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Linux系统文件系统及文件基础篇

原创 Linux操作系统 作者:学习Linux123456 时间:2019-07-11 20:55:06 0 删除 编辑

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学习 Linux 重难点 在于掌握不同类别的文件系统及其作用 。通过 Linux 系统的安装,我们首先来了解下 Linux 系统里各个目录文件夹下的大致功能 主要的目录树的有 / /root /home /usr /bin 等目录。下面是一个典型的 linux 目录结构 如下

 

        / 根目录  
        /bin 存放必要的命令  
        /boot 存放内核以及启动所需的文件
        /dev  存放设备文件  
        /etc 存放系统配置文件  
        /home 普通用户的宿主目录,用户数据存放在其主目录中  
        /lib 存放必要的运行库  
        /mnt 存放临时的映射文件系统,通常用来挂载使用。
        /proc 存放存储进程和系统信息  
        /root 超级用户的主目录  
        /sbin 存放系统管理程序  
        /tmp 存放临时文件
        /usr 存放应用程序,命令程序文件、程序库、手册和其它文档。  
        /var 系统默认日志存放目

 

         linux 系统的目录结构有一个大致的认识之后, 接下来 我们从 Linux 操作 系统 必备 命令 、文件 管理、系统管理、用户管理 四个 方面 linux 文件系统 进行 进一步 认识 和学习。

1.1  Linux 操作 系统 必备 命令

1.1.1  别名

a lias   显示 当前设置的所有别名

alias   name 只显示某个别名代表的含 义;

unalias   取消 命令别名

 

1.1.2  S hell 特殊 字符

(1)  通配符

* :通配 或多个字符

?: 通配 任意 单个字符

[ s ] :通配某个 范围内的任意一个字符

(2)  一行执行 多条 命令

(3)  输入 输出 重定向

> 表示追加并覆盖的意

>> 表示追加

< 表示 输入

(4)  管道符

|   表示前一个 命令的输出作为后一个命令的输入

 

 

1.1.3  联机 帮助

        man 命令   可以 查看 linux 中的命令帮助、配置文件帮助、 编程 帮助等信息

 

1.1.4  清屏 与历史 记录 命令

clear 清屏

history 查看 历史命令

history   !n   执行 使用的第 n 命令

 

 

1.2  文件管理

1.2.1  查看目录文件

p wd    显示 工作路径

cd   切换 工作目录

ls   查看目录 中的文件

file 显示 文件类型

 

1.2.2  创建和删除目录文件

t ouch    创建 文件

mkdir   创建 目录

rm   [-i/f]  filename   删除 名叫 filename 的文件

rmdir   dir   删除 名叫 dir 的目录

 

1.2.3  链接文件

链接 文件主要是为了解决数据共享问题 常用命令如下:

ln  [-s/-p]   source-file   target-file   创建一个指向文件或目录的软链 或硬链接

其中 -s 软连接

              -p 硬链接

 

1.2.4  显示文本内容

cat file1 从第一个字节开始正向查看文件的内容  
more file1 查看一个长文件的内容  

head   [-n]   filename   查看 文件名为 filename 的前 n

tail    [-n]   filename    查看 文件名为 filename 的后 n

 

1.2.5  拷贝和移动文件目录

cp  [-i]  source-file  target-file   拷贝 文件

cp  [-r]  source-file  target-file   拷贝目录

mv  [-i]  source-file  target-file   移动 文件

 

1.2.6  文件 目录权限

文件的权限     使用 "+" 设置权限,使用 "-" 用于取消

权限 代表 r ( ) w( ) x( 执行 )

属性 代表: 用户 (u) 、群组 (g) a( 所有人 ) 以及其他人 (o)

 

1.2.7  修改目录权限

chmod  ugo+rwx dir1 设置目录的所有 用户 (u) 、群组 (g) 以及其他人 (o) 以读( r )、写 (w) 和执行 (x) 的权限  
chmod  go-rwx ectory1 删除群组 (g) 与其他人 (o) 对目录的读写执行权限  

chown user1 file1 改变一个文件的所有人属性

chown user1:group1 file1 改变一个文件的所有人和群组属性  
chown -R user1 directory1 改变一个目录的所有人属性并同时改变改目录下所有文件的属性  
chgrp  group1 file1 改变文件的群组  

1.2.8  查找文件

find / -name file1 '/' 开始进入根文件系统搜索文件和目录  
find / -user user1 搜索属于用户 'user1' 的文件和目录  
find /home/user1 -name \*.bin 在目录 '/ home/user1' 中搜索带有 '.bin' 结尾的文件  
find /usr/bin -type f -atime +100 搜索在过去 100 天内未被使用过的执行文件  
find /usr/bin -type f -mtime -10 搜索在 10 天内被创建或者修改过的文件  
find / -name \*.rpm -exec chmod 755 '{}' \; 搜索以 '.rpm' 结尾的文件并定义其权限  
find / -xdev -name \*.rpm 搜索以 '.rpm' 结尾的文件,忽略光驱、捷盘等可移动设备  

 

1.2.9  过滤与统计

g rep     [option(s)]  string  filename 过滤 文件名为 filename 的字符串

wc   [option(s)]   filename    统计

 

1.3  系统 管理

1.3.1  时间 和进程查看

date 显示系统日期  
cal 2007    显示 2007 年的日历表  

ps   查看 进程

 

1.3.2  切换 用户

su 是切换到其他用户,但是不切换环境变量

su - 是完整的切换到一个用户环

sudo 使用超级 用户来执行命令 一般指 root 用户 。若 多个普通用户同时切换到 root 用户对系统进行操作,可能会出现不同人对同一个文件进行不同操作,那很不安全 最好是有针对性的放开权限,明确哪些工作是由哪个用户进行操作,并且约定其使用哪个命令来完成与其相关的工作,此时 sudo 命令可以解决该问 题。

 

1.4  用户 管理

1.3.1  修改 用户密码

passwd 修改 用户 密码

要求

1 6 -8 字符

2 )至少 包含 2 字母, 1 个字符 或特殊符号

3 )不同于 用户 ID

4 )不同于 以前用户密码,至少 3

 

1.3.2  查找 用户

w ho    查看当前在线上的用户情    

who am i   显示出自己在系统中的用户名,登录终端,登录时

 

1.3.3  查看 磁盘信息

du   显示 磁盘使用摘要信息

df   显示 整个文件系统的空间使用磁盘情况

 

1.3.4  查看 网络链接

p ing   查看 当前 机器 与另一台机器的链接情况

i p config 显示一个以太网卡的配

 

         以上 就是看完 linux 就该这么学》 的文件 系统基础篇 以后 的一点收获, 整理后分享给 大家, 同时 也把这本 书推荐给大家,真的是一本物超所值的一本书,希望 linux 初学 爱好者的 有所帮助!


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