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英文版的STATSPACK Readme

原创 Linux操作系统 作者:vongates 时间:2019-07-18 08:42:01 0 删除 编辑

Statistics Package (STATSPACK) README (spdoc.txt)

0.  Introduction and Terminology
1.  Configuration
    1.1. Database space Requirements
    1.2. Installing the Tool
    1.3. Errors during Installation
2.  Gathering data - taking a snapshot
    2.1. Automating Statistics Gathering
    2.2. Using dbms_job
3.  Running a Performance report
    3.1. Running the report
    3.2. Gathering optimizer statistics on the PERFSTAT schema
4.  Configuring the amount of data captured
    4.1. Snapshot Level
    4.2. Snapshot SQL thresholds
    4.3. Changing the default values
    4.4. Snapshot Levels - details
    4.5. Specifying a Session Id
    4.6. Input Parameters for the SNAP and
5.  Time Units used for Wait events
6.  Event Timings
7.  Managing and Sharing performance data
    7.1. Sharing data via export
    7.2. Purging/removing unnecessary data
    7.3. Removing all data
8.  New and Changed Features
9.  Upgrading from earlier releases
10. OPS specific considerations
11. Conflicts and differences compared to UTLBSTAT/UTLESTAT
    11.1. Running BSTAT/ESTAT in conjunction to Statspack
    11.2. Differences between Statspack and BSTAT/ESTAT
12. Removing the package
13. Supplied Scripts Overview
14. Limitations and Modifications
    14.1. Limitations
    14.2. Modifications

0.  Introduction

To effectively perform reactive tuning, it is vital to have an established
baseline for later comparison when the system is running poorly.  Without
a baseline data point, it becomes very difficult to identify what the new
problem is attributable to:  Has the volume of transactions on the system
increased?  Has the transaction profile or application changed?  Has the
number of users increased?

Statspack fundamentally differs from the well known UTLBSTAT/UTLESTAT
tuning scripts by collecting more information, and also by storing the
performance statistics data permanently in Oracle tables, which can later
be used for reporting and analysis.  The data collected can be analyzed
using the report provided, which includes an "instance health and load"
summary page, high resource SQL statements, as well as the traditional
wait events and initialization parameters.

Statspack improves on the existing UTLBSTAT/UTLESTAT performance scripts
in the following ways:

  - Statspack collects more data, including high resource SQL

  - Statspack pre-calculates many ratios useful when performance
    tuning, such as cache hit ratios, per transaction and per
    second statistics (many of these ratios must be calculated
    manually when using BSTAT/ESTAT)

  - Permanent tables owned by PERFSTAT store performance statistics;
    instead of creating/dropping tables each time, data is inserted
    into the pre-existing tables.  This makes historical data
    comparisons easier

  - Statspack separates the data collection from the report generation.
    Data is collected when a 'snapshot' is taken; viewing the data
    collected is in the hands of the performance engineer when he/she
    runs the performance report

  - Data collection is easy to automate using either dbms_job or an
    OS utility

  NOTE:  The term 'snapshot' is used to denote a set of statistics gathered
         at a single time, identified by a unique Id which includes the
         snapshot number (or snap_id).  This term should not be confused
         with Oracle's Snapshot Replication technology.

How does STATSPACK work?

Statspack is a set of SQL, PL/SQL and SQL*Plus scripts which allow the
collection, automation, storage and viewing of performance data.  A user
is automatically created by the installation script - this user, PERFSTAT,
owns all objects needed by this package.  This user is granted limited
query-only privileges on the V$views required for performance tuning.

Statspack users will become familiar with the concept of a 'snapshot'.
'snapshot' is the term used to identify a single collection of
performance data.  Each snapshot taken is identified by a 'snapshot id'
which is a unique number generated at the time the snapshot is taken;
each time a new collection is taken, a new snap_id is generated. 

The snap_id, along with the database identifier (dbid) and instance number
(instance_number) comprise the unique key for a snapshot (using this
unique combination allows storage of multiple instances of an OPS
database in the same tables).

Once snapshots are taken, it is possible to run the performance report.
The performance report will prompt for the two snapshot id's the report
will process.  The report produced calculates the activity on the instance
between the two snapshot periods specified, in a similar way to the
BSTAT/ESTAT report; to compare - the first snap_id supplied can be
considered the equivalent of running BSTAT; the second snap_id
specified can be considered the equivalent of ESTAT.  Unlike BSTAT/ESTAT
which can by it's nature only compare two static data points, the report
can compare any two snapshots specified.


