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在 Windows 窗体 DataGridView 控件中实现实时数据加载的虚拟模式

原创 Linux操作系统 作者:phield 时间:2011-08-29 08:39:33 0 删除 编辑

下面的代码示例演示如何对于仅在需要时才从服务器加载数据的数据缓存在 DataGridView 控件中使用虚拟模式。在 Windows 窗体 DataGridView 控件中实现实时数据加载的虚拟模式 中对此示例进行了详细描述。

using System;
using System.Data;
using System.Data.SqlClient;
using System.Drawing;
using System.Windows.Forms;

public class VirtualJustInTimeDemo : System.Windows.Forms.Form
{
    private DataGridView dataGridView1 = new DataGridView();
    private Cache memoryCache;

    // Specify a connection string. Replace the given value with a
    // valid connection string for a Northwind SQL Server sample
    // database accessible to your system.
    private string connectionString =
        "Initial Catalog=NorthWind;Data Source=localhost;" +
        "Integrated Security=SSPI;Persist Security Info=False";
    private string table = "Orders";

    protected override void OnLoad(EventArgs e)
    {
        // Initialize the form.
        this.AutoSize = true;
        this.Controls.Add(this.dataGridView1);
        this.Text = "DataGridView virtual-mode just-in-time demo";

        // Complete the initialization of the DataGridView.
        this.dataGridView1.Size = new Size(800, 250);
        this.dataGridView1.Dock = DockStyle.Fill;
        this.dataGridView1.VirtualMode = true;
        this.dataGridView1.ReadOnly = true;
        this.dataGridView1.AllowUserToAddRows = false;
        this.dataGridView1.AllowUserToOrderColumns = false;
        this.dataGridView1.SelectionMode =
            DataGridViewSelectionMode.FullRowSelect;
        this.dataGridView1.CellValueNeeded += new
            DataGridViewCellValueEventHandler(dataGridView1_CellValueNeeded);

        // Create a DataRetriever and use it to create a Cache object
        // and to initialize the DataGridView columns and rows.
        try
        {
            DataRetriever retriever =
                new DataRetriever(connectionString, table);
            memoryCache = new Cache(retriever, 16);
            foreach (DataColumn column in retriever.Columns)
            {
                dataGridView1.Columns.Add(
                    column.ColumnName, column.ColumnName);
            }
            this.dataGridView1.RowCount = retriever.RowCount;
        }
        catch (SqlException)
        {
            MessageBox.Show("Connection could not be established. " +
                "Verify that the connection string is valid.");
            Application.Exit();
        }

        // Adjust the column widths based on the displayed values.
        this.dataGridView1.AutoResizeColumns(
            DataGridViewAutoSizeColumnsMode.DisplayedCells);

        base.OnLoad(e);
    }

    private void dataGridView1_CellValueNeeded(object sender,
        DataGridViewCellValueEventArgs e)
    {
        e.Value = memoryCache.RetrieveElement(e.RowIndex, e.ColumnIndex);
    }

    [STAThreadAttribute()]
    public static void Main()
    {
        Application.Run(new VirtualJustInTimeDemo());
    }

}

public interface IDataPageRetriever
{
    DataTable SupplyPageOfData(int lowerPageBoundary, int rowsPerPage);
}

public class DataRetriever : IDataPageRetriever
{
    private string tableName;
    private SqlCommand command;

    public DataRetriever(string connectionString, string tableName)
    {
        SqlConnection connection = new SqlConnection(connectionString);
        connection.Open();
        command = connection.CreateCommand();
        this.tableName = tableName;
    }

    private int rowCountValue = -1;

    public int RowCount
    {
        get
        {
            // Return the existing value if it has already been determined.
            if (rowCountValue != -1)
            {
                return rowCountValue;
            }

            // Retrieve the row count from the database.
            command.CommandText = "SELECT COUNT(*) FROM " + tableName;
            rowCountValue = (int)command.ExecuteScalar();
            return rowCountValue;
        }
    }

    private DataColumnCollection columnsValue;

    public DataColumnCollection Columns
    {
        get
        {
            // Return the existing value if it has already been determined.
            if (columnsValue != null)
            {
                return columnsValue;
            }

            // Retrieve the column information from the database.
            command.CommandText = "SELECT * FROM " + tableName;
            SqlDataAdapter adapter = new SqlDataAdapter();
            adapter.SelectCommand = command;
            DataTable table = new DataTable();
            table.Locale = System.Globalization.CultureInfo.InvariantCulture;
            adapter.FillSchema(table, SchemaType.Source);
            columnsValue = table.Columns;
            return columnsValue;
        }
    }

    private string commaSeparatedListOfColumnNamesValue = null;

    private string CommaSeparatedListOfColumnNames
    {
        get
        {
            // Return the existing value if it has already been determined.
            if (commaSeparatedListOfColumnNamesValue != null)
            {
                return commaSeparatedListOfColumnNamesValue;
            }

            // Store a list of column names for use in the
            // SupplyPageOfData method.
            System.Text.StringBuilder commaSeparatedColumnNames =
                new System.Text.StringBuilder();
            bool firstColumn = true;
            foreach (DataColumn column in Columns)
            {
                if (!firstColumn)
                {
                    commaSeparatedColumnNames.Append(", ");
                }
                commaSeparatedColumnNames.Append(column.ColumnName);
                firstColumn = false;
            }

            commaSeparatedListOfColumnNamesValue =
                commaSeparatedColumnNames.ToString();
            return commaSeparatedListOfColumnNamesValue;
        }
    }

