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分类: Oracle

本文测试了误删除spfile,pfile,init.ora等文件后的恢复方法,考虑多种场景,在不同场景下进行参数文件恢复。

 

第一步:连上数据库,查看spfile文件所在路径


  1. [oracle@ora11g ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

  2. SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.4.0 Production on Wed Aug 2 11:37:08 2017

  3. Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle. All rights reserved.

  4. Connected to an idle instance.

  5. SYS@cams>startup;
  6. ORACLE instance started.

  7. Total System Global Area 776646656 bytes
  8. Fixed Size         2257272 bytes
  9. Variable Size         478154376 bytes
  10. Database Buffers     289406976 bytes
  11. Redo Buffers         6828032 bytes
  12. Database mounted.
  13. Database opened.
  14. SYS@cams>show parameter pfile;

  15. NAME                 TYPE     VALUE
  16. ------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
  17. spfile                 string     /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0
  18.                          /db_1/dbs/spfilecams.ora

第二步:查看参数文件路径下文件信息


  1. [oracle@ora11g ~]$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/dbs
  2. [oracle@ora11g dbs]$ ls
  3. hc_cams.dat init.ora lkCAMS orapwcams spfilecams.ora

第三步:为了便于测试,这里创建一个pfile文件


  1. SYS@cams>create pfile from spfile;

  2. File created.

查看新创建的pfile文件

  1. [oracle@ora11g dbs]$ ls
  2. hc_cams.dat initcams.ora init.ora lkCAMS orapwcams spfilecams.ora

查看每个参数文件的内容

  1. [oracle@ora11g dbs]$ strings spfilecams.ora
  2. cams.__db_cache_size=348127232
  3. cams.__java_pool_size=4194304
  4. cams.__large_pool_size=12582912
  5. cams.__oracle_base='/u01/app/oracle'#ORACLE_BASE set from environment
  6. cams.__pga_aggregate_target=272629760
  7. cams.__sga_target=507510784
  8. cams.__shared_io_pool_size=0
  9. cams.__shared_pool_size=130023424
  10. cams.__streams_pool_size=0
  11. *.audit_file_dest='/u01/app/oracle/admin/cams/adump'
  12. *.audit_trail='db'
  13. *.compatible='11.2.0.4.0'
  14. *.control_files='/u01/app/oracle/oradata/cams/control01.ctl','/u01/app/
  15. oracle/fast_recovery_area/cams/control02.ctl'
  16. *.db_block_size=8192
  17. *.db_domain=''
  18. *.db_name='cams'
  19. *.db_recovery_file_dest='/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area'
  20. *.db_recovery_file_dest_size=4385144832
  21. *.diagnostic_dest='/u01/app/oracle'
  22. *.dispatchers='(PROTOCOL=TCP) (SERVICE=camsXDB)'
  23. *.job_queue_processes=1000
  24. *.memory_target=780140544
  25. *.open_cursors=300
  26. *.processes=150
  27. *.remote_login_passwordfile='EXCLUSIVE'
  28. *.undo_tablespace='UNDOTBS1'

  1. [oracle@ora11g dbs]$ cat init.ora
  2. #
  3. # $Header: rdbms/admin/init.ora /main/23 2009/05/15 13:35:38 ysarig Exp $
  4. #
  5. # Copyright (c) 1991, 1997, 1998 by Oracle Corporation
  6. # NAME
  7. # init.ora
  8. # FUNCTION
  9. # NOTES
  10. # MODIFIED
  11. # ysarig 05/14/09 - Updating compatible to 11.2
  12. # ysarig 08/13/07 - Fixing the sample for 11g
  13. # atsukerm 08/06/98 - fix for 8.1.
  14. # hpiao 06/05/97 - fix for 803
  15. # glavash 05/12/97 - add oracle_trace_enable comment
  16. # hpiao 04/22/97 - remove ifile=, events=, etc.
  17. # alingelb 09/19/94 - remove vms-specific stuff
  18. # dpawson 07/07/93 - add more comments regarded archive start
  19. # maporter 10/29/92 - Add vms_sga_use_gblpagfile=TRUE
  20. # jloaiza 03/07/92 - change ALPHA to BETA
  21. # danderso 02/26/92 - change db_block_cache_protect to _db_block_cache_p
  22. # ghallmar 02/03/92 - db_directory -> db_domain
  23. # maporter 01/12/92 - merge changes from branch 1.8.308.1
  24. # maporter 12/21/91 - bug 76493: Add control_files parameter
  25. # wbridge 12/03/91 - use of %c in archive format is discouraged
  26. # ghallmar 12/02/91 - add global_names=true, db_directory=us.acme.com
  27. # thayes 11/27/91 - Change default for cache_clone
  28. # jloaiza 08/13/91 - merge changes from branch 1.7.100.1
  29. # jloaiza 07/31/91 - add debug stuff
  30. # rlim 04/29/91 - removal of char_is_varchar2
  31. # Bridge 03/12/91 - log_allocation no longer exists
  32. # Wijaya 02/05/91 - remove obsolete parameters
  33. #
  34. ##############################################################################
  35. # Example INIT.ORA file
  36. #
  37. # This file is provided by Oracle Corporation to help you start by providing
  38. # a starting point to customize your RDBMS installation for your site.
  39. #
  40. # NOTE: The values that are used in this file are only intended to be used
  41. # as a starting point. You may want to adjust/tune those values to your
  42. # specific hardware and needs. You may also consider using Database
  43. # Configuration Assistant tool (DBCA) to create INIT file and to size your
  44. # initial set of tablespaces based on the user input.
  45. ###############################################################################