1.  Configuration

1.1.  Database Space Requirements

  The amount of database space required by the package will vary considerably
  based on the frequency of snapshots, the size of the database and instance,
  and the amount of data collected (which is configurable).
  It is therefore difficult to provide general storage clauses and space
  utilization predictions which will be accurate at each site.

  Note:  The default initial and next extent size is 1MB or 5MB for all
         tables and indexes which contain changeable data.  The minimum
         default tablespace requirement is approximately 45MB.

  Dictionary Managed Tablespaces
  If you install the package in a dictionary-managed tablespace, Oracle
  suggests you monitor the space used by the objects created, and adjust
  the storage clauses of the segments, if required.

  Locally Managed Tablespaces
  If you install the package in a locally-managed tablespace, storage
  clauses are not required, as the storageȠcharacteristics are
  automatically managed.

1.2 Installing the Tool

Step 1.
    This step creates the PERFSTAT user, wɨich will own all PL/SQL code and
    database objects created (including the STATSPACK tables, constraints
    and the STATSPACK package).

    During the installation you will be prompted for the PERFSTAT
    user's default and temporary tablespaces.

    The default tablespace will be used to create all Statspack
    objects (such as tables and indexes).  The temporary tablespace
    will be used for sort-type activities (for more information on
    temporary tablespaces, see the Oracle Concepts Documentation).

      o  Oracle do not recommend using the SYSTEM tablespace to store
         statistics data.  A more appropriate tablespace is the TOOLS
         Similarly, do not use the SYSTEM tablespace as the Statspack
         user's TEMPORARY tablespace.

      o  During the installation, the dbms_shared_pool and dbms_job
         PL/SQL packages are created.  dbms_shared_pool is used to
         pin the Statspack package in the shared pool; dbms_job
         is created on the assumption the DBA will want to schedule
         periodic snapshots automatically using dbms_job.

    To install the package, either change directory to the ORACLE_HOME
    rdbms/admin directory, or fully specify the ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin
    directory when calling the installation script, spcreate.

    To run the installation script, you must use SQL*Plus and connect as
    a user with SYSDBA privilege.  Do not use Server Manager (svrmgrl)
    to install Statspack, as the installation will fail.

    e.g.  Start SQL*Plus, then:
      on Unix:
        SQL>  connect / as sysdba
        SQL>  @?/rdbms/admin/spcreate

      on NT:
        SQL>  connect / as sysdba
        SQL>  @%ORACLE_HOME%rdbmsadminspcreate

    The spcreate install script runs 3 other scripts - you do not need to
    run these - the scripts are called automatically:
      1.  spcusr  ->  creates the user and grants privileges
      2.  spctab  ->  creates the tables
      3.  spcpkg  ->  creates the package

    Check each of the three output files produced (spcusr.lis,
    spctab.lis, spcpkg.lis) by the installation to ensure no
    errors were encountered, before continuing on to the next step.

    Note that there are two ways to install Statspack - interactively (as
    shown above), or in "batch" mode; batch mode is useful when you do
    not wish to be prompted for the PERFSTAT user's default and
    temporary tablespaces.

      Batch mode installation
      To install in batch mode, you must assign values to the SQL*Plus
      variables which specify the default and temporary tablespaces before
      running spcreate.

      The variables are:
        default_tablespace   -> for the default tablespace
        temporary_tablespace -> for the temporary tablespace

        on Unix:
          SQL>  connect / as sysdba
          SQL>  define default_tablespace='tools'
          SQL>  define temporary_tablespace='temp'
          SQL>  @?/rdbms/admin/spcreate

      spcreate will no longer prompt for the above information.

Step 2.
    The setup phase is now complete.
    If you wish to, you may decide to change the password of the
    PERFSTAT user for security purposes.

1.3 Errors during installation

    A common error made during Statspack installation is running the install
    script from Server Manager (svrmgrl) rather than from SQL*Plus.  If you
    use svrmgrl, the installation will fail.  To correctly install Statspack
    after such errors, first run the de-install script, then the install
    script.  Both scripts must be run from SQL*Plus.

    e.g.  Start SQL*Plus, connect as a user with SYSDBA privilege, then:
       SQL> @spdrop
       SQL> @spcreate

2.   Gathering data - taking a snapshot

The simplest interactive way to take a snapshot is to login to SQL*Plus
as the PERFSTAT user, and execute the procedure statspack.snap:
      SQL>  connect perfstat/perfstat
      SQL>  execute statspack.snap;

  Note:  In an OPS environment, you must connect to the instance
         you wish to collect data for.

This will store the current values for the performance statistics
in the STATSPACK tables, and can be used as a baseline snapshot
for comparison with another snapshot taken at a later time.

