

'990'))) request,

m.id1, m.id2

FROM v$session sn, v$lock m

WHERE (sn.sid = m.sid AND m.request != 0)

OR (sn.sid = m.sid

AND m.request = 0 AND lmode != 4

AND (id1, id2) IN (SELECT s.id1, s.id2

FROM v$lock s

WHERE request != 0

AND s.id1 = m.id1

AND s.id2 = m.id2)

)

ORDER BY id1, id2, m.request;

select l.sid,s.serial#,s.username,s.terminal,

decode(l.type,'RW','RW - Row Wait Enqueue',

'TM','TM - DML Enqueue',

'TX','TX - Trans Enqueue',

'UL','UL - User',l.type||'System') res,

substr(t.name,1,10) tab,u.name owner,

l.id1,l.id2,

decode(l.lmode,1,'No Lock',

2,'Row Share',

3,'Row Exclusive',

4,'Share',

5,'Shr Row Excl',

6,'Exclusive',null) lmode,

decode(l.request,1,'No Lock',

2,'Row Share',

3,'Row Excl',

4,'Share',

5,'Shr Row Excl',

6,'Exclusive',null) request

from v$lock l, v$session s,

sys.user$ u,sys.obj$ t

where l.sid = s.sid

and s.type != 'BACKGROUND'

and t.obj# = l.id1

and u.user# = t.owner#

***********************************************************************************************

20、显示表空间的使用情况:

col tsname format a16 justify c heading 'Tablespace'

col nfrags format 999,990 justify c heading 'Free|Frags'

col mxfrag format 999,999,990 justify c heading 'Largest|Frag (KB)'

col totsiz format 999,999,990 justify c heading 'Total|(KB)'

col avasiz format 999,999,990 justify c heading 'Available|(KB)'

col pctusd format 990 justify c heading 'Pct|Used'

select

total.tablespace_name tsname,

count(free.bytes) nfrags,

nvl(max(free.bytes)/1024,0) mxfrag,

total.bytes/1024 totsiz,

nvl(sum(free.bytes)/1024,0) avasiz,

(1-nvl(sum(free.bytes),0)/total.bytes)*100 pctusd

from

dba_data_files total,

dba_free_space free

where

total.tablespace_name = free.tablespace_name(+)

group by

total.tablespace_name,

total.bytes;

***********************************************************************************************

21.

ORACLE逻辑备份的SH文件

完全备份的SH文件:exp_comp.sh

rq=` date +"%m%d" `

su - oracle -c "exp system/manager full=y inctype=complete file=/oracle/export/db_comp$rq.dmp"

累计备份的SH文件:exp_cumu.sh

rq=` date +"%m%d" `

su - oracle -c "exp system/manager full=y inctype=cumulative file=/oracle/export/db_cumu$rq.dmp"

增量备份的SH文件: exp_incr.sh

rq=` date +"%m%d" `

su - oracle -c "exp system/manager full=y inctype=incremental file=/oracle/export/db_incr$rq.dmp"

root用户crontab

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