  46. # Change '<ORACLE_BASE>' to point to the oracle base (the one you specify at
  47. # install time)

  48. db_name='ORCL'
  49. memory_target=1G
  50. processes = 150
  51. audit_file_dest='<ORACLE_BASE>/admin/orcl/adump'
  52. audit_trail ='db'
  53. db_block_size=8192
  54. db_domain=''
  55. db_recovery_file_dest='<ORACLE_BASE>/flash_recovery_area'
  56. db_recovery_file_dest_size=2G
  57. diagnostic_dest='<ORACLE_BASE>'
  58. dispatchers='(PROTOCOL=TCP) (SERVICE=ORCLXDB)'
  59. open_cursors=300
  60. remote_login_passwordfile='EXCLUSIVE'
  61. undo_tablespace='UNDOTBS1'
  62. # You may want to ensure that control files are created on separate physical
  63. # devices
  64. control_files = (ora_control1, ora_control2)
  65. compatible ='11.2.0'

  1. [oracle@ora11g dbs]$ cat initcams.ora
  2. cams.__db_cache_size=348127232
  3. cams.__java_pool_size=4194304
  4. cams.__large_pool_size=12582912
  5. cams.__oracle_base='/u01/app/oracle'#ORACLE_BASE set from environment
  6. cams.__pga_aggregate_target=272629760
  7. cams.__sga_target=507510784
  8. cams.__shared_io_pool_size=0
  9. cams.__shared_pool_size=130023424
  10. cams.__streams_pool_size=0
  11. *.audit_file_dest='/u01/app/oracle/admin/cams/adump'
  12. *.audit_trail='db'
  13. *.compatible='11.2.0.4.0'
  14. *.control_files='/u01/app/oracle/oradata/cams/control01.ctl','/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/cams/control02.ctl'
  15. *.db_block_size=8192
  16. *.db_domain=''
  17. *.db_name='cams'
  18. *.db_recovery_file_dest='/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area'
  19. *.db_recovery_file_dest_size=4385144832
  20. *.diagnostic_dest='/u01/app/oracle'
  21. *.dispatchers='(PROTOCOL=TCP) (SERVICE=camsXDB)'
  22. *.job_queue_processes=1000
  23. *.memory_target=780140544
  24. *.open_cursors=300
  25. *.processes=150
  26. *.remote_login_passwordfile='EXCLUSIVE'
  27. *.undo_tablespace='UNDOTBS1'

第四步:模拟参数文件被误删除


  1. [oracle@ora11g dbs]$ mkdir backup
  2. [oracle@ora11g dbs]$ mv initcams.ora init.ora spfilecams.ora backup/
  3. [oracle@ora11g dbs]$ ls
  4. backup hc_cams.dat lkCAMS orapwcams
  5. [oracle@ora11g dbs]$ ls backup/
  6. initcams.ora init.ora spfilecams.ora

第五步:检查数据库是否还能正常工作


  1. SYS@cams>select name,open_mode from v$database;

  2. NAME     OPEN_MODE
  3. --------- --------------------
  4. CAMS     READ WRITE

显然,现在数据库是可以正常工作的,因为数据库启动过程中已经将spfile参数文件的信息读到内存中。

第六步:这里模拟在数据库运行时,及时发现参数文件被误删除,进行恢复。


这里需要用到
Oracle11gR2的新特性,对于Oracle官方文档的路径为:

Home / Database / Oracle Database Online Documentation 11g?Release 2 (11.2) / Database Administration/SQL Language Reference/What's New in the SQL Language Reference?

可以找到

CREATE PFILE has new syntax that lets you create a parameter file from current system-wide parameter settings.

CREATE SPFILE has new syntax that lets you create a system parameter file from current system-wide parameter settings.

点击create pfile或者create spfile进入链接页面,可以找到SQL命令:

CREATE PFILE [= 'pfile_name' ]

   FROM { SPFILE [= 'spfile_name']

        | MEMORY

        } ;

 

CREATE SPFILE [= 'spfile_name' ]

  FROM { PFILE [= 'pfile_name' ]

       | MEMORY

       } ;


这里执行恢复语句:


  1. SYS@cams>create spfile from memory;
  2. create spfile from memory
  3. *
  4. ERROR at line 1:
  5. ORA-32002: cannot create SPFILE already being used by the instance


  6. SYS@cams>create pfile from memory;

  7. File created.

  8. SYS@cams>create spfile='spfilecams1.ora' from memory;

  9. File created.

查看恢复后的spfilepfile文件:


  1. [oracle@ora11g dbs]$ strings spfilecams1.ora
  2. *.__db_cache_size=320M
  3. *.__java_pool_size=4M
  4. *.__large_pool_size=12M
  5. *.__oracle_base='/u01/app/oracle' # ORACLE_BASE set from environment
  6. *.__pga_aggregate_target=260M
  7. *.__sga_target=484M
  8. *.__shared_io_pool_size=0
  9. *.__shared_pool_size=136M
  10. *.__streams_pool_size=0
  11. *._aggregation_optimization_settings=0
  12. *._always_anti_join='CHOOSE'
  13. *._always_semi_join='CHOOSE'
  14. *._and_pruning_enabled=TRUE
  15. *._b_tree_bitmap_plans=TRUE
  16. *._bloom_filter_enabled=TRUE
  17. *._bloom_folding_enabled=TRUE
  18. *._bloom_pru
  19. ning_enabled=TRUE
  20. *._complex_view_merging=TRUE
  21. *._compression_compatibility='11.2.0.4.0'
  22. *._connect_by_use_union_all='TRUE'
  23. *._convert_set_to_join=FALSE
  24. *._cost_equality_semi_join=TRUE
  25. *._cpu_to_io=0
  26. *._dimension_skip_null=TRUE
  27. *._eliminate_common_subexpr=TRUE
  28. *._enable_type_dep_selectivity=TRUE
  29. *._fast_full_scan_enabled=TRUE
  30. *._first_k_rows_dynamic_proration=TRUE
  31. *._gby_hash_aggregation_enabled=TRUE
  32. *._generalized_pruning_enabled=TRUE
  33. *._globalindex_pnum_filter_enabled=TRUE
  34. *._gs_an
  35. ti_semi_join_allowed=TRUE
  36. *._improved_outerjoin_card=TRUE
  37. *._improved_row_length_enabled=TRUE
  38. *._index_join_enabled=TRUE
  39. *._ksb_restart_policy_times='0'
  40. *._ksb_restart_policy_times='60'
  41. *._ksb_restart_policy_times='120'
  42. *._ksb_restart_policy_times='240' # internal update to set default
  43. *._left_nested_loops_random=TRUE
  44. *._local_communication_costing_enabled=TRUE
  45. *._minimal_stats_aggregation=TRUE
  46. *._mmv_query_rewrite_enabled=TRUE
  47. *._new_initial_join_orders=TRUE
  48. *._new_sort_cost_estimat
  49. e=TRUE
  50. *._nlj_batching_enabled=1
  51. *._optim_adjust_for_part_skews=TRUE
  52. *._optim_enhance_nnull_detection=TRUE
  53. *._optim_new_default_join_sel=TRUE
  54. *._optim_peek_user_binds=TRUE
  55. *._optimizer_adaptive_cursor_sharing=TRUE
  56. *._optimizer_better_inlist_costing='ALL'
  57. *._optimizer_cbqt_no_size_restriction=TRUE
  58. *._optimizer_coalesce_subqueries=TRUE
  59. *._optimizer_complex_pred_selectivity=TRUE
  60. *._optimizer_compute_index_stats=TRUE
  61. *._optimizer_connect_by_combine_sw=TRUE
  62. *._optimizer_connect_by_cost_ba
  63. sed=TRUE
  64. *._optimizer_connect_by_elim_dups=TRUE
  65. *._optimizer_correct_sq_selectivity=TRUE
  66. *._optimizer_cost_based_transformation='LINEAR'
  67. *._optimizer_cost_hjsmj_multimatch=TRUE
  68. *._optimizer_cost_model='CHOOSE'
  69. *._optimizer_dim_subq_join_sel=TRUE
  70. *._optimizer_distinct_agg_transform=TRUE
  71. *._optimizer_distinct_elimination=TRUE
  72. *._optimizer_distinct_placement=TRUE
  73. *._optimizer_eliminate_filtering_join=TRUE
  74. *._optimizer_enable_density_improvements=TRUE
  75. *._optimizer_enable_extended_stats=T
  76. *._optimizer_enable_table_lookup_by_nl=TRUE
  77. *._optimizer_enhanced_filter_push=TRUE
  78. *._optimizer_extend_jppd_view_types=TRUE
  79. *._optimizer_extended_cursor_sharing='UDO'
  80. *._optimizer_extended_cursor_sharing_rel='SIMPLE'
  81. *._optimizer_extended_stats_usage_control=192
  82. *._optimizer_false_filter_pred_pullup=TRUE
  83. *._optimizer_fast_access_pred_analysis=TRUE
  84. *._optimizer_fast_pred_transitivity=TRUE
  85. *._optimizer_filter_pred_pullup=TRUE
  86. *._optimizer_fkr_index_cost_bias=10
  87. *._optimizer_full_ou
  88. ter_join_to_outer=TRUE
  89. *._optimizer_group_by_placement=TRUE
  90. *._optimizer_improve_selectivity=TRUE
  91. *._optimizer_interleave_jppd=TRUE
  92. *._optimizer_join_elimination_enabled=TRUE
  93. *._optimizer_join_factorization=TRUE
  94. *._optimizer_join_order_control=3
