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【优化】COUNT(1)、COUNT(*)、COUNT(常量)、COUNT(主键)、COUNT(ROWID)等

Oracle 作者:bitifi 时间:2017-04-01 16:13:07 0 删除 编辑

优化COUNT(1)COUNT(*)COUNT(常量)COUNT(主键)COUNT(ROWID)COUNT(非空列)COUNT(允许为空列)COUNT(DISTINCT 列名)

 

1.1  BLOG文档结构图

wps41BA.tmp 

 

1.2  前言部分

1.2.1  导读和注意事项

各位技术爱好者,看完本文后,你可以掌握如下的技能,也可以学到一些其它你所不知道的知识,~O(∩_∩)O~

COUNT(1)和COUNT(*)的区别(重点)

10046和10053的使用

SELECT COUNT()”和“SELECT 列”在选择索引方面的区别

COUNT计数的优化

Tips

本文在itpubhttp://blog.itpub.net/26736162)、博客园(http://www.cnblogs.com/lhrbest)和微信公众号(xiaomaimiaolhr有同步更新

文章中用到的所有代码相关软件相关资料及本文的pdf版本都请前往小麦苗的云盘下载小麦苗的云盘地址见:http://blog.itpub.net/26736162/viewspace-1624453/

若网页文章代码格式有错乱,下载pdf格式的文档来阅读

本篇BLOG,代码输出部分一般放在一行一列的表格中。

⑤ 本文适合于Oracle初中级人员阅读,Oracle大师请略过本文。

本文有错误或不完善的地方请大家多多指正,您的批评指正是我写作的最大动力。

1.2.2  本文简介

看了很多有关COUNT(1)和COUNT(*)的区别和效率,众说纷纭。最终还是决定自己动手实验一番。

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

第二章 实验部分

2.1  实验环境介绍

项目

source db

db 类型

RAC

db version

11.2.0.3.0

db 存储

ASM

OS版本及kernel版本

RHEL 6.5

2.2  实验目标

弄清楚COUNT(1)、COUNT(*)COUNT(常量)COUNT(主键)COUNT(ROWID)COUNT(非空列)COUNT(允许为空列)COUNT(DISTINCT 列名)之间的区别,以及它们之间的效率问题。

2.3  实验过程

2.3.1  实验脚本

--创建1W行的表

DROP TABLE T_COUNT_LHR;

CREATE TABLE T_COUNT_LHR AS

SELECT OBJECT_ID,

       OBJECT_NAME,

       OWNER,

       DATA_OBJECT_ID,

       OBJECT_TYPE,

       LAST_DDL_TIME

  FROM DBA_OBJECTS D

WHERE D.OBJECT_ID IS NOT NULL

   AND D.OBJECT_NAME IS NOT NULL

   AND ROWNUM <= 10000;

 

 

--更新空值,

UPDATE T_COUNT_LHR t SET t.object_type='' WHERE Rownum<=5;

UPDATE T_COUNT_LHR t SET t.LAST_DDL_TIME=T.LAST_DDL_TIME+ROWNUM;

UPDATE T_COUNT_LHR t SET t.LAST_DDL_TIME='' WHERE Rownum<=1;

COMMIT;

 

 

--添加主键、非空约束、唯一索引、普通索引

ALTER TABLE T_COUNT_LHR ADD CONSTRAINT PK_OBJECT_ID PRIMARY KEY(OBJECT_ID);

ALTER TABLE T_COUNT_LHR MODIFY OBJECT_NAME NOT NULL;

CREATE UNIQUE INDEX IDX_LDT ON T_COUNT_LHR(LAST_DDL_TIME);

CREATE  INDEX IDX_DATA_OBJECT_ID ON T_COUNT_LHR(DATA_OBJECT_ID);

CREATE  INDEX IDX_DATA_OWNER ON T_COUNT_LHR(OWNER);

ALTER TABLE T_COUNT_LHR MODIFY OWNER NOT NULL;

 

 

--收集统计信息

EXEC dbms_stats.gather_table_stats(USER,'T_COUNT_LHR');

SELECT d.COLUMN_NAME,d.DATA_TYPE,d.NUM_NULLS,d.NUM_DISTINCT,d.LAST_ANALYZED FROM cols d WHERE d.TABLE_NAME='T_COUNT_LHR';

 

wps41BB.tmp 

表的信息如下所示:

列名

是否主键

是否允许为空

是否有索引

数据类型

空值的行数

不同值的行数

总行数

OBJECT_ID

Y

N

唯一索引

NUMBER

0

10000

10000

OBJECT_NAME

 

N

VARCHAR2

0

8112

10000

OWNER

 

N

普通索引(IDX_OWNER

VARCHAR2

0

5

10000

DATA_OBJECT_ID

 

Y

普通索引(IDX_DATA_OBJECT_ID

NUMBER

7645

2318

10000

OBJECT_TYPE

 

Y

VARCHAR2

5

20

10000

LAST_DDL_TIME

 

Y

唯一索引(IDX_LDT

DATE

1

9999

10000

 

需要统计如下几种情况:

SELECT COUNT(1) FROM T_COUNT_LHR;--走索引

SELECT COUNT(*) FROM T_COUNT_LHR;--走索引

SELECT COUNT(ROWID) FROM T_COUNT_LHR; --走索引

SELECT COUNT(OBJECT_ID) FROM T_COUNT_LHR; --走索引

SELECT COUNT(OBJECT_NAME) FROM T_COUNT_LHR;--走索引

SELECT COUNT(OWNER) FROM T_COUNT_LHR D;--走索引

SELECT COUNT(D.DATA_OBJECT_ID) FROM T_COUNT_LHR D; --走索引

SELECT COUNT(D.LAST_DDL_TIME) FROM T_COUNT_LHR D;--走索引

SELECT COUNT(D.LAST_DDL_TIME) FROM T_COUNT_LHR D WHERE D.LAST_DDL_TIME IS NOT NULL;--走索引

SELECT D.LAST_DDL_TIME FROM T_COUNT_LHR D; --不走索引

SELECT D.LAST_DDL_TIME FROM T_COUNT_LHR D WHERE D.LAST_DDL_TIME IS NOT NULL;--走索引

SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT DATA_OBJECT_ID) FROM T_COUNT_LHR D;--不走索引

SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT OWNER) FROM T_COUNT_LHR D;--走索引

SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT DATA_OBJECT_ID) FROM T_COUNT_LHR D WHERE DATA_OBJECT_ID IS NOT NULL ;--走索引

 

2.3.2  执行计划

介绍

SQL命令

执行计划

返回行数

COUNT(1)COUNT(常量)是一样的,SELECT COUNT(*) "COUNT(1)" FROM "LHR"."T_COUNT_LHR" "T_COUNT_LHR"

SELECT COUNT(1) FROM T_COUNT_LHR;

Plan hash value: 1265209789

|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

| Id  | Operation             | Name         | Rows  | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |

|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT      |              |     1 |     7   (0)| 00:00:01 |

|   1 |  SORT AGGREGATE       |              |     1 |            |          |

|   2 |   INDEX FAST FULL SCAN| PK_OBJECT_ID | 10000 |     7   (0)| 00:00:01 |

|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

10000

SELECT COUNT(*) "COUNT(*)" FROM "LHR"."T_COUNT_LHR" "T_COUNT_LHR"

SELECT COUNT(*) FROM T_COUNT_LHR;

Plan hash value: 1265209789

|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

| Id  | Operation             | Name         | Rows  | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |

|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT      |              |     1 |     7   (0)| 00:00:01 |

|   1 |  SORT AGGREGATE       |              |     1 |            |          |

|   2 |   INDEX FAST FULL SCAN| PK_OBJECT_ID | 10000 |     7   (0)| 00:00:01 |

|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

10000

SELECT COUNT("T_COUNT_LHR".ROWID) "COUNT(ROWID)" FROM "LHR"."T_COUNT_LHR" "T_COUNT_LHR"

SELECT COUNT(ROWID) FROM T_COUNT_LHR;