For better performance analysis, set the init.ora parameter timed_statistics
to true;  this way, Statspack data collected will include important timing
information.  The timed_statistics parameter is also dynamically changable
using the 'alter system' command.  Timing data is important and is usually
required by Oracle support to diagnose performance problems.

2.1 Automating statistics gathering

  To be able to make comparisons of performance from one day, week or
  year to the next, there must be multiple snapshots taken over a period
  of time.

  The best method to gather snapshots is to automate the collection on
  a regular time interval.  It is possible to do this:

    - within the database, using the Oracle dbms_job procedure to
      schedule the snapshots

    - using Operating System utlities (such as 'cron' on Unix or 'at' on
      NT) to schedule the snapshot

2.2.  Using dbms_job

  To use an Oracle-automated method for collecting statistics, you can use
  dbms_job.  A sample script on how to do this is supplied in spauto.sql,
  which schedules a snapshot every hour, on the hour.

  You may wish to schedule snapshots at regular times each day to reflect your
  system's OLTP and/or batch peak loads. For example take snapshots at 9am,
  10am, 11am, 12 midday and 6pm for the OLTP load, then a snapshot at
  12 midnight and  another at 6am for the batch window.

  In order to use dbms_job to schedule snapshots, the job_queue_processes
  initialization parameter must be set to greater than 0 in the init.ora
  file for the job to be run automatically.

  Example of an init.ora entry:
    #  Set to enable the job queue process to start.  This allows dbms_job
    #  to schedule automatic statistics collection using STATSPACK

  If using spauto.sql in OPS enviroment, the spauto.sql script must
  be run once on each instance in the cluster.  Similarly, the
  job_queue_processes parameter must also be set for each instance.

  Changing the interval of statistics collection
  To change the interval of statistics collection use the dbms_job.interval
    execute dbms_job.interval(1,'SYSDATE+(1/48)');

  Where 'SYSDATE+(1/48)' will result in the statistics being gathered each
  1/48 hours (i.e. every half hour).

  To force the job to run immediately,

  To remove the autocollect job,
    execute dbms_job.remove();

  For more information on dbms_job, see the Supplied Packages Reference

3.   Running a Performance report

Once snapshots are taken, it is possible to generate a performance report.
The SQL script which generates the report prompts for the two snapshot id's
to be processed. 
The first will be the beginning snapshot id, the second will be the
ending snapshot id.  The report will then calculate and print ratios,
increases etc. for all statistics between the two snapshot periods, in
a similar way to the BSTAT/ESTAT report.

  Note:  It is not correct to specify begin and end snapshots where the
         begin snapshot and end snapshot were taken from different
         instance startups.  In other words, the instance must not have
         been shutdown between the times that the begin and end snapshots
         were taken.
         The reason for this requirement is the database's dynamic
         performance tables which Statspack queries to gather the data
         are memory resident, hence shutting down the database will
         reset the values in the performance tables to 0.  As Statspack
         subtracts the begin-snapshot statistics from the end-snapshot
         statistics, the resulting output will be invalid.
         If begin and end snapshots which were taken between shutdowns
         are specified in the report, the report shows an appropriate error
         to indicate this.

Separating the phase of data gathering from producing a report, allows the
flexibility of basing a report on any data points selected.  For example
it may be reasonable for the DBA to use the supplied automation script to
automate data collection every hour on the hour; If at some later point
a performance issue arose which may be better investigated by looking
at a three hour data window rather than an hour's worth of data, the
only thing the DBA need do, is specify the required start point and end
point when running the report.

3.1  Running the report

  To examine the change in statistics between two time periods, the
  spreport.sql file is executed while being connected to the PERFSTAT
  user.  The spreport.sql command file is located in the rdbms/admin
  directory of the Oracle Home.

  Note:  In an OPS environment you must connect to the instance you
         wish to report on.

  You will be prompted for:
    1. The beginning snapshot Id
    2. The ending    snapshot Id
    3. The name of the report text file to be created

    e.g. on Unix
      SQL>  connect perfstat/perfstat
      SQL>  @?/rdbms/admin/spreport

    e.g. on NT
      SQL>  connect perfstat/perfstat
      SQL>  @%ORACLE_HOME%rdbmsadminspreport

    Example output:
    SQL>  connect perfstat/perfstat
    SQL>  @spreport

   DB Id    DB Name      Inst Num Instance
----------- ------------ -------- ------------
 2618106428 PRD1                1 prd1

Completed Snapshots

                           Snap                    Snap
Instance     DB Name         Id   Snap Started    Level Comment
------------ ------------ ----- ----------------- ----- ----------------------
prd1         PRD1             1 11 May 2000 12:07     5
                              2 11 May 2000 12:08     5

Specify the Begin and End Snapshot Ids
Enter value for begin_snap: 1
Begin Snapshot Id specified: 1

Enter value for end_snap:
End   Snapshot Id specified: 2

Specify the Report Name
The default report file name is sp_1_2  To use this name,
press to continue, otherwise enter an alternative.
Enter value for report_name:

Using the report name sp_1_2

  The report will now scroll past, and also be written to the file
  specified (e.g. sp_1_2.lis).

