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使用RMAN创建备份

原创 Oracle 作者:wenjunheyixiao 时间:2016-01-21 15:27:53 0 删除 编辑

 

1.

创建数据库备份

创建完全数据库备份

启用快速增量备份

创建双重备份集

创建归档备份以用于长期保留

创建多部分备份

创建压缩备份

创建加密备份

报告和维护备份

 

2

 创建整体数据库备份:

RAMN>backup  database plus  archivelog;(归档日志文件副本,数据文件副本,控制文件,SPFILE)

3

通过压缩未使用的空间备份801

4

RMAN备份类型

RMAN 可创建多级增量备份,如下所示:

 ? 差异:是增量备份的默认类型,备份自上次增量备份(1 级或 0 级)以来更改过的所 有块

 ? 累积:备份自上次 0 级备份以来更改过的所有块 示例

? 要执行 0 级增量备份,请使用以下命令: RMAN> BACKUP INCREMENTAL LEVEL 0 DATABASE;

 ? 要执行差异增量备份,请使用以下命令: RMAN> BACKUP INCREMENTAL LEVEL 1 DATABASE;

 ? 要执行累积增量备份,请使用以下命令: RMAN> BACKUP INCREMENTAL LEVEL 1 CUMULATIVE DATABASE;

 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

建立0级增量备份的全库备份:

RMAN> backup incremental level=0 database;

 

Starting backup at 2016-01-16 11:44:37

using channel ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting incremental level 0 datafile backup set

channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set

input datafile file number=00003 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ENMO11G/undotbs01.dbf

input datafile file number=00001 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ENMO11G/system01.dbf

input datafile file number=00002 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ENMO11G/sysaux01.dbf

input datafile file number=00005 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ENMO11G/enmoedu01.dbf

input datafile file number=00006 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ENMO11G/enmoedubig.dbf

input datafile file number=00004 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ENMO11G/users01.dbf

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 2016-01-16 11:44:37

channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 2016-01-16 11:46:12

piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ENMO11G/backupset/2016_01_16/o1_mf_nnnd0_TAG20160116T114437_c9mh55l6_.bkp tag=TAG20160116T114437 comment=NONE

channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:01:35

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting incremental level 0 datafile backup set

channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set

including current control file in backup set

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 2016-01-16 11:46:13

channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 2016-01-16 11:46:14

piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ENMO11G/backupset/2016_01_16/o1_mf_ncnn0_TAG20160116T114437_c9mh85pv_.bkp tag=TAG20160116T114437 comment=NONE

channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01

Finished backup at 2016-01-16 11:46:14

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

为数据文件user01.dbf建立增量级别1级备份

RMAN> backup incremental level=1 datafile 4;

 

Starting backup at 2016-01-16 11:48:59

using channel ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting incremental level 1 datafile backup set

channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set

input datafile file number=00004 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ENMO11G/users01.dbf

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 2016-01-16 11:49:00

channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 2016-01-16 11:49:01

piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ENMO11G/backupset/2016_01_16/o1_mf_nnnd1_TAG20160116T114859_c9mhfd2l_.bkp tag=TAG20160116T114859 comment=NONE

channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01

Finished backup at 2016-01-16 11:49:01

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

cumulative 增量级别方式的创建数据库全库备份(累积备份)

RMAN> backup incremental level=1 cumulative database;

 

Starting backup at 2016-01-16 11:51:06

using channel ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting incremental level 1 datafile backup set

channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set

input datafile file number=00003 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ENMO11G/undotbs01.dbf

input datafile file number=00001 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ENMO11G/system01.dbf

input datafile file number=00002 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ENMO11G/sysaux01.dbf

input datafile file number=00005 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ENMO11G/enmoedu01.dbf

input datafile file number=00006 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ENMO11G/enmoedubig.dbf

input datafile file number=00004 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ENMO11G/users01.dbf