  95. *._optimizer_join_sel_sanity_check=TRUE
  96. *._optimizer_max_permutations=2000
  97. *._optimizer_mode_force=TRUE
  98. *._optimizer_multi_level_push_pred=TRUE
  99. *._optimizer_native_full_outer_join='FORCE'
  100. *._optimizer_new_join_card_computation=TRUE
  101. *._optimiz
  102. er_null_aware_antijoin=TRUE
  103. *._optimizer_or_expansion='DEPTH'
  104. *._optimizer_order_by_elimination_enabled=TRUE
  105. *._optimizer_outer_join_to_inner=TRUE
  106. *._optimizer_outer_to_anti_enabled=TRUE
  107. *._optimizer_push_down_distinct=0
  108. *._optimizer_push_pred_cost_based=TRUE
  109. *._optimizer_rownum_bind_default=10
  110. *._optimizer_rownum_pred_based_fkr=TRUE
  111. *._optimizer_skip_scan_enabled=TRUE
  112. *._optimizer_sortmerge_join_inequality=TRUE
  113. *._optimizer_squ_bottomup=TRUE
  114. *._optimizer_star_tran_in_with_clause=TRU
  115. *._optimizer_system_stats_usage=TRUE
  116. *._optimizer_table_expansion=TRUE
  117. *._optimizer_transitivity_retain=TRUE
  118. *._optimizer_try_st_before_jppd=TRUE
  119. *._optimizer_undo_cost_change='11.2.0.4'
  120. *._optimizer_unnest_corr_set_subq=TRUE
  121. *._optimizer_unnest_disjunctive_subq=TRUE
  122. *._optimizer_use_cbqt_star_transformation=TRUE
  123. *._optimizer_use_feedback=TRUE
  124. *._or_expand_nvl_predicate=TRUE
  125. *._ordered_nested_loop=TRUE
  126. *._parallel_broadcast_enabled=TRUE
  127. *._partition_view_enabled=TRUE
  128. *._pivot_imple
  129. mentation_method='CHOOSE'
  130. *._pre_rewrite_push_pred=TRUE
  131. *._pred_move_around=TRUE
  132. *._push_join_predicate=TRUE
  133. *._push_join_union_view=TRUE
  134. *._push_join_union_view2=TRUE
  135. *._px_minus_intersect=TRUE
  136. *._px_partition_scan_enabled=TRUE
  137. *._px_pwg_enabled=TRUE
  138. *._px_ual_serial_input=TRUE
  139. *._query_rewrite_setopgrw_enable=TRUE
  140. *._remove_aggr_subquery=TRUE
  141. *._replace_virtual_columns=TRUE
  142. *._right_outer_hash_enable=TRUE
  143. *._selfjoin_mv_duplicates=TRUE
  144. *._sql_model_unfold_forloops='RUN_TIME'
  145. *._sql
  146. tune_category_parsed='DEFAULT' # parsed sqltune_category
  147. *._subquery_pruning_enabled=TRUE
  148. *._subquery_pruning_mv_enabled=FALSE
  149. *._table_scan_cost_plus_one=TRUE
  150. *._union_rewrite_for_gs='YES_GSET_MVS'
  151. *._unnest_subquery=TRUE
  152. *._use_column_stats_for_function=TRUE
  153. *.audit_file_dest='/u01/app/oracle/admin/cams/adump'
  154. *.audit_trail='DB'
  155. *.background_dump_dest='/u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms/cams/cams/trace' #Deprecate parameter
  156. *.compatible='11.2.0.4.0'
  157. *.control_files='/u01/app/oracle/oradata
  158. /cams/control01.ctl'
  159. *.control_files='/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/cams/control02.ctl'
  160. *.core_dump_dest='/u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms/cams/cams/cdump'
  161. *.db_block_size=8192
  162. *.db_domain=''
  163. *.db_name='cams'
  164. *.db_recovery_file_dest='/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area'
  165. *.db_recovery_file_dest_size=4182M
  166. *.diagnostic_dest='/u01/app/oracle'
  167. *.dispatchers='(PROTOCOL=TCP) (SERVICE=camsXDB)'
  168. *.job_queue_processes=1000
  169. *.log_buffer=6520832 # log buffer update
  170. *.memory_target=744M
  171. *.open_cur
  172. sors=300
  173. *.optimizer_dynamic_sampling=2
  174. *.optimizer_mode='ALL_ROWS'
  175. *.plsql_warnings='DISABLE:ALL' # PL/SQL warnings at init.ora
  176. *.processes=150
  177. *.query_rewrite_enabled='TRUE'
  178. *.remote_login_passwordfile='EXCLUSIVE'
  179. *.result_cache_max_size=1920K
  180. *.skip_unusable_indexes=TRUE
  181. *.undo_tablespace='UNDOTBS1'
  182. *.user_dump_dest='/u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms/cams/cams/trace' #Deprecate parameter