Plan hash value: 1265209789

|-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

| Id  | Operation             | Name         | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |

|-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT      |              |     1 |    12 |     7   (0)| 00:00:01 |

|   1 |  SORT AGGREGATE       |              |     1 |    12 |            |          |

|   2 |   INDEX FAST FULL SCAN| PK_OBJECT_ID | 10000 |   117K|     7   (0)| 00:00:01 |

|-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

10000

SELECT COUNT(*) "COUNT(OBJECT_ID)" FROM "LHR"."T_COUNT_LHR" "T_COUNT_LHR"

SELECT COUNT(OBJECT_ID) FROM T_COUNT_LHR;

Plan hash value: 1265209789

|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

| Id  | Operation             | Name         | Rows  | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |

|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT      |              |     1 |     7   (0)| 00:00:01 |

|   1 |  SORT AGGREGATE       |              |     1 |            |          |

|   2 |   INDEX FAST FULL SCAN| PK_OBJECT_ID | 10000 |     7   (0)| 00:00:01 |

|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

10000

SELECT COUNT(*) "COUNT(OBJECT_NAME)" FROM "LHR"."T_COUNT_LHR" "T_COUNT_LHR"

SELECT COUNT(OBJECT_NAME) FROM T_COUNT_LHR;

Plan hash value: 1265209789

|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

| Id  | Operation             | Name         | Rows  | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |

|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT      |              |     1 |     7   (0)| 00:00:01 |

|   1 |  SORT AGGREGATE       |              |     1 |            |          |

|   2 |   INDEX FAST FULL SCAN| PK_OBJECT_ID | 10000 |     7   (0)| 00:00:01 |

|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

10000

OWNER列含有索引,非空列,选择主键索引

SELECT COUNT(OWNER) FROM T_COUNT_LHR D;

Plan hash value: 1265209789

|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

| Id  | Operation             | Name         | Rows  | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |

|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT      |              |     1 |     7   (0)| 00:00:01 |

|   1 |  SORT AGGREGATE       |              |     1 |            |          |

|   2 |   INDEX FAST FULL SCAN| PK_OBJECT_ID | 10000 |     7   (0)| 00:00:01 |

|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

10000

DATA_OBJECT_ID列允许为空,含有普通索引

SELECT COUNT(D.DATA_OBJECT_ID) FROM T_COUNT_LHR D;

Plan hash value: 2404962198

|-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

| Id  | Operation             | Name               | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |

|-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT      |                    |     1 |     2 |     3   (0)| 00:00:01 |

|   1 |  SORT AGGREGATE       |                    |     1 |     2 |            |          |

|   2 |   INDEX FAST FULL SCAN| IDX_DATA_OBJECT_ID | 10000 | 20000 |     3   (0)| 00:00:01 |

|-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2355

注意,COUNT(列)计算的是列值为非空的行数

SELECT COUNT(D.LAST_DDL_TIME) FROM T_COUNT_LHR D;

Plan hash value: 887614938

|--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

| Id  | Operation             | Name    | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |

|--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT      |         |     1 |     8 |     9   (0)| 00:00:01 |

|   1 |  SORT AGGREGATE       |         |     1 |     8 |            |          |

|   2 |   INDEX FAST FULL SCAN| IDX_LDT | 10000 | 80000 |     9   (0)| 00:00:01 |

|--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

9999

SELECT COUNT(D.LAST_DDL_TIME) FROM T_COUNT_LHR D WHERE D.LAST_DDL_TIME IS NOT NULL;

Plan hash value: 887614938

|--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

| Id  | Operation             | Name    | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |

|--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT      |         |     1 |     8 |     9   (0)| 00:00:01 |

|   1 |  SORT AGGREGATE       |         |     1 |     8 |            |          |

|*  2 |   INDEX FAST FULL SCAN| IDX_LDT |  9999 | 79992 |     9   (0)| 00:00:01 |

|--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

9999

由于列中存在空值,所以不会选择索引。加上IS NOT NULL就可以选择索引了。

SELECT D.LAST_DDL_TIME FROM T_COUNT_LHR D;

Plan hash value: 2392171920

|--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

| Id  | Operation         | Name        | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |

|--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT  |             | 10000 | 80000 |    22   (0)| 00:00:01 |

|   1 |  TABLE ACCESS FULL| T_COUNT_LHR | 10000 | 80000 |    22   (0)| 00:00:01 |

|--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

10000

SELECT D.LAST_DDL_TIME FROM T_COUNT_LHR D WHERE D.LAST_DDL_TIME IS NOT NULL;

Plan hash value: 2419516343

|-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

| Id  | Operation            | Name    | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |

|-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT     |         |  9999 | 79992 |     9   (0)| 00:00:01 |

|*  1 |  INDEX FAST FULL SCAN| IDX_LDT |  9999 | 79992 |     9   (0)| 00:00:01 |

|-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

9999

DISTINCT允许为空列不会选择索引,而DISTINCT非空列会选择索引

SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT DATA_OBJECT_ID) FROM T_COUNT_LHR D;

Plan hash value: 3258478826

|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

| Id  | Operation            | Name        | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |

|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT     |             |     1 |    13 |    23   (5)| 00:00:01 |

|   1 |  SORT AGGREGATE      |             |     1 |    13 |            |          |

|   2 |   VIEW               | VW_DAG_0    |  2318 | 30134 |    23   (5)| 00:00:01 |

|   3 |    HASH GROUP BY     |             |  2318 |  4636 |    23   (5)| 00:00:01 |

|   4 |     TABLE ACCESS FULL| T_COUNT_LHR | 10000 | 20000 |    22   (0)| 00:00:01 |

|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2318

SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT OWNER) FROM T_COUNT_LHR D;

Plan hash value: 4008695099

|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

| Id  | Operation               | Name           | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |

|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT        |                |     1 |    17 |     9  (12)| 00:00:01 |

|   1 |  SORT AGGREGATE         |                |     1 |    17 |            |          |

|   2 |   VIEW                  | VW_DAG_0       |     5 |    85 |     9  (12)| 00:00:01 |

|   3 |    HASH GROUP BY        |                |     5 |    30 |     9  (12)| 00:00:01 |

|   4 |     INDEX FAST FULL SCAN| IDX_DATA_OWNER | 10000 | 60000 |     8   (0)| 00:00:01 |

|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5

 

2.3.3  10046事件

alter session set events '10046 trace name context forever, level 12';

SELECT COUNT(*) FROM T_COUNT_LHR;

alter system flush buffer_cache;

alter system flush shared_pool;

SELECT COUNT(1) FROM T_COUNT_LHR;

alter system flush buffer_cache;

alter system flush shared_pool;

SELECT COUNT(ROWID) FROM T_COUNT_LHR;

alter session set events '10046 trace name context OFF';

select value from v$diag_info where name like '%Default%';

exit

 

tkprof orclasm_ora_13825.trc orclasm_ora_13825.out

 

alter system flush buffer_cache;

alter system flush shared_pool;

alter session set sql_trace=true;

SELECT COUNT(*) FROM T_COUNT_LHR;

alter system flush buffer_cache;

alter system flush shared_pool;

SELECT COUNT(1) FROM T_COUNT_LHR;

alter system flush buffer_cache;

alter system flush shared_pool;

SELECT COUNT(ROWID) FROM T_COUNT_LHR;

alter session set sql_trace=false;

select value from v$diag_info where name like '%Default%';

 

 

********************************************************************************

count    = number of times OCI procedure was executed

cpu      = cpu time in seconds executing

elapsed  = elapsed time in seconds executing

disk     = number of physical reads of buffers from disk

query    = number of buffers gotten for consistent read

current  = number of buffers gotten in current mode (usually for update)

rows     = number of rows processed by the fetch or execute call

 

********************************************************************************

 

SQL ID: g9rksvy7gkdmj Plan Hash: 1265209789

 

SELECT COUNT(*)

FROM

T_COUNT_LHR

 

 

call     count       cpu    elapsed       disk      query    current        rows

------- ------  -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------  ----------