      Batch mode report generation
      To run a report without being prompted, assign values to the
      SQL*Plus variables which specify the begin snap id, the end snap id
      and the report name before running spreport.

      The variables are:
        begin_snap   -> specifies the begin Snapshot Id
        end_snap     -> specifies the end   Snapshot Id
        report_name  -> specifies the Report output name

        on Unix:
          SQL>  connect perfstat/perfstat
          SQL>  define begin_snap=1
          SQL>  define end_snap=2
          SQL>  define report_name=batch_run
          SQL>  @?/rdbms/admin/spreport

      spreport will no longer prompt for the above information.

3.2. Gathering Optimizer statistics on the PERFSTAT schema

  For best performance when running spreport, collect optimizer statistics
  for tables and indexes owned by the PERFSTAT.  This should be performed
  whenever significant change in data volumes in PERFSTAT's tables.
  The easiest way to do this, is either to use dbms_utility, or dbms_stats,
  and specify the PERFSTAT user:
      execute dbms_utility.analyze_schema('PERFSTAT','COMPUTE');
      execute dbms_stats.gather_schema_stats('PERFSTAT');

4.  Configuring the amount of data captured

4.1. Snapshot Level

  It is possible to change the amount of information gathered by the package,
  by specifying a different snapshot 'level'.  In other words, the level
  chosen (or defaulted) will decide the amount of data collected.
  The higher the snapshot level, the more data is gathered.  The default
  level set by the installation is level 5.  The various levels are
  explained in detail section 4.4 below.

4.2. Snapshot SQL thresholds

  There are other parameters which can be configured in addition to the
  snapshot level.

  These parameters are used as thresholds when collecting data on SQL
  statements; data will be captured on any SQL statements that breach
  the specified thresholds.

  Snapshot level and threshold information used by the package is stored
  in the stats$statspack_parameter table.

4.3. Changing the default values for Snapshot Level and SQL Thresholds

  If you wish to, you can change the default parameters used for taking
  snapshots, so that they are tailored to the instance's workload.

  You can do this either by:

  o  Taking a snapshot, and specifying the new defaults to be saved to the
     database (using statspack.snap, and using the i_modify_parameter
     input variable).

     SQL>  execute statspack.snap -
           (i_snap_level=>10, i_modify_parameter=>'true');

     Setting the i_modify_parameter value to true will save the new
     thresholds in the stats$statspack_parameter table; these thresholds
     will be used for all subsequent snapshots.

     If the i_modify_parameter was set to false or if it were omitted, the
     new parameter values would not be saved.  Only the snapshot taken at
     that point will use the specified values, any subsequent snapshots will
     use the preexisting values in the stats$statspack_parameter table.

     The full list of parameters which can be passed into snap
     are listed in 4.6. below

  o  Changing the defaults immediately without taking a snapshot, using the
     statspack.modify_statspack_parameter procedure.  For example to change
     the snapshot level to 10, and the SQL thresholds for buffer_gets and
     disk_reads, the following statement can be issued:

     SQL>  execute statspack.modify_statspack_parameter -
            (i_snap_level=>10, i_buffer_gets_th=>10000, i_disk_reads_th=>1000);

     This procedure changes the values permananently, but does not
     take a snapshot.

     The full list of parameters which can be passed into the
     modify_statspack_parameter procedure are the same as those for
     the snap procedure.  These are listed in 4.6. below.

4.4 Snapshot Levels - details

 Levels  >= 0   General performance statistics
    Statistics gathered:
    This level and any level greater than 0 collects general
    performance statistics, such as: wait statistics, system events,
    system statistics, rollback segment data, row cache, SGA,
    background events, session events, lock statistics,
    buffer pool statistics, parent latch statistics.

 Levels  >= 5  Additional data:  SQL Statements
    This level includes all statistics gathered in the lower level(s),
    and additionally gathers the performance data on high resource
    usage SQL statements.

    In a level 5 snapshot, note that the time required for the snapshot
    to complete is dependant on the shared_pool_size and on the number of
    SQL statements in the shared pool at the time the snapshot is taken:
    the larger the shared pool, the longer the time taken to complete
    the snapshot.