  183. [oracle@ora11g dbs]$ cat initcams.ora
  184. # Oracle init.ora parameter file generated by instance cams on 08/02/2017 13:36:21
  185. __db_cache_size=320M
  186. __java_pool_size=4M
  187. __large_pool_size=12M
  188. __oracle_base='/u01/app/oracle' # ORACLE_BASE set from environment
  189. __pga_aggregate_target=260M
  190. __sga_target=484M
  191. __shared_io_pool_size=0
  192. __shared_pool_size=136M
  193. __streams_pool_size=0
  194. _aggregation_optimization_settings=0
  195. _always_anti_join='CHOOSE'
  196. _always_semi_join='CHOOSE'
  197. _and_pruning_enabled=TRUE
  198. _b_tree_bitmap_plans=TRUE
  199. _bloom_filter_enabled=TRUE
  200. _bloom_folding_enabled=TRUE
  201. _bloom_pruning_enabled=TRUE
  202. _complex_view_merging=TRUE
  203. _compression_compatibility='11.2.0.4.0'
  204. _connect_by_use_union_all='TRUE'
  205. _convert_set_to_join=FALSE
  206. _cost_equality_semi_join=TRUE
  207. _cpu_to_io=0
  208. _dimension_skip_null=TRUE
  209. _eliminate_common_subexpr=TRUE
  210. _enable_type_dep_selectivity=TRUE
  211. _fast_full_scan_enabled=TRUE
  212. _first_k_rows_dynamic_proration=TRUE
  213. _gby_hash_aggregation_enabled=TRUE
  214. _generalized_pruning_enabled=TRUE
  215. _globalindex_pnum_filter_enabled=TRUE
  216. _gs_anti_semi_join_allowed=TRUE
  217. _improved_outerjoin_card=TRUE
  218. _improved_row_length_enabled=TRUE
  219. _index_join_enabled=TRUE
  220. _ksb_restart_policy_times='0'
  221. _ksb_restart_policy_times='60'
  222. _ksb_restart_policy_times='120'
  223. _ksb_restart_policy_times='240' # internal update to set default
  224. _left_nested_loops_random=TRUE
  225. _local_communication_costing_enabled=TRUE
  226. _minimal_stats_aggregation=TRUE
  227. _mmv_query_rewrite_enabled=TRUE
  228. _new_initial_join_orders=TRUE
  229. _new_sort_cost_estimate=TRUE
  230. _nlj_batching_enabled=1
  231. _optim_adjust_for_part_skews=TRUE
  232. _optim_enhance_nnull_detection=TRUE
  233. _optim_new_default_join_sel=TRUE
  234. _optim_peek_user_binds=TRUE
  235. _optimizer_adaptive_cursor_sharing=TRUE
  236. _optimizer_better_inlist_costing='ALL'
  237. _optimizer_cbqt_no_size_restriction=TRUE
  238. _optimizer_coalesce_subqueries=TRUE
  239. _optimizer_complex_pred_selectivity=TRUE
  240. _optimizer_compute_index_stats=TRUE
  241. _optimizer_connect_by_combine_sw=TRUE
  242. _optimizer_connect_by_cost_based=TRUE
  243. _optimizer_connect_by_elim_dups=TRUE
  244. _optimizer_correct_sq_selectivity=TRUE
  245. _optimizer_cost_based_transformation='LINEAR'
  246. _optimizer_cost_hjsmj_multimatch=TRUE
  247. _optimizer_cost_model='CHOOSE'
  248. _optimizer_dim_subq_join_sel=TRUE
  249. _optimizer_distinct_agg_transform=TRUE
  250. _optimizer_distinct_elimination=TRUE
  251. _optimizer_distinct_placement=TRUE
  252. _optimizer_eliminate_filtering_join=TRUE
  253. _optimizer_enable_density_improvements=TRUE
  254. _optimizer_enable_extended_stats=TRUE
  255. _optimizer_enable_table_lookup_by_nl=TRUE
  256. _optimizer_enhanced_filter_push=TRUE
  257. _optimizer_extend_jppd_view_types=TRUE
  258. _optimizer_extended_cursor_sharing='UDO'
  259. _optimizer_extended_cursor_sharing_rel='SIMPLE'
  260. _optimizer_extended_stats_usage_control=192
  261. _optimizer_false_filter_pred_pullup=TRUE
  262. _optimizer_fast_access_pred_analysis=TRUE
  263. _optimizer_fast_pred_transitivity=TRUE
  264. _optimizer_filter_pred_pullup=TRUE
  265. _optimizer_fkr_index_cost_bias=10
  266. _optimizer_full_outer_join_to_outer=TRUE
  267. _optimizer_group_by_placement=TRUE
  268. _optimizer_improve_selectivity=TRUE
  269. _optimizer_interleave_jppd=TRUE
  270. _optimizer_join_elimination_enabled=TRUE
  271. _optimizer_join_factorization=TRUE
  272. _optimizer_join_order_control=3
  273. _optimizer_join_sel_sanity_check=TRUE
  274. _optimizer_max_permutations=2000
  275. _optimizer_mode_force=TRUE
  276. _optimizer_multi_level_push_pred=TRUE
  277. _optimizer_native_full_outer_join='FORCE'
  278. _optimizer_new_join_card_computation=TRUE
  279. _optimizer_null_aware_antijoin=TRUE
  280. _optimizer_or_expansion='DEPTH'
  281. _optimizer_order_by_elimination_enabled=TRUE
  282. _optimizer_outer_join_to_inner=TRUE
  283. _optimizer_outer_to_anti_enabled=TRUE
  284. _optimizer_push_down_distinct=0
  285. _optimizer_push_pred_cost_based=TRUE
  286. _optimizer_rownum_bind_default=10
  287. _optimizer_rownum_pred_based_fkr=TRUE
  288. _optimizer_skip_scan_enabled=TRUE
  289. _optimizer_sortmerge_join_inequality=TRUE
  290. _optimizer_squ_bottomup=TRUE
  291. _optimizer_star_tran_in_with_clause=TRUE
  292. _optimizer_system_stats_usage=TRUE
  293. _optimizer_table_expansion=TRUE
  294. _optimizer_transitivity_retain=TRUE
  295. _optimizer_try_st_before_jppd=TRUE
  296. _optimizer_undo_cost_change='11.2.0.4'
  297. _optimizer_unnest_corr_set_subq=TRUE
  298. _optimizer_unnest_disjunctive_subq=TRUE
  299. _optimizer_use_cbqt_star_transformation=TRUE
  300. _optimizer_use_feedback=TRUE
  301. _or_expand_nvl_predicate=TRUE
  302. _ordered_nested_loop=TRUE
  303. _parallel_broadcast_enabled=TRUE
  304. _partition_view_enabled=TRUE
  305. _pivot_implementation_method='CHOOSE'
  306. _pre_rewrite_push_pred=TRUE
  307. _pred_move_around=TRUE
  308. _push_join_predicate=TRUE
  309. _push_join_union_view=TRUE
  310. _push_join_union_view2=TRUE
  311. _px_minus_intersect=TRUE
  312. _px_partition_scan_enabled=TRUE
  313. _px_pwg_enabled=TRUE
  314. _px_ual_serial_input=TRUE
  315. _query_rewrite_setopgrw_enable=TRUE
  316. _remove_aggr_subquery=TRUE
  317. _replace_virtual_columns=TRUE
  318. _right_outer_hash_enable=TRUE
  319. _selfjoin_mv_duplicates=TRUE
  320. _sql_model_unfold_forloops='RUN_TIME'
  321. _sqltune_category_parsed='DEFAULT' # parsed sqltune_category
  322. _subquery_pruning_enabled=TRUE
  323. _subquery_pruning_mv_enabled=FALSE
  324. _table_scan_cost_plus_one=TRUE
  325. _union_rewrite_for_gs='YES_GSET_MVS'
  326. _unnest_subquery=TRUE
  327. _use_column_stats_for_function=TRUE
  328. audit_file_dest='/u01/app/oracle/admin/cams/adump'
  329. audit_trail='DB'
  330. background_dump_dest='/u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms/cams/cams/trace' #Deprecate parameter
  331. compatible='11.2.0.4.0'
  332. control_files='/u01/app/oracle/oradata/cams/control01.ctl'
  333. control_files='/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/cams/control02.ctl'
  334. core_dump_dest='/u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms/cams/cams/cdump'
  335. db_block_size=8192
  336. db_domain=''
  337. db_name='cams'
  338. db_recovery_file_dest='/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area'
  339. db_recovery_file_dest_size=4182M
  340. diagnostic_dest='/u01/app/oracle'
  341. dispatchers='(PROTOCOL=TCP) (SERVICE=camsXDB)'
  342. job_queue_processes=1000
  343. log_buffer=6520832 # log buffer update
  344. memory_target=744M
  345. open_cursors=300
  346. optimizer_dynamic_sampling=2
  347. optimizer_mode='ALL_ROWS'
  348. plsql_warnings='DISABLE:ALL' # PL/SQL warnings at init.ora
  349. processes=150
  350. query_rewrite_enabled='TRUE'
  351. remote_login_passwordfile='EXCLUSIVE'
  352. result_cache_max_size=1920K
  353. skip_unusable_indexes=TRUE
  354. undo_tablespace='UNDOTBS1'
  355. user_dump_dest='/u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms/cams/cams/trace' #Deprecate parameter
  356. [oracle@ora11g dbs]$