Parse        1      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           0

Execute      1      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           0

Fetch        2      0.00       0.55         22         25          0           1

------- ------  -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------  ----------

total        4      0.01       0.56         22         25          0           1

 

Misses in library cache during parse: 1

Optimizer mode: ALL_ROWS

Parsing user id: 90 

Number of plan statistics captured: 1

 

Rows (1st) Rows (avg) Rows (max)  Row Source Operation

---------- ---------- ----------  ---------------------------------------------------

         1          1          1  SORT AGGREGATE (cr=25 pr=22 pw=0 time=552894 us)

     10000      10000      10000   INDEX FAST FULL SCAN PK_OBJECT_ID (cr=25 pr=22 pw=0 time=2502 us cost=7 size=0 card=10000)(object id 159543)

 

********************************************************************************

 

SQL ID: 4abkxq9x7uamj Plan Hash: 1265209789

 

SELECT COUNT(1)

FROM

T_COUNT_LHR

 

 

call     count       cpu    elapsed       disk      query    current        rows

------- ------  -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------  ----------

Parse        1      0.00       0.01          0          0          0           0

Execute      1      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           0

Fetch        2      0.00       0.00         22         25          0           1

------- ------  -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------  ----------

total        4      0.00       0.01         22         25          0           1

 

Misses in library cache during parse: 1

Optimizer mode: ALL_ROWS

Parsing user id: 90 

Number of plan statistics captured: 1

 

Rows (1st) Rows (avg) Rows (max)  Row Source Operation

---------- ---------- ----------  ---------------------------------------------------

         1          1          1  SORT AGGREGATE (cr=25 pr=22 pw=0 time=5934 us)

     10000      10000      10000   INDEX FAST FULL SCAN PK_OBJECT_ID (cr=25 pr=22 pw=0 time=2469 us cost=7 size=0 card=10000)(object id 159543)

 

********************************************************************************

 

SQL ID: 4tm3jwzff8ub8 Plan Hash: 1265209789

 

SELECT COUNT(ROWID)

FROM

T_COUNT_LHR

 

 

call     count       cpu    elapsed       disk      query    current        rows

------- ------  -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------  ----------

Parse        1      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           0

Execute      1      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           0

Fetch        2      0.00       0.01         22         25          0           1

------- ------  -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------  ----------

total        4      0.00       0.01         22         25          0           1

 

Misses in library cache during parse: 1

Optimizer mode: ALL_ROWS

Parsing user id: 90 

Number of plan statistics captured: 1

 

Rows (1st) Rows (avg) Rows (max)  Row Source Operation

---------- ---------- ----------  ---------------------------------------------------

         1          1          1  SORT AGGREGATE (cr=25 pr=22 pw=0 time=11264 us)

     10000      10000      10000   INDEX FAST FULL SCAN PK_OBJECT_ID (cr=25 pr=22 pw=0 time=762 us cost=7 size=120000 card=10000)(object id 159543)

 

********************************************************************************

 

2.3.4  10053事件

alter session set events '10053 trace name context forever, level 12';

alter session set events '10053 trace name context OFF';

alter system flush buffer_cache;

alter system flush shared_pool;

alter session set events '10053 trace name context forever, level 12';

SELECT COUNT(*) FROM T_COUNT_LHR;

alter system flush buffer_cache;

alter system flush shared_pool;

SELECT COUNT(1) FROM T_COUNT_LHR;

alter system flush buffer_cache;

alter system flush shared_pool;

SELECT COUNT(ROWID) FROM T_COUNT_LHR;

alter session set events '10053 trace name context OFF';

select value from v$diag_info where name like '%Default%';

 

 

 

搜索关键词Final”、“Starting”:

 

 

 

Final query after transformations:******* UNPARSED QUERY IS *******

SELECT COUNT(*) "COUNT(*)" FROM "LHR"."T_COUNT_LHR" "T_COUNT_LHR"

kkoqbc: optimizing query block SEL$1 (#0)

       

        :

    call(in-use=1216, alloc=16344), compile(in-use=58000, alloc=58544), execution(in-use=2480, alloc=4032)

 

kkoqbc-subheap (create addr=0x7f9950a9fb58)

****************

QUERY BLOCK TEXT

****************

SELECT COUNT(*) FROM T_COUNT_LHR

---------------------

QUERY BLOCK SIGNATURE

---------------------

signature (optimizer): qb_name=SEL$1 nbfros=1 flg=0

  fro(0): flg=0 objn=159542 hint_alias="T_COUNT_LHR"@"SEL$1"

 

-----------------------------

SYSTEM STATISTICS INFORMATION

-----------------------------

  Using NOWORKLOAD Stats

  CPUSPEEDNW: 1752 millions instructions/sec (default is 100)

  IOTFRSPEED: 4096 bytes per millisecond (default is 4096)

  IOSEEKTIM:  10 milliseconds (default is 10)

  MBRC:       NO VALUE blocks (default is 8)

 

***************************************

BASE STATISTICAL INFORMATION

***********************

Table Stats::

  Table: T_COUNT_LHR  Alias: T_COUNT_LHR

    #Rows: 10000  #Blks:  75  AvgRowLen:  44.00  ChainCnt:  0.00

Index Stats::

  Index: IDX_DATA_OBJECT_ID  Col#: 4

    LVLS: 1  #LB: 5  #DK: 2318  LB/K: 1.00  DB/K: 1.00  CLUF: 86.00

  Index: IDX_DATA_OWNER  Col#: 3

    LVLS: 1  #LB: 23  #DK: 5  LB/K: 4.00  DB/K: 28.00  CLUF: 141.00

  Index: IDX_LDT  Col#: 6

    LVLS: 1  #LB: 26  #DK: 9999  LB/K: 1.00  DB/K: 1.00  CLUF: 377.00

  Index: PK_OBJECT_ID  Col#: 1

    LVLS: 1  #LB: 20  #DK: 10000  LB/K: 1.00  DB/K: 1.00  CLUF: 76.00

    Access path analysis for T_COUNT_LHR

***************************************

SINGLE TABLE ACCESS PATH

  Single Table Cardinality Estimation for T_COUNT_LHR[T_COUNT_LHR]

  Table: T_COUNT_LHR  Alias: T_COUNT_LHR

    Card: Original: 10000.000000  Rounded: 10000  Computed: 10000.00  Non Adjusted: 10000.00

  Access Path: TableScan

    Cost:  22.10  Resp: 22.10  Degree: 0

      Cost_io: 22.00  Cost_cpu: 2034108

      Resp_io: 22.00  Resp_cpu: 2034108

  Access Path: index (index (FFS))

    Index: IDX_DATA_OWNER

    resc_io: 8.00  resc_cpu: 1363793

    ix_sel: 0.000000  ix_sel_with_filters: 1.000000

  Access Path: index (FFS)

    Cost:  8.06  Resp: 8.06  Degree: 1

      Cost_io: 8.00  Cost_cpu: 1363793

      Resp_io: 8.00  Resp_cpu: 1363793

  Access Path: index (index (FFS))

    Index: PK_OBJECT_ID

    resc_io: 7.00  resc_cpu: 1342429

    ix_sel: 0.000000  ix_sel_with_filters: 1.000000

  Access Path: index (FFS)

    Cost:  7.06  Resp: 7.06  Degree: 1

      Cost_io: 7.00  Cost_cpu: 1342429

      Resp_io: 7.00  Resp_cpu: 1342429

  Access Path: index (FullScan)

    Index: IDX_DATA_OWNER

    resc_io: 24.00  resc_cpu: 2170915

    ix_sel: 1.000000  ix_sel_with_filters: 1.000000

    Cost: 24.10  Resp: 24.10  Degree: 1

  Access Path: index (FullScan)

    Index: PK_OBJECT_ID

    resc_io: 21.00  resc_cpu: 2149550

    ix_sel: 1.000000  ix_sel_with_filters: 1.000000

    Cost: 21.10  Resp: 21.10  Degree: 1

  ****** trying bitmap/domain indexes ******

  Access Path: index (FullScan)