    SQL 'Thresholds'
       The SQL statements gathered by Statspack are those which exceed one of
       four predefined threshold parameters:
        - number of executions of the SQL statement            (default 100)
        - number of disk reads performed by the SQL statement  (default 1,000)
        - number of parse calls performed by the SQL statement (default 1,000)
        - number of buffer gets performed by the SQL statement (default 10,000)
        - size of sharable memory used by the SQL statement    (default 1m)
        - version count for the SQL statement                  (default 20)

       The values of each of these threshold parameters are used when
       deciding which SQL statements to collect - if a SQL statement's
       resource usage exceeds any one of the above threshold values, it
       is captured during the snapshot.
       The SQL threshold levels used are either those stored in the table
       stats$statspack_parameter, or by the thresholds specified when
       the snapshot is taken.

 Levels  >= 10 Additional statistics:  Parent and Child latches
    This level includes all statistics gathered in the lower levels, and
    additionally gathers Parent and Child Latch information.  Data gathered
    at this level can sometimes cause the snapshot to take longer to complete
    i.e. this level can be resource intensive, and should only be used
    when advised by Oracle personnel.

4.5.  Specifying a Session Id

  If you would like to gather session statistics and wait events for a
  particular session (in addition to the instance statistics and wait events),
  it is possible to specify the session id in the call to Statspack.  The
  statistics gathered for the session will include session statistics,
  session events and lock activity.  The default behaviour is to not to
  gather session level statistics.

    SQL>  execute statspack.snap(i_session_id=>3);

4.6.  Input Parameters for the SNAP and MODIFY_STATSPACK_PARAMETERS procedures

   Parameters able to be passed in to the statspack.snap and
   statspack.modify_statspack_parameter procedures are as follows:

                    Range of      Default
Parameter Name      Valid Values  Value    Meaning
------------------  ------------  -------  -----------------------------------
i_snap_level     0, 5, 10      5        Snapshot Level
i_ucomment     Text          Blank    Comment to be stored with Snapshot
i_executions_th     Integer >=0   100      SQL Threshold: number of times
                                           the statement was executed
i_disk_reads_th     Integer >=0   1,000    SQL Threshold: number of disk reads
                                           the statement made
i_parse_calls_th    Integer >=0   1,000    SQL Threshold: number of parse
                                           calls the statement made
i_buffer_gets_th    Integer >=0   10,000   SQL Threshold: number of buffer
                                           gets the statement made
i_sharable_mem_th   Integer >=0   1048576  SQL Threshold: amount of sharable
i_version_count_th  Integer >=0   20       SQL Threshold: number of versions
                                           of a SQL statement
i_session_id        Valid sid     0 (no    Session Id of the Oracle Session
                    from          session) to capture session granular
                    v$session              statistics for
i_modify_parameter  True, False   False    Save the parameters specified for
                                           future snapshots?

5.  Time Units used for Wait events

Although Oracle records wait time in hundredth's of a second (i.e.
centiseconds), some timings in the report (especially IO times) are
converted to milliseconds to allow easier comparison with Operating
System monitoring utilities which often report timings in milliseconds.

For clarity, the time units used are specified in the column headings of
each timed column.  The convention used is:
      (cs) - a centisecond - which is  100th of a second
      (ms) - a millisecond - which is 1000th of a second

6.  Event Timings
If timings are available, the Statspack report will order wait events by time
(in the Top-5 and background and foreground Wait Events sections).

If timed_statistics is false for the instance, however a subset of users or
programs set timed_statistics set to true dynamically, the Statspack report
output may look inconsistent, where some events have timings (those which the
individual programs/users waited for), and the remaining events do not.
The Top-5 section will also look unusual in this situation.

Optimally, timed_statistics should be set to true at the instance level for
ease of diagnosing performance problems.

7.  Managing and Sharing performance data

7.1. Sharing data via export

  If you wish to share data with other sites (for example if Oracle
  Support requires the raw statistics), it is possible to export
  the PERFSTAT user.

  An export parameter file (spuexp.par) has been supplied for this
  purpose.  To use this file, supply the export command with the
  userid parameter, along with the export parameter file name.
    exp userid=perfstat/perfstat parfile=spuexp.par

  This will create a file called spuexp.dmp and the log file

  If you wish to load the data into another database, use the import
  command.  For more information on using export and import, please
  see the Oracle Utilities manual.

7.2. Purging/removing unnecessary data

  It is possible to purge unnecessary data from the PERFSTAT schema using
  sppurge.sql.   This script deletes snapshots which fall between
  the begin and end range of Snapshot Id's specified.