第七步:重启数据库,检查恢复后的参数文件能否正常使用,并进行分析


  1. SYS@cams>shutdown immediate;
  2. Database closed.
  3. Database dismounted.
  4. ORACLE instance shut down.
  5. SYS@cams>host mv /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/spfilecams1.ora /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/spfilecams.ora

  6. SYS@cams>startup;
  7. ORA-32004: obsolete or deprecated parameter(s) specified for RDBMS instance
  8. ORACLE instance started.

  9. Total System Global Area 776646656 bytes
  10. Fixed Size         2257272 bytes
  11. Variable Size         482348680 bytes
  12. Database Buffers     285212672 bytes
  13. Redo Buffers         6828032 bytes
  14. Database mounted.
  15. Database opened.

这里出现ORA-32004: obsolete or deprecated parameter(s) specified for RDBMS instance的问题,是因为background_dump_destuser_dump_dest两个参数在11gR1中废弃了,在alert日志中可以看到明确提示:


对于两个废弃参数信息,可以查看官方文档

Home / Database / Oracle Database Online Documentation 11g?Release 1 (11.1) / Database Administration/Reference/1?Initialization Parameters

 

在BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST目录下看到:

Note:

This parameter is ignored by the new diagnosability infrastructure introduced in Oracle Database 11g Release 1, which places trace and core files in a location controlled by the DIAGNOSTIC_DEST initialization parameter.