    Index: IDX_DATA_OWNER

    resc_io: 24.00  resc_cpu: 2170915

    ix_sel: 1.000000  ix_sel_with_filters: 1.000000

    Cost: 24.10  Resp: 24.10  Degree: 0

  Access Path: index (FullScan)

    Index: PK_OBJECT_ID

    resc_io: 21.00  resc_cpu: 2149550

    ix_sel: 1.000000  ix_sel_with_filters: 1.000000

    Cost: 21.10  Resp: 21.10  Degree: 0

  ****** finished trying bitmap/domain indexes ******

******** Begin index join costing ********

  ****** trying bitmap/domain indexes ******

  Access Path: index (FullScan)

    Index: IDX_DATA_OWNER

    resc_io: 24.00  resc_cpu: 2170915

    ix_sel: 1.000000  ix_sel_with_filters: 1.000000

    Cost: 24.10  Resp: 24.10  Degree: 0

  Access Path: index (FullScan)

    Index: PK_OBJECT_ID

    resc_io: 21.00  resc_cpu: 2149550

    ix_sel: 1.000000  ix_sel_with_filters: 1.000000

    Cost: 21.10  Resp: 21.10  Degree: 0

  Access Path: index (FullScan)

    Index: PK_OBJECT_ID

    resc_io: 21.00  resc_cpu: 2149550

    ix_sel: 1.000000  ix_sel_with_filters: 1.000000

    Cost: 21.10  Resp: 21.10  Degree: 0

  Bitmap nodes:

    Used PK_OBJECT_ID

      Cost = 26.377821, sel = 1.000000

  ****** finished trying bitmap/domain indexes ******

******** End index join costing ********

  Best:: AccessPath: IndexFFS

  Index: PK_OBJECT_ID

         Cost: 7.06  Degree: 1  Resp: 7.06  Card: 10000.00  Bytes: 0

 

***************************************

。。。。。。。。。。。。。。

 

Starting SQL statement dump

 

user_id=90 user_name=LHR module=SQL*Plus action=

sql_id=g9rksvy7gkdmj plan_hash_value=1265209789 problem_type=3

----- Current SQL Statement for this session (sql_id=g9rksvy7gkdmj) -----

SELECT COUNT(*) FROM T_COUNT_LHR

sql_text_length=33

sql=SELECT COUNT(*) FROM T_COUNT_LHR

----- Explain Plan Dump -----

----- Plan Table -----

 

============

Plan Table

============

---------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+

| Id  | Operation              | Name        | Rows  | Bytes | Cost  | Time      |

---------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+

| 0   | SELECT STATEMENT       |             |       |       |     7 |           |

| 1   |  SORT AGGREGATE        |             |     1 |       |       |           |

| 2   |   INDEX FAST FULL SCAN | PK_OBJECT_ID|   10K |       |     7 |  00:00:01 |

---------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+

Predicate Information:

----------------------

 

Content of other_xml column

===========================

  db_version     : 11.2.0.3

  parse_schema   : LHR

  plan_hash      : 1265209789

  plan_hash_2    : 3881728982

  Outline Data:

  /*+

    BEGIN_OUTLINE_DATA

      IGNORE_OPTIM_EMBEDDED_HINTS

      OPTIMIZER_FEATURES_ENABLE('11.2.0.3')

      DB_VERSION('11.2.0.3')

      OPT_PARAM('star_transformation_enabled' 'true')

      ALL_ROWS

      OUTLINE_LEAF(@"SEL$1")

      INDEX_FFS(@"SEL$1" "T_COUNT_LHR"@"SEL$1" ("T_COUNT_LHR"."OBJECT_ID"))

    END_OUTLINE_DATA

  */

 

  。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。

====================== END SQL Statement Dump ======================

 

 

Final query after transformations:******* UNPARSED QUERY IS *******

SELECT COUNT(*) "COUNT(1)" FROM "LHR"."T_COUNT_LHR" "T_COUNT_LHR"

kkoqbc: optimizing query block SEL$1 (#0)

       

        :

    call(in-use=1240, alloc=16344), compile(in-use=58312, alloc=58544), execution(in-use=2480, alloc=4032)

 

kkoqbc-subheap (create addr=0x7f9950a9fb58)

****************

QUERY BLOCK TEXT

****************

SELECT COUNT(1) FROM T_COUNT_LHR

---------------------

QUERY BLOCK SIGNATURE

---------------------

signature (optimizer): qb_name=SEL$1 nbfros=1 flg=0

  fro(0): flg=0 objn=159542 hint_alias="T_COUNT_LHR"@"SEL$1"

 

-----------------------------

SYSTEM STATISTICS INFORMATION

-----------------------------

  Using NOWORKLOAD Stats

  CPUSPEEDNW: 1752 millions instructions/sec (default is 100)

  IOTFRSPEED: 4096 bytes per millisecond (default is 4096)

  IOSEEKTIM:  10 milliseconds (default is 10)

  MBRC:       NO VALUE blocks (default is 8)

 

***************************************

BASE STATISTICAL INFORMATION

***********************

Table Stats::

  Table: T_COUNT_LHR  Alias: T_COUNT_LHR

    #Rows: 10000  #Blks:  75  AvgRowLen:  44.00  ChainCnt:  0.00

Index Stats::

  Index: IDX_DATA_OBJECT_ID  Col#: 4

    LVLS: 1  #LB: 5  #DK: 2318  LB/K: 1.00  DB/K: 1.00  CLUF: 86.00

  Index: IDX_DATA_OWNER  Col#: 3

    LVLS: 1  #LB: 23  #DK: 5  LB/K: 4.00  DB/K: 28.00  CLUF: 141.00

  Index: IDX_LDT  Col#: 6

    LVLS: 1  #LB: 26  #DK: 9999  LB/K: 1.00  DB/K: 1.00  CLUF: 377.00

  Index: PK_OBJECT_ID  Col#: 1

    LVLS: 1  #LB: 20  #DK: 10000  LB/K: 1.00  DB/K: 1.00  CLUF: 76.00

Access path analysis for T_COUNT_LHR

***************************************

SINGLE TABLE ACCESS PATH

  Single Table Cardinality Estimation for T_COUNT_LHR[T_COUNT_LHR]

  Table: T_COUNT_LHR  Alias: T_COUNT_LHR

    Card: Original: 10000.000000  Rounded: 10000  Computed: 10000.00  Non Adjusted: 10000.00

  Access Path: TableScan

    Cost:  22.10  Resp: 22.10  Degree: 0

      Cost_io: 22.00  Cost_cpu: 2034108

      Resp_io: 22.00  Resp_cpu: 2034108

  Access Path: index (index (FFS))

    Index: IDX_DATA_OWNER

    resc_io: 8.00  resc_cpu: 1363793

    ix_sel: 0.000000  ix_sel_with_filters: 1.000000

  Access Path: index (FFS)

    Cost:  8.06  Resp: 8.06  Degree: 1

      Cost_io: 8.00  Cost_cpu: 1363793

      Resp_io: 8.00  Resp_cpu: 1363793

  Access Path: index (index (FFS))

    Index: PK_OBJECT_ID

    resc_io: 7.00  resc_cpu: 1342429

    ix_sel: 0.000000  ix_sel_with_filters: 1.000000

  Access Path: index (FFS)

    Cost:  7.06  Resp: 7.06  Degree: 1

      Cost_io: 7.00  Cost_cpu: 1342429

      Resp_io: 7.00  Resp_cpu: 1342429

  Access Path: index (FullScan)

    Index: IDX_DATA_OWNER

    resc_io: 24.00  resc_cpu: 2170915

    ix_sel: 1.000000  ix_sel_with_filters: 1.000000

    Cost: 24.10  Resp: 24.10  Degree: 1

  Access Path: index (FullScan)

    Index: PK_OBJECT_ID

    resc_io: 21.00  resc_cpu: 2149550

    ix_sel: 1.000000  ix_sel_with_filters: 1.000000

    Cost: 21.10  Resp: 21.10  Degree: 1

  ****** trying bitmap/domain indexes ******

  Access Path: index (FullScan)