    // Declare variables to be reused by the SupplyPageOfData method.
    private string columnToSortBy;
    private SqlDataAdapter adapter = new SqlDataAdapter();

    public DataTable SupplyPageOfData(int lowerPageBoundary, int rowsPerPage)
    {
        // Store the name of the ID column. This column must contain unique
        // values so the SQL below will work properly.
        if (columnToSortBy == null)
        {
            columnToSortBy = this.Columns[0].ColumnName;
        }

        if (!this.Columns[columnToSortBy].Unique)
        {
            throw new InvalidOperationException(String.Format(
                "Column {0} must contain unique values.", columnToSortBy));
        }

        // Retrieve the specified number of rows from the database, starting
        // with the row specified by the lowerPageBoundary parameter.
        command.CommandText = "Select Top " + rowsPerPage + " " +
            CommaSeparatedListOfColumnNames + " From " + tableName +
            " WHERE " + columnToSortBy + " NOT IN (SELECT TOP " +
            lowerPageBoundary + " " + columnToSortBy + " From " +
            tableName + " Order By " + columnToSortBy +
            ") Order By " + columnToSortBy;
        adapter.SelectCommand = command;

        DataTable table = new DataTable();
        table.Locale = System.Globalization.CultureInfo.InvariantCulture;
        adapter.Fill(table);
        return table;
    }

}

public class Cache
{
    private static int RowsPerPage;

    // Represents one page of data.
    public struct DataPage
    {
        public DataTable table;
        private int lowestIndexValue;
        private int highestIndexValue;

        public DataPage(DataTable table, int rowIndex)
        {
            this.table = table;
            lowestIndexValue = MapToLowerBoundary(rowIndex);
            highestIndexValue = MapToUpperBoundary(rowIndex);
            System.Diagnostics.Debug.Assert(lowestIndexValue >= 0);
            System.Diagnostics.Debug.Assert(highestIndexValue >= 0);
        }

        public int LowestIndex
        {
            get
            {
                return lowestIndexValue;
            }
        }

        public int HighestIndex
        {
            get
            {
                return highestIndexValue;
            }
        }

        public static int MapToLowerBoundary(int rowIndex)
        {
            // Return the lowest index of a page containing the given index.
            return (rowIndex / RowsPerPage) * RowsPerPage;
        }

        private static int MapToUpperBoundary(int rowIndex)
        {
            // Return the highest index of a page containing the given index.
            return MapToLowerBoundary(rowIndex) + RowsPerPage - 1;
        }
    }

    private DataPage[] cachePages;
    private IDataPageRetriever dataSupply;

    public Cache(IDataPageRetriever dataSupplier, int rowsPerPage)
    {
        dataSupply = dataSupplier;
        Cache.RowsPerPage = rowsPerPage;
        LoadFirstTwoPages();
    }

    // Sets the value of the element parameter if the value is in the cache.
    private bool IfPageCached_ThenSetElement(int rowIndex,
        int columnIndex, ref string element)
    {
        if (IsRowCachedInPage(0, rowIndex))
        {
            element = cachePages[0].table
                .Rows[rowIndex % RowsPerPage][columnIndex].ToString();
            return true;
        }
        else if (IsRowCachedInPage(1, rowIndex))
        {
            element = cachePages[1].table
                .Rows[rowIndex % RowsPerPage][columnIndex].ToString();
            return true;
        }

        return false;
    }

    public string RetrieveElement(int rowIndex, int columnIndex)
    {
        string element = null;

        if (IfPageCached_ThenSetElement(rowIndex, columnIndex, ref element))
        {
            return element;
        }
        else
        {
            return RetrieveData_CacheIt_ThenReturnElement(
                rowIndex, columnIndex);
        }
    }

    private void LoadFirstTwoPages()
    {
        cachePages = new DataPage[]{
            new DataPage(dataSupply.SupplyPageOfData(
                DataPage.MapToLowerBoundary(0), RowsPerPage), 0),
            new DataPage(dataSupply.SupplyPageOfData(
                DataPage.MapToLowerBoundary(RowsPerPage),
                RowsPerPage), RowsPerPage)};
    }

    private string RetrieveData_CacheIt_ThenReturnElement(
        int rowIndex, int columnIndex)
    {
        // Retrieve a page worth of data containing the requested value.
        DataTable table = dataSupply.SupplyPageOfData(
            DataPage.MapToLowerBoundary(rowIndex), RowsPerPage);

        // Replace the cached page furthest from the requested cell
        // with a new page containing the newly retrieved data.
        cachePages[GetIndexToUnusedPage(rowIndex)] = new DataPage(table, rowIndex);

        return RetrieveElement(rowIndex, columnIndex);
    }

    // Returns the index of the cached page most distant from the given index
    // and therefore least likely to be reused.
    private int GetIndexToUnusedPage(int rowIndex)
    {
        if (rowIndex > cachePages[0].HighestIndex &&
            rowIndex > cachePages[1].HighestIndex)
        {
            int offsetFromPage0 = rowIndex - cachePages[0].HighestIndex;
            int offsetFromPage1 = rowIndex - cachePages[1].HighestIndex;
            if (offsetFromPage0 < offsetFromPage1)
            {
                return 1;
            }
            return 0;
        }
        else
        {
            int offsetFromPage0 = cachePages[0].LowestIndex - rowIndex;
            int offsetFromPage1 = cachePages[1].LowestIndex - rowIndex;
            if (offsetFromPage0 < offsetFromPage1)
            {
                return 1;
            }
            return 0;
        }

    }

    // Returns a value indicating whether the given row index is contained
    // in the given DataPage.
    private bool IsRowCachedInPage(int pageNumber, int rowIndex)
    {
        return rowIndex <= cachePages[pageNumber].HighestIndex &&
            rowIndex >= cachePages[pageNumber].LowestIndex;
    }

}

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