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 2016-01-16 11:51:06

channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 2016-01-16 11:52:21

piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ENMO11G/backupset/2016_01_16/o1_mf_nnnd1_TAG20160116T115106_c9mhkbcb_.bkp tag=TAG20160116T115106 comment=NONE

channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:01:15

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting incremental level 1 datafile backup set

channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set

including current control file in backup set

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 2016-01-16 11:52:22

channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 2016-01-16 11:52:24

piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ENMO11G/backupset/2016_01_16/o1_mf_ncnn1_TAG20160116T115106_c9mhmq0c_.bkp tag=TAG20160116T115106 comment=NONE

channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:02

Finished backup at 2016-01-16 11:52:24

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

数据库恢复到三天前的任何一个时刻:

RMAN> configure retention policy to recovery window of 3 days;

 

new RMAN configuration parameters:

CONFIGURE RETENTION POLICY TO RECOVERY WINDOW OF 3 DAYS;

new RMAN configuration parameters are successfully stored

 

 

 

5

rman备份相关的动态性能视图:

SQL> desc v$archived_log;

 Name                                           Null?    Type

 ----------------------------------------- -------- ----------------------------

 RECID                                                    NUMBER

 STAMP                                                    NUMBER

 NAME                                                    VARCHAR2(513)

 DEST_ID                                            NUMBER

 THREAD#                                            NUMBER

 SEQUENCE#                                            NUMBER

 RESETLOGS_CHANGE#                                    NUMBER

 RESETLOGS_TIME                                     DATE

 RESETLOGS_ID                                            NUMBER

 FIRST_CHANGE#                                            NUMBER

 FIRST_TIME                                            DATE

 NEXT_CHANGE#                                            NUMBER

 NEXT_TIME                                            DATE

 BLOCKS                                             NUMBER

 BLOCK_SIZE                                            NUMBER

 CREATOR                                            VARCHAR2(7)

 REGISTRAR                                            VARCHAR2(7)

 STANDBY_DEST                                            VARCHAR2(3)

 ARCHIVED                                            VARCHAR2(3)

 APPLIED                                            VARCHAR2(9)

 DELETED                                            VARCHAR2(3)

 STATUS                                             VARCHAR2(1)

 COMPLETION_TIME                                    DATE

 DICTIONARY_BEGIN                                    VARCHAR2(3)

 DICTIONARY_END                                     VARCHAR2(3)

 END_OF_REDO                                            VARCHAR2(3)

 BACKUP_COUNT                                            NUMBER

 ARCHIVAL_THREAD#                                    NUMBER

 ACTIVATION#                                            NUMBER

 IS_RECOVERY_DEST_FILE                                    VARCHAR2(3)

 COMPRESSED                                            VARCHAR2(3)

 FAL                                                    VARCHAR2(3)

 END_OF_REDO_TYPE                                    VARCHAR2(10)

 BACKED_BY_VSS                                            VARCHAR2(3)

 

SQL> select recid,stamp from v$archived_log;

 

     RECID        STAMP

---------- ----------

 1  901199534

 2  901199536

 3  901199539

 4  901199539

 5  901200027

 6  901200027

 7  901200030

 8  901200030

 9  901200274

10  901200274

11  901212153

 

     RECID        STAMP

---------- ----------

12  901212157

13  901214467

14  901214471

15  901218429

16  901241096

17  901241166

18  901241170

19  901243194

20  901243196

21  901277131

22  901277135

 

     RECID        STAMP

---------- ----------

23  901277471

24  901277749

25  901277755

 

25 rows selected.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

v$backup_set视图中显示当前创建的备份集信息。

SQL> desc v$backup_set;

 Name                                           Null?    Type

 ----------------------------------------- -------- ----------------------------

 RECID                                                    NUMBER

 STAMP                                                    NUMBER

 SET_STAMP                                            NUMBER

 SET_COUNT                                            NUMBER

 BACKUP_TYPE                                            VARCHAR2(1)

 CONTROLFILE_INCLUDED                                    VARCHAR2(3)