    Index: IDX_DATA_OWNER

    resc_io: 24.00  resc_cpu: 2170915

    ix_sel: 1.000000  ix_sel_with_filters: 1.000000

    Cost: 24.10  Resp: 24.10  Degree: 0

  Access Path: index (FullScan)

    Index: PK_OBJECT_ID

    resc_io: 21.00  resc_cpu: 2149550

    ix_sel: 1.000000  ix_sel_with_filters: 1.000000

    Cost: 21.10  Resp: 21.10  Degree: 0

  ****** finished trying bitmap/domain indexes ******

******** Begin index join costing ********

  ****** trying bitmap/domain indexes ******

  Access Path: index (FullScan)

    Index: IDX_DATA_OWNER

    resc_io: 24.00  resc_cpu: 2170915

    ix_sel: 1.000000  ix_sel_with_filters: 1.000000

    Cost: 24.10  Resp: 24.10  Degree: 0

  Access Path: index (FullScan)

    Index: PK_OBJECT_ID

    resc_io: 21.00  resc_cpu: 2149550

    ix_sel: 1.000000  ix_sel_with_filters: 1.000000

    Cost: 21.10  Resp: 21.10  Degree: 0

  Access Path: index (FullScan)

    Index: PK_OBJECT_ID

    resc_io: 21.00  resc_cpu: 2149550

    ix_sel: 1.000000  ix_sel_with_filters: 1.000000

    Cost: 21.10  Resp: 21.10  Degree: 0

  Bitmap nodes:

    Used PK_OBJECT_ID

      Cost = 26.377821, sel = 1.000000

  ****** finished trying bitmap/domain indexes ******

******** End index join costing ********

  Best:: AccessPath: IndexFFS

  Index: PK_OBJECT_ID

         Cost: 7.06  Degree: 1  Resp: 7.06  Card: 10000.00  Bytes: 0

 

***************************************

。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。

Starting SQL statement dump

 

user_id=90 user_name=LHR module=SQL*Plus action=

sql_id=4abkxq9x7uamj plan_hash_value=1265209789 problem_type=3

----- Current SQL Statement for this session (sql_id=4abkxq9x7uamj) -----

SELECT COUNT(1) FROM T_COUNT_LHR

sql_text_length=33

sql=SELECT COUNT(1) FROM T_COUNT_LHR

----- Explain Plan Dump -----

----- Plan Table -----

 

============

Plan Table

============

---------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+

| Id  | Operation              | Name        | Rows  | Bytes | Cost  | Time      |

---------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+

| 0   | SELECT STATEMENT       |             |       |       |     7 |           |

| 1   |  SORT AGGREGATE        |             |     1 |       |       |           |

| 2   |   INDEX FAST FULL SCAN | PK_OBJECT_ID|   10K |       |     7 |  00:00:01 |

---------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+

Predicate Information:

----------------------

 

Content of other_xml column

===========================

  db_version     : 11.2.0.3

  parse_schema   : LHR

  plan_hash      : 1265209789

  plan_hash_2    : 3881728982

  Outline Data:

  /*+

    BEGIN_OUTLINE_DATA

      IGNORE_OPTIM_EMBEDDED_HINTS

      OPTIMIZER_FEATURES_ENABLE('11.2.0.3')

      DB_VERSION('11.2.0.3')

      OPT_PARAM('star_transformation_enabled' 'true')

      ALL_ROWS

      OUTLINE_LEAF(@"SEL$1")

      INDEX_FFS(@"SEL$1" "T_COUNT_LHR"@"SEL$1" ("T_COUNT_LHR"."OBJECT_ID"))

    END_OUTLINE_DATA

  */

 

 

 

 

====================== END SQL Statement Dump ======================

 

 

******************************************

----- Current SQL Statement for this session (sql_id=4tm3jwzff8ub8) -----

SELECT COUNT(ROWID) FROM T_COUNT_LHR

*******************************************

。。。。。。。。。

Final query after transformations:******* UNPARSED QUERY IS *******

SELECT COUNT("T_COUNT_LHR".ROWID) "COUNT(ROWID)" FROM "LHR"."T_COUNT_LHR" "T_COUNT_LHR"

kkoqbc: optimizing query block SEL$1 (#0)

       

        :

    call(in-use=1240, alloc=16344), compile(in-use=58224, alloc=62688), execution(in-use=2480, alloc=4032)

 

kkoqbc-subheap (create addr=0x7f9950a9fb58)

****************

QUERY BLOCK TEXT

****************

SELECT COUNT(ROWID) FROM T_COUNT_LHR

---------------------

QUERY BLOCK SIGNATURE

---------------------

signature (optimizer): qb_name=SEL$1 nbfros=1 flg=0

  fro(0): flg=0 objn=159542 hint_alias="T_COUNT_LHR"@"SEL$1"

 

-----------------------------

SYSTEM STATISTICS INFORMATION

-----------------------------

  Using NOWORKLOAD Stats

  CPUSPEEDNW: 1752 millions instructions/sec (default is 100)

  IOTFRSPEED: 4096 bytes per millisecond (default is 4096)

  IOSEEKTIM:  10 milliseconds (default is 10)

  MBRC:       NO VALUE blocks (default is 8)

 

***************************************

BASE STATISTICAL INFORMATION

***********************

Table Stats::

  Table: T_COUNT_LHR  Alias: T_COUNT_LHR

    #Rows: 10000  #Blks:  75  AvgRowLen:  44.00  ChainCnt:  0.00

Index Stats::

  Index: IDX_DATA_OBJECT_ID  Col#: 4

    LVLS: 1  #LB: 5  #DK: 2318  LB/K: 1.00  DB/K: 1.00  CLUF: 86.00

  Index: IDX_DATA_OWNER  Col#: 3

    LVLS: 1  #LB: 23  #DK: 5  LB/K: 4.00  DB/K: 28.00  CLUF: 141.00

  Index: IDX_LDT  Col#: 6

    LVLS: 1  #LB: 26  #DK: 9999  LB/K: 1.00  DB/K: 1.00  CLUF: 377.00

  Index: PK_OBJECT_ID  Col#: 1

    LVLS: 1  #LB: 20  #DK: 10000  LB/K: 1.00  DB/K: 1.00  CLUF: 76.00

Access path analysis for T_COUNT_LHR

***************************************

SINGLE TABLE ACCESS PATH

  Single Table Cardinality Estimation for T_COUNT_LHR[T_COUNT_LHR]

  Table: T_COUNT_LHR  Alias: T_COUNT_LHR

    Card: Original: 10000.000000  Rounded: 10000  Computed: 10000.00  Non Adjusted: 10000.00

  Access Path: TableScan

    Cost:  22.10  Resp: 22.10  Degree: 0

      Cost_io: 22.00  Cost_cpu: 2034108

      Resp_io: 22.00  Resp_cpu: 2034108

  Access Path: index (index (FFS))

    Index: IDX_DATA_OWNER

    resc_io: 8.00  resc_cpu: 1363793

    ix_sel: 0.000000  ix_sel_with_filters: 1.000000

  Access Path: index (FFS)

    Cost:  8.06  Resp: 8.06  Degree: 1

      Cost_io: 8.00  Cost_cpu: 1363793

      Resp_io: 8.00  Resp_cpu: 1363793

  Access Path: index (index (FFS))

    Index: PK_OBJECT_ID

    resc_io: 7.00  resc_cpu: 1342429

    ix_sel: 0.000000  ix_sel_with_filters: 1.000000

  Access Path: index (FFS)

    Cost:  7.06  Resp: 7.06  Degree: 1

      Cost_io: 7.00  Cost_cpu: 1342429

      Resp_io: 7.00  Resp_cpu: 1342429

  Access Path: index (FullScan)

    Index: IDX_DATA_OWNER

    resc_io: 24.00  resc_cpu: 2170915

    ix_sel: 1.000000  ix_sel_with_filters: 1.000000

    Cost: 24.10  Resp: 24.10  Degree: 1

  Access Path: index (FullScan)