    It is recommended you export the schema as a backup before running this
    script, either using your own export parameters, or those provided in

    Purging may require the use of a large rollback segment, as all data
    relating each Snapshot Id to be purged will be deleted.
    To avoid rollback segment extension errors, explicitly use a large
    rollback segment.  This can be done by executing the 'set transaction
    use rollback segment..' command before running the sppurge.sql script
    (for more information on the set transaction command see the SQL reference
    manual).  Alternatively, to avoid rollback segment extension errors
    specify a smaller range of Snapshot Id's to purge.

  When sppurge is run the the instance currently connected to along with
  the available snapshots are displayed.  The DBA is then prompted for the
  low Snap Id and high Snap Id.  All snapshots which fall within this
  range will be purged.

  e.g. Purging data - connect to PERFSTAT using SQL*Plus, then run the
       script - an example output appears below.

   SQL>  connect perfstat/perfstat
   SQL>  set transaction use rollback segment rbig;
   SQL>  @sppurge

   Database Instance currently connected to
      DB Id    DB Name    Inst Num Name
   ----------- ---------- -------- ----------
     720559826 PERF              1 perf

   Snapshots for this database instance
      Snap Id Level Snapshot Started      Host            Comment
   ---------- ----- --------------------- --------------- -------------------
            1     5  30 Feb 2000 10:00:01 perfhost
            2     5  30 Feb 2000 12:00:06 perfhost
            3     5  01 Mar 2000 02:00:01 perfhost
            4     5  01 Mar 2000 06:00:01 perfhost

   sppurge.sql deletes all snapshots ranging between the lower and
   upper bound Snapshot Id's specified, for the database instance
   connected to.

   You may wish to export this data before continuing.

   Specify the Lo Snap Id and Hi Snap Id range to purge
   Enter value for losnapid: 1
   Using 1 for lower bound.

   Enter value for hisnapid: 2
   Using 2 for upper bound.

   Deleting snapshots 1 - 2

   Purge of specified Snapshot range complete.  If you wish to ROLLBACK
   the purge, it is still possible to do so.  Exitting from SQL*Plus will
   automatically commit the purge.

   SQL> -- end of example output

      Batch mode purging
      To purge in batch mode, you must assign values to the SQL*Plus
      variables which specify the low and high snapshot Ids to purge.

      The variables are:
        losnapid   -> Begin Snapshot Id
        hisnapid   -> End Snapshot Id

          SQL>  connect perfstat/perfstat
          SQL>  define losnapid=1
          SQL>  define hisnapid=2
          SQL>  @sppurge

      sppurge will no longer prompt for the above information.

7.3. Truncating all data

  If you wish to truncate all performance data indiscriminantly, it is
  possible to do this using sptrunc.sql  This script truncates all
  statistics data gathered.

  It is recommended you export the schema as a backup before running this
  script either using your own export parameters, or those provided in

  e.g. Truncating all data - connect to PERFSTAT using SQL*Plus, and run
       the script - an example is below

    SQL>  connect perfstat/perfstat
    SQL>  @sptrunc

    About to Truncate Statspack Tables
    Running sptrunc.sql removes ALL data from Statspack tables
    You may wish to export the data before continuing

    If you would like to continue, enter any string, followed by
    Enter value for anystring:
    entered - starting truncate operation

    Table truncated.
    Truncate operation complete

8.  New and Changed Features

New Statistics on the Summary page
  o  connections at the begin snapshot and connections at the end snapshot

  Load Profile
  o  executes per transaction and per second
  o  logons per transaction and per second

  Instance Efficiency
  o  % Non-Parse CPU: which is the parse time CPU / CPU used by this session
  o  Parse CPU to Parse Elapsd%: which is the parse time CPU / parse time
  o  Execute to Parse %:  The ratio of executions to parses

  Instance Efficiency - Shared Pool Statistics are shown for the begin and
  end snapshots.
  o  Memory Usage %:  The percenage of the shared pool which is used.
  o  % SQL with executions>1:  The percentage of reused SQL (i.e. the
     percentage of SQL statements with more than one execution).
  o  % Memory for SQL w/exec>1:  The percentage of memory used for SQL
     statements with more than one execution.
  This data is newly gathered by the 8.1.7 Statspack for level 5 snapshots
  and above, and so will not evident if the report is run against older
  data captured using the 8.1.6 Statspack.

Tablespace and File IO
  o  Tempfile statistics are now catpured.  The statistics for tempfiles are
     shown in the same sections with statitics for datafiles and tablespaces.
  o  The tablespace and File IO reports have been modified to include reads/s
     and writes/s.

  o  The report has been modified to include parent and child latch
     sections, which only appears in the report when a level 10 snapshot
     is taken.