 INCREMENTAL_LEVEL                                    NUMBER

 PIECES                                             NUMBER

 START_TIME                                            DATE

 COMPLETION_TIME                                    DATE

 ELAPSED_SECONDS                                    NUMBER

 BLOCK_SIZE                                            NUMBER

 INPUT_FILE_SCAN_ONLY                                    VARCHAR2(3)

 KEEP                                                    VARCHAR2(3)

 KEEP_UNTIL                                            DATE

 KEEP_OPTIONS                                            VARCHAR2(11)

 MULTI_SECTION                                            VARCHAR2(3)

 

SQL> select recid,set_stamp,backup_type,pieces from v$backup_set;

 

     RECID  SET_STAMP B     PIECES

---------- ---------- - ----------

 9  901241167 D          1

12  901277349 D          1

14  901277614 D          1

15  901277636 D          1

16  901277721 D          1

17  901277749 L          1

18  901277753 D          1

19  901277755 L          1

20  901280677 D          1

21  901280772 D          1

22  901280886 I          1

 

     RECID  SET_STAMP B     PIECES

---------- ---------- - ----------

23  901280901 I          1

24  901280940 I          1

25  901281066 I          1

26  901281141 I          1

 

15 rows selected.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

v$backup_piece视图中显示备份片段的信息。

SQL> desc v$backup_piece;

 Name                                           Null?    Type

 ----------------------------------------- -------- ----------------------------

 RECID                                                    NUMBER

 STAMP                                                    NUMBER

 SET_STAMP                                            NUMBER

 SET_COUNT                                            NUMBER

 PIECE#                                             NUMBER

 COPY#                                                    NUMBER

 DEVICE_TYPE                                            VARCHAR2(17)

 HANDLE                                             VARCHAR2(513)

 COMMENTS                                            VARCHAR2(64)

 MEDIA                                                    VARCHAR2(65)

 MEDIA_POOL                                            NUMBER

 CONCUR                                             VARCHAR2(3)

 TAG                                                    VARCHAR2(32)

 STATUS                                             VARCHAR2(1)

 START_TIME                                            DATE

 COMPLETION_TIME                                    DATE

 ELAPSED_SECONDS                                    NUMBER

 DELETED                                            VARCHAR2(3)

 BYTES                                                    NUMBER

 IS_RECOVERY_DEST_FILE                                    VARCHAR2(3)

 RMAN_STATUS_RECID                                    NUMBER

 RMAN_STATUS_STAMP                                    NUMBER

 COMPRESSED                                            VARCHAR2(3)

 BACKED_BY_VSS                                            VARCHAR2(3)

 ENCRYPTED                                            VARCHAR2(3)

 BACKED_BY_OSB                                            VARCHAR2(3)

 

SQL> select  BACKED_BY_VSS,BACKED_BY_OSB,COMPLETION_TIME from v$backup_piece;

 

BAC BAC COMPLETIO

--- --- ---------

NO  NO        15-JAN-16

NO  NO        15-JAN-16

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

 

BAC BAC COMPLETIO

--- --- ---------

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

 

BAC BAC COMPLETIO

--- --- ---------

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

 

BAC BAC COMPLETIO

--- --- ---------

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

NO  NO        16-JAN-16

 

36 rows selected.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

v$backup_corruption视图中记录了备份集中发现的损坏的数据库:

SQL> desc v$backup_corruption;

 Name                                           Null?    Type

 ----------------------------------------- -------- ----------------------------

 RECID                                                    NUMBER

 STAMP                                                    NUMBER

 SET_STAMP                                            NUMBER

 SET_COUNT                                            NUMBER

 PIECE#                                             NUMBER

 FILE#                                                    NUMBER

 BLOCK#                                             NUMBER

 BLOCKS                                             NUMBER

 CORRUPTION_CHANGE#                                    NUMBER

 MARKED_CORRUPT                                     VARCHAR2(3)

 CORRUPTION_TYPE                                    VARCHAR2(9)

 

SQL> select PIECE#,FILE#, BLOCKS, BLOCKS, CORRUPTION_CHANGE# from v$backup_corruption;

 

no rows selected

 

 

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