    Index: PK_OBJECT_ID

    resc_io: 21.00  resc_cpu: 2149550

    ix_sel: 1.000000  ix_sel_with_filters: 1.000000

    Cost: 21.10  Resp: 21.10  Degree: 1

  ****** trying bitmap/domain indexes ******

  Access Path: index (FullScan)

    Index: IDX_DATA_OWNER

    resc_io: 24.00  resc_cpu: 2170915

    ix_sel: 1.000000  ix_sel_with_filters: 1.000000

    Cost: 24.10  Resp: 24.10  Degree: 0

  Access Path: index (FullScan)

    Index: PK_OBJECT_ID

    resc_io: 21.00  resc_cpu: 2149550

    ix_sel: 1.000000  ix_sel_with_filters: 1.000000

    Cost: 21.10  Resp: 21.10  Degree: 0

  ****** finished trying bitmap/domain indexes ******

  Best:: AccessPath: IndexFFS

  Index: PK_OBJECT_ID

         Cost: 7.06  Degree: 1  Resp: 7.06  Card: 10000.00  Bytes: 0

 

***************************************

 

。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。

Starting SQL statement dump

 

user_id=90 user_name=LHR module=SQL*Plus action=

sql_id=4tm3jwzff8ub8 plan_hash_value=1265209789 problem_type=3

----- Current SQL Statement for this session (sql_id=4tm3jwzff8ub8) -----

SELECT COUNT(ROWID) FROM T_COUNT_LHR

sql_text_length=37

sql=SELECT COUNT(ROWID) FROM T_COUNT_LHR

----- Explain Plan Dump -----

----- Plan Table -----

 

============

Plan Table

============

---------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+

| Id  | Operation              | Name        | Rows  | Bytes | Cost  | Time      |

---------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+

| 0   | SELECT STATEMENT       |             |       |       |     7 |           |

| 1   |  SORT AGGREGATE        |             |     1 |    12 |       |           |

| 2   |   INDEX FAST FULL SCAN | PK_OBJECT_ID|   10K |  117K |     7 |  00:00:01 |

---------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+

Predicate Information:

----------------------

 

Content of other_xml column

===========================

  db_version     : 11.2.0.3

  parse_schema   : LHR

  plan_hash      : 1265209789

  plan_hash_2    : 3881728982

  Outline Data:

  /*+

    BEGIN_OUTLINE_DATA

      IGNORE_OPTIM_EMBEDDED_HINTS

      OPTIMIZER_FEATURES_ENABLE('11.2.0.3')

      DB_VERSION('11.2.0.3')

      OPT_PARAM('star_transformation_enabled' 'true')

      ALL_ROWS

      OUTLINE_LEAF(@"SEL$1")

      INDEX_FFS(@"SEL$1" "T_COUNT_LHR"@"SEL$1" ("T_COUNT_LHR"."OBJECT_ID"))

    END_OUTLINE_DATA

  */

。。。。。。。。。。。。

====================== END SQL Statement Dump ======================

 

 

 

2.3.5  COUNT(COL1)SELECT COL1的区别

其实在2014年的时候,小麦苗发布过一篇博客(http://blog.itpub.net/26736162/viewspace-1329880/),里边对这个问题有详细的实验。今天就把这个实验搬过来吧。

drop table t  purge;

Create Table t  nologging As select *  from    dba_objects d ;

create   index ind_objectname on  t(object_name); 

set autotrace traceonly;  

 

 

select t.object_name from t where t.object_name ='T';        --走索引

select t.object_name from t where UPPER(t.object_name) ='T';       --不走索引

select t.object_name from t where UPPER(t.object_name) ='T' and t.object_name IS NOT NULL ;           --走索引  (INDEX FAST FULL SCAN)

select t.object_name from t where UPPER(t.object_name) ||'AAA' ='T'||'AAA' and t.object_name IS NOT NULL ;     --走索引  (INDEX FAST FULL SCAN)

select t.object_name,t.owner from t where UPPER(t.object_name) ||'AAA' ='T'||'AAA' and t.object_name IS NOT NULL ;     --不走索引

 

 

C:\Users\xiaomaimiao>sqlplus lhr/lhr@orclasm

 

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.1.0 Production on 星期三 11月 12 10:52:29 2014

 

Copyright (c) 1982, 2010, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

 

 

连接到:

Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.3.0 - 64bit Production

With the Partitioning, Automatic Storage Management, OLAP, Data Mining

and Real Application Testing options

 

SQL>

SQL>

SQL> drop table t  purge;

 

表已删除。

 

SQL> Create Table t  nologging As select *  from    dba_objects d ;

 

表已创建。

 

SQL>  create   index ind_objectname on  t(object_name);

 

索引已创建。

 

 

---- t表所有列均可以为空

 

SQL> desc t

Name   Null?    Type

----------------------------------------- -------- ----------------------------

OWNER    VARCHAR2(30)

OBJECT_NAME    VARCHAR2(128)

SUBOBJECT_NAME     VARCHAR2(30)

OBJECT_ID    NUMBER

DATA_OBJECT_ID     NUMBER

OBJECT_TYPE    VARCHAR2(19)

CREATED        DATE

LAST_DDL_TIME    DATE

TIMESTAMP    VARCHAR2(19)

STATUS         VARCHAR2(7)

TEMPORARY    VARCHAR2(1)

GENERATED    VARCHAR2(1)

SECONDARY    VARCHAR2(1)

NAMESPACE    NUMBER

EDITION_NAME    VARCHAR2(30)

 

SQL>

 

SQL>  set autotrace traceonly;

SQL>  select t.object_name from t where t.object_name ='T';

 

 

执行计划

----------------------------------------------------------

Plan hash value: 4280870634

 

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

| Id  | Operation        | Name           | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT |                |     1 |    66 |     3   (0)| 00:00:01 |

|*  1 | INDEX RANGE SCAN| IND_OBJECTNAME |     1 |    66 |     3   (0)| 00:00:01 |

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):

---------------------------------------------------

 

   1 - access("T"."OBJECT_NAME"='T')

 

Note

-----

   - dynamic sampling used for this statement (level=2)

   - SQL plan baseline "SQL_PLAN_503ygb00mbj6k165e82cd" used for this statement

 

 

统计信息

----------------------------------------------------------

         34  recursive calls

         43  db block gets

        127  consistent gets

        398  physical reads

      15476  redo size

        349  bytes sent via SQL*Net to client

        359  bytes received via SQL*Net from client

          2  SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client

          0  sorts (memory)

          0  sorts (disk)

          1  rows processed

 

SQL>  select t.object_name from t where UPPER(t.object_name) ='T';

 

 

执行计划

----------------------------------------------------------

Plan hash value: 1601196873

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

| Id  | Operation         | Name | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT  |      |    12 |   792 |   305   (1)| 00:00:04 |

|*  1 | TABLE ACCESS FULL| T    |    12 |   792 |   305   (1)| 00:00:04 |

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):

---------------------------------------------------

 

   1 - filter(UPPER("T"."OBJECT_NAME")='T')

 

Note

-----

   - dynamic sampling used for this statement (level=2)

   - SQL plan baseline "SQL_PLAN_9p76pys5gdb2b94ecae5c" used for this statement

 

 

统计信息

----------------------------------------------------------

         29  recursive calls

         43  db block gets

       1209  consistent gets

       1092  physical reads

      15484  redo size

        349  bytes sent via SQL*Net to client

        359  bytes received via SQL*Net from client

          2  SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client

          0  sorts (memory)

          0  sorts (disk)

          1  rows processed

 

SQL>  select t.object_name from t where UPPER(t.object_name) ='T' and t.object_name IS NOT NULL ;

 

 

执行计划

----------------------------------------------------------

Plan hash value: 3379870158

 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

| Id  | Operation            | Name           | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT     |                |    51 |  3366 |   110   (1)| 00:00:02 |

|*  1 |  INDEX FAST FULL SCAN| IND_OBJECTNAME |    51 |  3366 |   110   (1)| 00:00:02 |

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):