New Scripts
  o  sppurge.sql - Purges a range of Snapshot Ids
  o  sptrunc.sql - Deletes all data
  o  spup816.sql - Upgrades an 8.1.6 Statspack to the 8.1.7 schema

Batch Mode execution
  o  The installation, reporting and purge scripts (spcreate.sql, spreport.sql
     and sppurge.sql) have been modified so they can be run in batch mode, if
     the appropriate SQL*Plus variables are defined before the scripts are run.

  o  Two new SQL thresholds (and sections in the report) have been added: 
     sharable_mem and version_count
  o  The report which was previously ordered by rows processed has been
     changed to be ordered by executions
  o  The full text of a SQL statement is now captured (previously only the
     first 1000 bytes of the text was captured); the text is captured once
     only.  Previously, Statspack gathered all SQL related information,
     including all the SQL text for each snapshot.  The new strategy will
     result less space usage.
  o  The first 5 lines of a SQL statement are shown in each SQL report
     (rather than the first line)

File Rename
  o  The Statspack files have been renamed, with all files now beginning
     with the prefix sp.
     The new and old file names are given below.  For more information on
     the purpose of each file, please see the Supplied Scripts Overview

     New Name       Old Name
     ------------   -------------
     spdoc.txt      statspack.doc
     spcreate.sql   statscre.sql
     spreport.sql   statsrep.sql
     spauto.sql     statsauto.sql
     spuexp.par     statsuexp.par
     sppurge.sql    - new file -
     sptrunc.sql    - new file -
     spup816.sql    - new file -
     spdrop.sql     statsdrp.sql
     spcpkg.sql     statspack.sql
     spctab.sql     statsctab.sql
     spcusr.sql     statscusr.sql
     spdtab.sql     statsdtab.sql
     spdusr.sql     statsdusr.sql

  o  The default Statspack report output file name prefix has been modified
     to sp_ (was st_) to be consistent with the new script names.

9.  Upgrading from earlier releases

A script is provided which converts performance data in an existing 8.1.6
Statspack schema to the 8.1.7 schema format.  Although data conversion
is not a supported activity, this script has been provided as a
convenient way of keeping previously captured Statspack data.  Due to
the difference in schema layout, minor irregularities may result in
statistics captured before the conversion.

    There is no downgrade script as the Statspack shipped with 8.1.7 is
    fully compatible with Oracle release 8.1.6.
    If you would like the option of being able to regress to using
    the 8.1.6 Statspack, you must export the PERFSTAT schema before
    running the upgrade, as re-importing the schema is the only downgrade

Please note that you can use the 8.1.7 Statspack in an 8.1.6 database.
If you need to downgrade the database to 8.1.6 after an 8.1.7 upgrade,
it is not necessary to downgrade to the 8.1.6 Statspack, as Statspack
shipped with 8.1.7 is fully compatible with an 8.1.6 instance.  If you
wish to continue using the Statspack shipped with 8.1.7, you should use
the 8.1.7 Statspack scripts (e.g. spreport.sql) from the 8.1.7 executable.

Before running the upgrade script, export the statspack schema, then disable
any scripts which use Statspack, as these will interfere with the upgrade. 
For example, if you use a dbms_job to gather statistics, disable this job
for the duration of the upgrade.

If there is a large volume of data in the Statspack schema (i.e. a large
number of snapshots with large number of long SQL statements in
stats$sql_summary), to avoid a long upgrade time or avoid an
unsuccessful upgrade, ensure:
 - you specify a large rollback segment when prompted
 - you specify a large (e.g. 1048576) sort_area_size when prompted
 - there is enough free space in PERFSTAT's default tablespace
   To loosely estimate the required free space, run the following SQL
   statement while connected as PERFSTAT in SQL*Plus:
     select 1.3*sum(bytes)/1024/1024 est_space_mb
       from dba_segments
      where segment_name in ('STATS$SQL_SUMMARY','STATS$SQL_SUMMARY_PK');
   The est_space_mb column will give you a guestimate as to the required
   free space, in megabytes.
   The larger the SQL statements in the sql_summary table, the more space will
   be released after the upgrade is complete.

The upgrade script will prompt you for the rollback segment and sort_area_size

  e.g. To upgrade - first disable any programs which use Statspack, then
       connect as a user with SYSDBA privilege:
    SQL>  connect / as sysdba
    SQL>  @spup816

Once the upgrade script completes, check the log file (spup816.lis) for
errors.  If no errors are evident, re-enable any Statspack data collection or
reporting scripts which were previously disabled.

10. OPS specific considerations

The unique identifier for a database instance used by Statspack is the
dbid and the instance_number.  When using OPS it is possible the
instance_number may change between startups (either because the
instance_number parameter is set in the init.ora file, or because the
instances are started in a different order).

