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mysql用户管理和权限控制 2017-07-13 17:04:54

分类: MySQL

最近朋友问我一些mysql用户的问题,就做了一些测试,记录如下:
一:用户的创建(两种方法):
方法一:CREATE USER 'username'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';
方法二:GRANT select ON databasename.tablename TO 'username'@'%' ;
二:mysql root用户密码设置以及修改。
方法1: 用SET PASSWORD命令
  mysql -u root
  mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR 'root'@'localhost' = PASSWORD('newpass');
方法2:用mysqladmin
  mysqladmin -u root password "newpass"
  如果root已经设置过密码,采用如下方法
  mysqladmin -u root password oldpass "newpass"
方法3: 用UPDATE直接编辑user表
  mysql -u root
  mysql> use mysql;
  mysql> UPDATE user SET Password = PASSWORD('newpass') WHERE user = 'root';
  mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
在丢失root密码的时候,可以这样
  mysqld_safe --skip-grant-tables&
  mysql -u root mysql
  mysql> UPDATE user SET password=PASSWORD("new password") WHERE user='root';
  mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
三:重点讲解创建mysql用户时,@后面的ip的意义就是为了限制登陆mysql的ip,具体有如下:
1)只允许在本地登录;
mysql> CREATE USER 'liuwenhe'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'liuwenhelocal';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
2)允许在192.168.0网段登陆mysql;
mysql> CREATE USER 'liuwenhe'@'192.168.0.%' IDENTIFIED BY 'liuwenhe0';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
3)允许在192.168.8网段登陆mysql;
mysql> CREATE USER 'liuwenhe'@'192.168.8.%' IDENTIFIED BY 'liuwenhe8';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
4)没有限制,也就是可以在任何网络段登陆(前提是网络得通);
mysql> CREATE USER 'liuwenhe'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY 'liuwenheall';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
针对上面这几个liuwenhe用户做了一些测试,结果如下:
1) 'liuwenhe'@'192.168.0.%'这类的用户是不能在本地登录的,要想在本地登录,需要有localhost或者127.0.0.1的登陆权限;
需要注意的是,如果你只创建了用户 'liuwenhe'@'localhost' ,
1.mysql> CREATE USER 'liuwenhe'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'liuwenhelocal';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> select host,user from mysql.user;
+--------------+----------+
| host | user |
+--------------+----------+
| % | ogg |
| % | root |
| 127.0.0.1 | root |
| 192.168.0.% | ncms |
| 192.168.0.13 | rep |
| localhost | liuwenhe |
| localhost | ncms |
| localhost | ogg |
| localhost | root |
| server01 | root |
+--------------+----------+
10 rows in set (0.00 sec)
如下两种登陆方式都能成功:
[root@server02 ~]# mysql -uliuwenhe -pliuwenhelocal -hlocalhost
[root@server02 ~]# mysql -uliuwenhe -pliuwenhelocal -h127.0.0.1
2.如果你只创建了liuwenhe'@'l127.0.0.1',
mysql> select host,user from mysql.user;
+--------------+----------+
| host | user |
+--------------+----------+
| % | ogg |
| % | root |
| 127.0.0.1 | liuwenhe |
| 127.0.0.1 | root |
| 192.168.0.% | ncms |
| 192.168.0.13 | rep |
| localhost | ncms |
| localhost | ogg |
| localhost | root |
| server01 | root |
+--------------+----------+
10 rows in set (0.00 sec)
只能通过mysql -uliuwenhe -pliuwenhelocal -h127.0.0.1登陆,不能通过 mysql -uliuwenhe -pliuwenhelocal -hlocalhost登陆;
[root@server02 ~]# mysql -uliuwenhe -pliuwenhelocal -h127.0.0.1
Warning: Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 3628
Server version: 5.6.26-enterprise-commercial-advanced-log MySQL Enterprise Server - Advanced Edition (Commercial)
Copyright (c) 2000, 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.
Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
mysql>
不能通过localhost登陆,如下报错:
[root@server02 ~]# mysql -uliuwenhe -pliuwenhelocal -hlocalhost
Warning: Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