---------------------------------------------------

 

   1 - filter("T"."OBJECT_NAME" IS NOT NULL AND UPPER("T"."OBJECT_NAME")='T')

 

Note

-----

   - dynamic sampling used for this statement (level=2)

   - SQL plan baseline "SQL_PLAN_czkarb71kthws18b0c28f" used for this statement

 

 

统计信息

----------------------------------------------------------

         29  recursive calls

         43  db block gets

        505  consistent gets

        384  physical reads

      15612  redo size

        349  bytes sent via SQL*Net to client

        359  bytes received via SQL*Net from client

          2  SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client

          0  sorts (memory)

          0  sorts (disk)

          1  rows processed

 

SQL>  select t.object_name,t.owner from t where UPPER(t.object_name) ||'AAA' ='T'||'AAA' and t.object_name IS NOT NULL ;

 

 

执行计划

----------------------------------------------------------

Plan hash value: 1601196873

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

| Id  | Operation         | Name | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT  |      |    51 |  4233 |   304   (1)| 00:00:04 |

|*  1 | TABLE ACCESS FULL| T    |    51 |  4233 |   304   (1)| 00:00:04 |

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):

---------------------------------------------------

 

   1 - filter("T"."OBJECT_NAME" IS NOT NULL AND

              UPPER("T"."OBJECT_NAME")||'AAA'='TAAA')

 

Note

-----

   - dynamic sampling used for this statement (level=2)

   - SQL plan baseline "SQL_PLAN_au9a1c4hwdtb894ecae5c" used for this statement

 

 

统计信息

----------------------------------------------------------

         30  recursive calls

         44  db block gets

       1210  consistent gets

       1091  physical reads

      15748  redo size

        408  bytes sent via SQL*Net to client

        359  bytes received via SQL*Net from client

          2  SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client

          0  sorts (memory)

          0  sorts (disk)

          1  rows processed

 

SQL> select t.object_name from t where UPPER(t.object_name) ||'AAA' ='T'||'AAA' and t.object_name IS NOT NULL ;

 

 

执行计划

----------------------------------------------------------

Plan hash value: 3379870158

 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

| Id  | Operation            | Name           | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT     |                |    51 |  3366 |   110   (1)| 00:00:02 |

|*  1 |  INDEX FAST FULL SCAN| IND_OBJECTNAME |    51 |  3366 |   110   (1)| 00:00:02 |

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):

---------------------------------------------------

 

   1 - filter("T"."OBJECT_NAME" IS NOT NULL AND

              UPPER("T"."OBJECT_NAME")||'AAA'='TAAA')

 

Note

-----

   - dynamic sampling used for this statement (level=2)

   - SQL plan baseline "SQL_PLAN_1gu36rnh3s2a318b0c28f" used for this statement

 

 

统计信息

----------------------------------------------------------

         28  recursive calls

         44  db block gets

        505  consistent gets

          6  physical reads

      15544  redo size

        349  bytes sent via SQL*Net to client

        359  bytes received via SQL*Net from client

          2  SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client

          0  sorts (memory)

          0  sorts (disk)

          1  rows processed

 

SQL>

 

 

 

2.4  实验结论

 

COUNT()函数Oracle中的聚合函数,用于统计结果集的行数。其语法形式如下所示:

wps41EF.tmp

 

COUNT({ * | [ DISTINCT | ALL ] expr }) [ OVER (analytic_clause) ]

 

COUNT returns the number of rows returned by the query. You can use it as an aggregate or analytic function.

If you specify DISTINCT, then you can specify only the query_partition_clause of the analytic_clause. The order_by_clause and windowing_clause are not allowed.

If you specify expr, then COUNT returns the number of rows where expr is not null. You can count either all rows, or only distinct values of expr.

If you specify the asterisk (*), then this function returns all rows, including duplicates and nulls. COUNT never returns null.

 

我们把COUNT的使用情况分为以下3类:

COUNT(1)COUNT(*)COUNT(常量)COUNT(主键)COUNT(ROWID)COUNT(非空列)

COUNT(允许为空列)

COUNT(DISTINCT )

下面分别从查询结果和效率方面做个比较:

(一)结果区别

COUNT(1)COUNT(*)COUNT(ROWID)COUNT(常量)COUNT(主键)COUNT(非空列)几种方式统计的行数表中所有存在的行的总数包括值为NULL的行和非空行所以,这几种方式的执行结果相同这里的常量可以为数字或字符串,例如,COUNT(2)COUNT(333)COUNT('x')COUNT('xiaomaimiao')需要注意的是:这里的COUNT(1)中的“1”并不表示表中的第一列,它其实是一个表达式,可以换成任意数字或字符或表达式。

COUNT(允许为空列) 这种方式统计的行数不会包括字段值为NULL

COUNT(DISTINCT ) 得到的结果是除去值为NULL和重复数据后的结果。

SELECT COUNT(''),COUNT(NULL) FROM T_COUNT_LHR;”返回0行。

(二)效率、索引

如果存在主键或非空列上的索引,那么COUNT(1)COUNT(*)COUNT(ROWID)COUNT(常量)COUNT(主键)COUNT(非空列)会首先选择主键上的索引快速全扫描(INDEX FAST FULL SCAN)。若主键不存在则会选择非空列上的索引。若非空列上没有索引则肯定走全表扫描(TABLE ACCESS FULL)其中,COUNT(ROWID)在走索引的时候比其它几种方式要。通过10053事件可以看到这几种方式除了COUNT(ROWID)之外,其它最终都会转换成COUNT(*)的方式来执行。

对于COUNT(COL1)来说,只要字段有索引则会选择索引快速全扫描(INDEX FAST FULL SCAN)。而对于“SELECT COL1”来说,除非列上有NOT NULL约束,否则执行计划会选择全表扫描。

COUNT(DISTINCT ) 若列上有索引,且有非空约束或在WHERE子句中使用IS NOT NULL,则会选择索引快速全扫描。其余情况选择全表扫描。

2.5  关于COUNT的优化

统计记录条数,如何才能最快?xb_audit_ddl_lhr表有2303262记录。

(一)全表扫描:

LHR@orclasm > set line 9999

LHR@orclasm > set autot on

LHR@orclasm > set timing on

LHR@orclasm > set time on

12:34:01 LHR@orclasm >

12:35:20 LHR@orclasm > SELECT /*+full(t)*/ COUNT(*) FROM xb_audit_ddl_lhr t;

 

  COUNT(*)

----------

   2303262

 

Elapsed: 00:01:16.53

 

Execution Plan

----------------------------------------------------------

Plan hash value: 3725780224

 

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

| Id  | Operation            | Name             | Rows  | Cost (%CPU)| Time     | Pstart| Pstop |

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT     |                  |     1 | 26629   (1)| 00:05:20 |       |       |

|   1 |  SORT AGGREGATE      |                  |     1 |            |          |       |       |

|   2 |   PARTITION RANGE ALL|                  |  2247K| 26629   (1)| 00:05:20 |     1 |1048575|

|   3 |    PARTITION HASH ALL|                  |  2247K| 26629   (1)| 00:05:20 |     1 |     5 |

|   4 |     TABLE ACCESS FULL| XB_AUDIT_DDL_LHR |  2247K| 26629   (1)| 00:05:20 |     1 |1048575|

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

Statistics

----------------------------------------------------------

          1  recursive calls

         57  db block gets

      92274  consistent gets

      92012  physical reads

          0  redo size

        529  bytes sent via SQL*Net to client

        519  bytes received via SQL*Net from client

          2  SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client

          0  sorts (memory)

          0  sorts (disk)

          1  rows processed

 

12:36:47 LHR@orclasm >

 

 

 

 

(二)主键索引

12:38:31 LHR@orclasm > SELECT /*+index(SYS_C0011358)*/ COUNT(*) FROM xb_audit_ddl_lhr t;

 

  COUNT(*)

----------

   2303262

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.24

 