 

在USER_DUMP_DEST目录下看到:

Note:

This parameter is ignored by the new diagnosability infrastructure introduced in Oracle Database 11g Release 1, which places trace and core files in a location controlled by the DIAGNOSTIC_DEST initialization parameter.


第八步:调整
pfile参数文件,并创建spfile文件后启动

打开pfile文件,可以看到两个弃用的参数后面都有注释“#Deprecate parameter


将两个废弃的参数注释,然后生成spfile文件后启动


  1. SYS@cams>create spfile from pfile;

  2. File created.

  3. SYS@cams>startup;
  4. ORACLE instance started.

  5. Total System Global Area 776646656 bytes
  6. Fixed Size         2257272 bytes
  7. Variable Size         482348680 bytes
  8. Database Buffers     285212672 bytes
  9. Redo Buffers         6828032 bytes
  10. Database mounted.
  11. Database opened.

第九步:模拟在第六步的时候未能及时发现参数文件被误删除,然后数据库关闭了,启动的时候报错。


  1. [oracle@ora11g dbs]$ ls
  2. backup hc_cams.dat initcams.ora lkCAMS orapwcams spfilecams.ora
  3. [oracle@ora11g dbs]$ mkdir backup1
  4. [oracle@ora11g dbs]$ mv initcams.ora spfilecams.ora backup1/
  5. [oracle@ora11g dbs]$ ls backup1/
  6. initcams.ora spfilecams.ora
  7. [oracle@ora11g dbs]$ ls
  8. backup backup1 hc_cams.dat lkCAMS orapwcams

  1. SYS@cams>shutdown immediate;
  2. Database closed.
  3. Database dismounted.
  4. ORACLE instance shut down.
  5. SYS@cams>startup;
  6. ORA-01078: failure in processing system parameters
  7. LRM-00109: could not open parameter file '/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/initcams.ora'

第十步:找到alert日志,通过alert日志中的启动信息恢复pfile参数文件。


  1. [oracle@ora11g dbs]$ cd /u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms/cams/cams/trace/
  2. [oracle@ora11g trace]$ ls | grep alert
  3. alert_cams.log

找到最近几次成功的日志信息,选取其中正确无误的一条日志信息:



创建pfile文件initcams.ora,将alert日志中的参数信息填入:


  1. [oracle@ora11g trace]$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/dbs
  2. [oracle@ora11g dbs]$ ls
  3. backup backup1 hc_cams.dat lkCAMS orapwcams
  4. [oracle@ora11g dbs]$ vi initcams.ora
  5. [oracle@ora11g dbs]$ cat initcams.ora
  6.   processes = 150
  7.   memory_target = 744M
  8.   control_files = "/u01/app/oracle/oradata/cams/control01.ctl"
  9.   control_files = "/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/cams/control02.ctl"
  10.   db_block_size = 8192
  11.   compatible = "11.2.0.4.0"
  12.   db_recovery_file_dest = "/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area"
  13.   db_recovery_file_dest_size= 4182M
  14.   undo_tablespace = "UNDOTBS1"
  15.   remote_login_passwordfile= "EXCLUSIVE"
  16.   db_domain = ""
  17.   dispatchers = "(PROTOCOL=TCP) (SERVICE=camsXDB)"
  18.   job_queue_processes = 1000
  19.   audit_file_dest = "/u01/app/oracle/admin/cams/adump"
  20.   audit_trail = "DB"
  21.   db_name = "cams"
  22.   open_cursors = 300
  23.   diagnostic_dest = "/u01/app/oracle"

直接使用pfile文件启动数据库:

  1. SYS@cams>startup pfile='/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/initcams.ora';
  2. ORACLE instance started.

  3. Total System Global Area 776646656 bytes
  4. Fixed Size         2257272 bytes
  5. Variable Size         511708808 bytes
  6. Database Buffers     255852544 bytes
  7. Redo Buffers         6828032 bytes
  8. Database mounted.
  9. Database opened.


第十一步:这里假设第十步的
alert日志中没找到参数信息,需要进行恢复,假设init.ora还能找到。


  1. [oracle@ora11g backup]$ ls
  2. initcams.ora init.ora spfilecams.ora
  3. [oracle@ora11g backup]$ cat init.ora | grep -v ^# | grep -v ^$ > initcams.ora
  4. [oracle@ora11g backup]$ cat initcams.ora
  5. db_name='ORCL'
  6. memory_target=1G
  7. processes = 150
  8. audit_file_dest='<ORACLE_BASE>/admin/orcl/adump'
  9. audit_trail ='db'
  10. db_block_size=8192
  11. db_domain=''
  12. db_recovery_file_dest='<ORACLE_BASE>/flash_recovery_area'
  13. db_recovery_file_dest_size=2G
  14. diagnostic_dest='<ORACLE_BASE>'
  15. dispatchers='(PROTOCOL=TCP) (SERVICE=ORCLXDB)'
  16. open_cursors=300
  17. remote_login_passwordfile='EXCLUSIVE'
  18. undo_tablespace='UNDOTBS1'
  19. control_files = (ora_control1, ora_control2)
  20. compatible ='11.2.0'

然后根据实际环境情况修改initcams.ora,启动数据库,不过可能会出现部分参数的值与原数据库不一致,需要DBA进行调整。

 

第十二步:这里假设第十步的alert日志中没找到参数信息,需要进行恢复,假设init.ora不能找到。


  1. [oracle@ora11g dbs]$ vi initcams.ora
  2. [oracle@ora11g dbs]$ cat initcams.ora
  3. db_name='cams'

使用pfile启动数据库:


  1. SYS@cams>shutdown immediate;
  2. Database closed.
  3. Database dismounted.
  4. ORACLE instance shut down.
  5. SYS@cams>startup pfile='/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/initcams.ora';
  6. ORACLE instance started.