In this case, as Statspack uses the instance_number and the dbid to identify
the instance's snapshot preferences, it is important to note that this may
inadvertantly result in a different set of levels or thresholds being
used when snapshotting an instance.

There are three conditions which must be met for this to occur:
 - the instance numbers must have switched between startups
 - the DBA must have modified the default Statspack parameters used for
   at least one of the instances
 - the parameters used (e.g. thresholds and snapshot level) must not be
   the same on all instances

Note that the only way the parameters will differ is if the parameters
have been explicitly modified by the DBA after installation, either by
saving the specified values or by using the modify_statspack_parameter

It is easy to check whether any of the Statspack snapshot parameters are
different for the instances by querying the STATS$STATSPACK_PARAMETER table.

  If you have changed the default Statspack parameters you may
  wish to avoid encountering this problem by hard-coding the instance_number
  in the init.ora parameter file for each of the instances in the OPS
  database - this will avoid encountering this problem.
  For recommendations and issues with setting the instance_number init.ora
  parameter, please see the Oracle Parallel Server documentation.

11.  Conflicts and differences compared to UTLBSTAT/UTLESTAT

11.1. Running BSTAT/ESTAT in conjunction to Statspack

If you choose to run BSTAT/ESTAT in conjunction to Statspack, do not do
run both as the same user, as there is a table name conflict - this table
is stats$waitstat.

11.2. Differences between Statspack and BSTAT/ESTAT

Statspack considers a transaction to either finish with a commit or a
rollback, and so calculates the number of transactions thus:
  'user commits' + 'user rollbacks'

BSTAT/ESTAT considers a transaction to complete with a commit only, and
so assumes that transactions = 'user commits'

For this reason, comparing per transaction statistics between Statspack and
BSTAT/ESTAT may result in significantly different per transaction ratios.

12.  Removing the package

To deinstall the package, connect as a user with SYSDBA privilege and run
the following script from SQL*Plus:  spdrop
      SQL>  connect / as sysdba
      SQL>  @spdrop

This script actually calls 2 other scripts:
      1.  spdtab  ->  Drops tables and public synonyms
      2.  spdusr  ->  Drops the user

Check each of two output files produced (spdtab.lis, spdusr.lis)
to ensure the package was completely deinstalled.

13.  Supplied Scripts Overview


  Must be run as a user with SYSDBA privilege
 spcreate.sql ->  Creates entire Statspack environment (calls
          spcusr.sql, spctab.sql, spcpkg.sql)
   spdrop.sql ->  Drops entire Statspack environment (calls
       spdtab.sql, spdusr.sql)

  Are run as a user with SYSDBA priv by the calling scripts (above)
 spdtab.sql ->  Drops Statspack tables
   spdusr.sql ->  Drops the Statspack user (PERFSTAT)

  Are run as PERFSTAT by the calling scripts (above)
   spcusr.sql ->  Creates the Statspack user (PERFSTAT)
   spctab.sql ->  Creates Statspack tables
 spcpkg.sql ->  Creates the Statspack package

Reporting and Automation

  Must be run as PERFSTAT
 spreport.sql ->  Generates a Statspack report
 spauto.sql ->  Automates Statspack statistics collection
       (using dbms_job)


  Must be run as PERFSTAT
       spup816.sql      ->  Converts data from the 8.1.6 schema to the
                            newer (8.1.7) schema.  Backup the existing schema
                            before running the upgrade.

Performance Data Maintenance

  Must be run as PERFSTAT
        sppurge.sql     ->  Purges a limited range of Snapshot Id's for
                            a given database instance.
        sptrunc.sql     ->  Truncates all Performance data in Statspack tables
                            WARNING - Do not use unless you wish to remove
                                      all data in the schema you are using.
                                      You may choose to export the data
                                      as a backup before using this script.
        spuexp.par ->  An export parameter file supplied for exporting
       the whole PERFSTAT user.


  Should be read by the DBA running the scripts
 spdoc.txt ->  This file contains instructions and
       documentation on the STATSPACK package.

14.  Limitations and Modifications

14.1.  Limitations

  Statspack does not work with releases earlier than 8.1.6, as the data
  collected includes data from views only available in 8.1.6.

  Storing data from multiple databases in one PERFSTAT user account is
  currently not supported.  These and other features may be provided in
  future releases.

  As this is the first production Statspack release, the schema may change;
  backward compatibility is not guaranteed.

14.2.  Modifications

  All Statspack code is Oracle proprietry and must not be modified.  Any
  modifications made to Statspack software will render the the code and
  data captured thereafter unsupported; unsupported changes may result in
  errors in data capture or reporting.  Instead, please request enhancements
  against Statspack.


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