Execution Plan

----------------------------------------------------------

Plan hash value: 2548021478

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

| Id  | Operation             | Name         | Rows  | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT      |              |     1 |  3114   (1)| 00:00:38 |

|   1 |  SORT AGGREGATE       |              |     1 |            |          |

|   2 |   INDEX FAST FULL SCAN| SYS_C0011358 |  2247K|  3114   (1)| 00:00:38 |

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

Statistics

----------------------------------------------------------

          0  recursive calls

          2  db block gets

      12283  consistent gets

      12220  physical reads

          0  redo size

        529  bytes sent via SQL*Net to client

        519  bytes received via SQL*Net from client

          2  SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client

          0  sorts (memory)

          0  sorts (disk)

          1  rows processed

 

 

 

(三)位图索引

CREATE BITMAP INDEX IND_xb_operation  ON xb_audit_ddl_lhr(operation) local;

12:41:44 LHR@orclasm > SELECT /*+index(IND_xb_operation)*/ COUNT(*) FROM xb_audit_ddl_lhr t;

 

  COUNT(*)

----------

   2303262

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.00

 

Execution Plan

----------------------------------------------------------

Plan hash value: 1101410508

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

| Id  | Operation                       | Name             | Rows  | Cost (%CPU)| Time     | Pstart| Pstop |

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT                |                  |     1 |   114   (0)| 00:00:02 |       |       |

|   1 |  SORT AGGREGATE                 |                  |     1 |            |          |       |       |

|   2 |   PARTITION RANGE ALL           |                  |  2247K|   114   (0)| 00:00:02 |     1 |1048575|

|   3 |    PARTITION HASH ALL           |                  |  2247K|   114   (0)| 00:00:02 |     1 |     5 |

|   4 |     BITMAP CONVERSION COUNT     |                  |  2247K|   114   (0)| 00:00:02 |       |       |

|   5 |      BITMAP INDEX FAST FULL SCAN| IND_XB_OPERATION |       |            |          |     1 |1048575|

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

Statistics

----------------------------------------------------------

          0  recursive calls

          0  db block gets

        312  consistent gets

          0  physical reads

          0  redo size

        529  bytes sent via SQL*Net to client

        519  bytes received via SQL*Net from client

          2  SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client

          0  sorts (memory)

          0  sorts (disk)

          1  rows processed

 

 

在数据量超大的表上,还可以采用位图索引并行的方式。优化无止境,根据场景选择最适合的才是最好的。

 

第三章 参考文章

 

3.1  MOS

3.1.1  How the Oracle CBO Chooses a Path for the SELECT COUNT(*) Command (文档 ID 124717.1)

 

Purpose:
========

The purpose of this article is to explain how the Oracle Cost Based 
Optimizer (CBO) evaluates the best path to do a SELECT COUNT(*) or a
SELECT COLUMN(column) without using a WHERE clause.

 
Scope & Application:
====================

This article is meant for all DBAs and anyone involved in SQL Tuning.


How the Oracle CBO Chooses a Path for the SELECT COUNT(*) Command:
==================================================================

CBO is invoked when:

  o OPTIMIZER_MODE = CHOOSE, or OPTIMIZER_GOAL = CHOOSE

--AND-- 

  o At least one of the objects of the select statement has
    been analyzed.

Here some examples of select count() without any where clause:

Sel1 : Select count(*) from journal_entries;
Sel2 : Select count(1) from journal_entries;
Sel3 : Select count(id_je) from journal_entries;
Sel4 : Select count(balanced) from journal_entries;

* Table journal_entries has been analyzed.
* id_je is a column with a NOT NULL constraint.
* DATE_JE is a column with a NOT NULL constraint.
* balanced is a column without a NOT NULL constraint.
* There are four indexes on table journal_entries:
  . NDX_ECR_ID_JE on column id_je
  . NDX_ECR_DATE_JE_BALANCED on columns date_je, balanced
  . NDX_ECR_BALANCED_DATE_JE on columns balanced, date_je
  . NDX_ECR_BALANCED on column balanced


I. Sel1 and Sel2:
-----------------

For CBO, Sel1 and Sel2 are strictly equivalent:
 
1. CBO looks at the table, retrieves statistics, and calculates the
   cost for a full table scan.

2. CBO then looks for all indexes on the table.  In this example it 
   lists four indexes.

3. If CBO finds one or more indices which index a column NOT NULL 
   or index at least one column NOT NULL, it evaluates the cost of
   the path for each of these indices.

   In our example CBO evaluates three indices:

   - NDX_ECR_ID_JE
   - NDX_ECR_DATE_JE_BALANCED
   - NDX_ECR_BALANCED_DATE_JE

4. CBO chooses the path with the lower cost.  If an index has the lowest 
   cost, it is chosen, whatever columns are indexed. 


II. Sel3:
---------

For Sel3, CBO does the same as for Sel1 and Sel2 since "id_je" has a
NOT NULL constraint.

If the column in the count() is NOT NULL, CBO considers the select
strictly equivalent to a select count(*) or a select count(constant).


III. Sel4:
----------

For Sel4, the column in the count() function can have a NULL value.
So, what happens?

- CBO will not evaluate index NDX_ECR_BALANCED since "balanced" has no 
  NOT NULL constraint.  If you are sure that NDX_ECR_BALANCED is more 
  optimal than performing a full table scan on journal_entries, you must 
  rewrite your query from select count(balanced) from journal_entries to:
 
    select count(*) from journal_entries
    where balanced > " " or 0 (depending on column type)

  CBO will then use the index.
  Even if you write your select with a hint:
          /*+ INDEX (JOURNAL_ENTRIES NDX_ECR_BALANCED) */
  CBO will not use it as it is not evaluated.

- CBO will not evaluate index NDX_ECR_ID_JE because BALANCED is not present
  in this index.

- CBO evaluates indexes NDX_ECR_DATE_JE_BALANCED and NDX_ECR_BALANCED_DATE_JE 
  since these indexes contain a column (DATE_JE) which has a NOT NULL 
  constraint.  If the cost of one of these two indexes is less than the 
  cost of a full table scan, CBO uses this index.  CBO does not take care 
  of the position of column balanced in the index.


References:
=========== Note:67522.1 Why is my index not used? 


 

3.2  博客

3.2.1  asmtom

https://asktom.oracle.com/pls/asktom/f?p=100:11:0::::P11_QUESTION_ID:1156159920245

 

 

You Asked

 

What is the difference between count(1) and count(*) in a sql query

eg.

select count(1) from emp;

and

select count(*) from emp;

 

and we said...

nothing, they are the same, incur the same amount of work -- do the same thing, take the same amount of resources.

You can see this via:

 

ops$tkyte@ORA817.US.ORACLE.COM> alter session set sql_trace=true;

 

Session altered.

 

ops$tkyte@ORA817.US.ORACLE.COM> select count(*) from all_objects;

 

COUNT(*)

----------

27044

 

ops$tkyte@ORA817.US.ORACLE.COM> select count(1) from all_objects

2 /

 

COUNT(1)

----------

27044

 

 

and the tkprof will show:

 

 

 

select count(*)

from

all_objects

 

 

call count cpu elapsed disk query current rows

------- ------ -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------

Parse 1 0.02 0.02 0 0 0 0

Execute 1 0.00 0.00 0 0 0 0

Fetch 2 5.56 5.56 0 234998 4 1

------- ------ -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------

total 4 5.58 5.58 0 234998 4 1

 

select count(1)

from

all_objects

 

 

call count cpu elapsed disk query current rows

------- ------ -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------

Parse 1 0.02 0.02 0 0 0 0

Execute 1 0.00 0.00 0 0 0 0

Fetch 2 5.46 5.47 0 234998 4 1

------- ------ -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------

total 4 5.48 5.49 0 234998 4 1

 

 

Same number of blocks read/written/processed, same cpu times (basically) same elapsed times (basically).

 

they are identical.

 

Anyone who thinks different (and I know you are out there) will have to post a test case like the above or some scientific proof otherwise to be taken seriously....

 

-------------------------------------------------------------------------





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