  7. Total System Global Area 263090176 bytes
  8. Fixed Size         2252256 bytes
  9. Variable Size         205521440 bytes
  10. Database Buffers     50331648 bytes
  11. Redo Buffers         4984832 bytes
  12. ORA-00205: error in identifying control file, check alert log for more info

检查alert日志


  1. [oracle@ora11g trace]$ tail -n 20 alert_cams.log
  2. CKPT started with pid=12, OS id=5722
  3. Wed Aug 02 14:38:15 2017
  4. SMON started with pid=13, OS id=5724
  5. Wed Aug 02 14:38:15 2017
  6. RECO started with pid=14, OS id=5726
  7. Wed Aug 02 14:38:15 2017
  8. MMON started with pid=15, OS id=5728
  9. Wed Aug 02 14:38:15 2017
  10. MMNL started with pid=16, OS id=5730
  11. ORACLE_BASE from environment = /u01/app/oracle
  12. Wed Aug 02 14:38:15 2017
  13. ALTER DATABASE MOUNT
  14. ORA-00210: cannot open the specified control file
  15. ORA-00202: control file: '/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/cntrlcams.dbf'
  16. ORA-27037: unable to obtain file status
  17. Linux-x86_64 Error: 2: No such file or directory
  18. Additional information: 3
  19. ORA-205 signalled during: ALTER DATABASE MOUNT...
  20. Wed Aug 02 14:38:15 2017
  21. Checker run found 1 new persistent data failures

修改pfile文件,指定control_files参数(如果真的忘了,可以用linux命令查找)


  1. [oracle@ora11g dbs]$ find $ORACLE_BASE -name control*
  2. /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/oc4j/j2ee/oc4j_applications/applications/em/em/images/database/storage/controlfile.gif
  3. /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/apex/images/fck/editor/dialog/fck_spellerpages/spellerpages/controlWindow.js
  4. /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/apex/images/fck/editor/dialog/fck_spellerpages/spellerpages/controls.html
  5. /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/cams/control02.ctl
  6. /u01/app/oracle/oradata/cams/control01.ctl

  1. [oracle@ora11g dbs]$ vi initcams.ora
  2. [oracle@ora11g dbs]$ cat initcams.ora
  3. db_name='cams'
  4. control_files='/u01/app/oracle/oradata/cams/control01.ctl','/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/cams/control02.ctl'

再次使用pfile启动数据库


  1. SYS@cams>shutdown immediate;
  2. ORA-01507: database not mounted


  3. ORACLE instance shut down.
  4. SYS@cams>startup;
  5. ORACLE instance started.

  6. Total System Global Area 263090176 bytes
  7. Fixed Size         2252256 bytes
  8. Variable Size         205521440 bytes
  9. Database Buffers     50331648 bytes
  10. Redo Buffers         4984832 bytes
  11. ORA-00201: control file version 11.2.0.4.0 incompatible with ORACLE version
  12. 11.2.0.0.0
  13. ORA-00202: control file: '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/cams/control01.ctl'

查看错误信息


  1. [oracle@ora11g dbs]$ oerr ORA 00201
  2. 00201, 00000, "control file version %s incompatible with ORACLE version %s"
  3. // *Cause: The control file was created by incompatible software.
  4. // *Action: Either restart with a compatible software release or use
  5. // CREATE CONTROLFILE to create a new control file that is
  6. // compatible with this release.

这里需要在参数文件配置一个compatible参数


  1. [oracle@ora11g dbs]$ vi initcams.ora
  2. [oracle@ora11g dbs]$ cat initcams.ora
  3. db_name='cams'
  4. control_files='/u01/app/oracle/oradata/cams/control01.ctl','/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/cams/control02.ctl'
  5. compatible="11.2.0.4.0"

再次使用pfile启动数据库


  1. SYS@cams>shutdown immediate;
  2. ORA-01507: database not mounted


  3. ORACLE instance shut down.
  4. SYS@cams>startup;
  5. ORACLE instance started.

  6. Total System Global Area 263090176 bytes
  7. Fixed Size         2252256 bytes
  8. Variable Size         205521440 bytes
  9. Database Buffers     50331648 bytes
  10. Redo Buffers         4984832 bytes
  11. Database mounted.
  12. Database opened.

数据库启动成功。同时,我们也从测试过程中知道,参数文件至少需要配置db_namecontrol_filescompatible3个参数信息,可以让数据库成功启动。不过启动之后也需要DBA对数据库参数进行调整。




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