ERROR 1045 (28000): Access denied for user 'liuwenhe'@'localhost' (using password: YES)
2)如果你同时创建了'liuwenhe'@'192.168.0.%'和'liuwenhe'@'%'这两个用户,那么当你从192.168.0网段去登陆数据库的时候,'liuwenhe'@'%'用户是不能登陆数据库的,只能通过'liuwenhe'@'192.168.0.%'登陆,但是当你删除'liuwenhe'@'192.168.0.%'用户的时候,'liuwenhe'@'%'用户就可以登陆了,可以理解为mysql优先并且只会验证匹配度高的用户,
具体验证过程如下:
mysql> select host,user from mysql.user;
+--------------+----------+
| host | user |
+--------------+----------+
| % | liuwenhe |
| % | ogg |
| % | root |
| 127.0.0.1 | root |
| 192.168.0.% | liuwenhe |
| 192.168.0.% | ncms |
| 192.168.0.13 | rep |
| localhost | ncms |
| localhost | ogg |
| localhost | root |
| server01 | root |
+--------------+----------+
11 rows in set (0.00 sec)
在另一台机器S244(192.168.0.244)尝试登陆mysql:
使用'liuwenhe'@'%'用户登录失败:如下
[root@S244 ~]# mysql -uliuwenhe -pliuwenheall -h192.168.0.12
Warning: Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
ERROR 1045 (28000): Access denied for user 'liuwenhe'@'192.168.0.244' (using password: YES)
使用'liuwenhe'@'192.168.0.%'用户登录成功,如下:
[root@S244 ~]# mysql -uliuwenhe -pliuwenhe0 -h192.168.0.12
Warning: Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 3679
Server version: 5.6.26-enterprise-commercial-advanced-log MySQL Enterprise Server - Advanced Edition (Commercial)
Copyright (c) 2000, 2014, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.
Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
mysql>
当你删除'liuwenhe'@'192.168.0.%'用户的时候,'liuwenhe'@'%'用户就可以登陆了,如下:
mysql> delete from mysql.user where user='liuwenhe' and host='192.168.0.%';
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> flush privileges;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
依旧在另一台机器S244(192.168.0.244)尝试使用'liuwenhe'@'%'用户登陆mysql,成功了:
[root@S244 ~]# mysql -uliuwenhe -pliuwenheall -h192.168.0.12
Warning: Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 3681
Server version: 5.6.26-enterprise-commercial-advanced-log MySQL Enterprise Server - Advanced Edition (Commercial)
Copyright (c) 2000, 2014, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.
Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
mysql>
3)我的这台mysql所在的服务器上面有两个ip,如下:
现在我创建了一个 'liuwenhe'@'192.168.8.%' ,
那么只能通过
mysql -uliuwenhe -pliuwenhe8 -h192.168.8.238登陆,不能通过mysql -uliuwenhe -pliuwenhe8 -h192.168.0.12登陆,同理创建了一个 'liuwenhe'@'192.168.0.%' ,只能通过
mysql -uliuwenhe -pliuwenhe0 -h192.168.0.12登陆,不能通过mysql -uliuwenhe -pliuwenhe0 -h192.168.8.238登陆
验证如下:
mysql> CREATE USER 'liuwenhe'@'192.168.0.%' IDENTIFIED BY 'liuwenhe0';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> flush privileges;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> exit
Bye
[root@server02 ~]# mysql -uliuwenhe -pliuwenhe0 -h192.168.0.12
Warning: Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 3704
Server version: 5.6.26-enterprise-commercial-advanced-log MySQL Enterprise Server - Advanced Edition (Commercial)
Copyright (c) 2000, 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.
Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
mysql> exit
Bye
[root@server02 ~]# mysql -uliuwenhe -pliuwenhe0 -h192.168.8.238
Warning: Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
ERROR 1045 (28000): Access denied for user 'liuwenhe'@'192.168.8.238' (using password: YES)
小结:192.168.0.12 和192.168.8.268是不同的两个网段,需要网关才能互联,但是mysql你创建的用户CREATE USER 'liuwenhe'@'192.168.8.%' IDENTIFIED BY 'liuwenhe8';允许从8网段的ip登录mysql,然后你mysql -uliuwenhe -pliuwenhe8 -h192.168.0.12是登录不上的,因为这俩网段是不通的,但是你mysql -uliuwenhe -pliuwenhe8 -h192.168.8.238就可以;

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