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静默创建oracle数据库及克隆数据库

原创 Oracle 作者:邱东阳 时间:2014-03-20 13:48:14 16777215 删除 编辑


在没有图形界面的情况下,可以使用dbca命令进行静默安装数据库。

静默安装的的速度是比图形界面安装的速度快的。

使用oracle软件自带的响应文件建库

需要响应的文件

 

可以使用oracle磁盘响应文件夹中的dbca.rsp

[oracle@dongyang database]$ ls

doc  install  response  runInstaller  stage  welcome.html

[oracle@dongyang database]$ cd response/

[oracle@dongyang response]$ ls

custom.rsp  dbca.rsp  emca.rsp  enterprise.rsp  netca.rsp  standard.rsp

[oracle@dongyang response]$

 

查看dbca命令如何使用

 

[oracle@dongyang ~]$ dbca -help |more

dbca  [-silent | -progressOnly | -customCreate] { }  | { [

nd> [options] ] -responseFile  } [-continueOnNonFatalErrors

| false>]

Please refer to the manual for details.

You can enter one of the following command:

 

Create a database by specifying the following parameters:

        -createDatabase  创建数据库(步骤写的很清楚,根据提示写命令)

                           配置主要的几个参数,其余的可以在建完之后修改

                -templateName

                [-cloneTemplate]  --选择模板 (默认为通用模板)

                -gdbName --数据库的名字

                [-sid ]   --实例名

                [-sysPassword --创建SYS用户密码(使用响应文件安装数据库 必须指定密码)

                [-systemPassword ] 创建SYSTEM用户密码

                [-emConfiguration <CENTRAL|LOCAL|ALL|NOBACKUP|NOEMAIL|NONE>

                  --配置EM         --参数选择配置的方式

                        -dbsnmpPassword --创建dbsnmp密码

                        -sysmanPassword --创建sysman密码

                    以上参数基本可以建库了,在加上响应文件就可以了。

 

                        [-hostUserName                          -hostUserPassword

                         -backupSchedule

m>]

                        [-smtpServer

 

ations>

                         -emailAddress ]

                        [-centralAgent ]]

                [-datafileDestination <destination directory for all database files

> |  -datafileNames

tablespaces, redo log files and spfile to their corresponding raw device file names

 mappings in name=value format.>]

这个参数指定数据文件、日志文件、控制文件存放路径,默认为$ORACLE_BASE/oradata

设置了变量就不需要写

                [-recoveryAreaDestination

iles>]

                [-datafileJarLocation 

r clone database creation>]

                [-storageType < FS | ASM | RAW>

                        [-asmSysPassword     ]

                        [-diskString      ]

                        [-diskList       

tabase area disk group>

                         -diskGroupName  

                         -redundancy      ]

                        [-recoveryDiskList       

r the recovery area disk group>

                         -recoveryGroupName      

                         -recoveryGroupRedundancy ]]

                [-characterSet ]

                  -指定字符集

                [-nationalCharacterSet  ]

                   --指定国家字符集

                [-registerWithDirService

                        -dirServiceUserName   

                        -dirServicePassword   

                        -walletPassword    ]

                [-listeners  ]

                [-variablesFile  

les in the template>]]

                [-variables  ]

                [-initParams ]

                [-memoryPercentage ]

                        [-databaseType ]]

 

Configure a database by specifying the following parameters:

        -configureDatabase

                -sourceDB   

                [-sysDBAUserName    

                 -sysDBAPassword     ]

                [-registerWithDirService|-unregisterWithDirService|-regenerateDBPas

sword

                        -dirServiceUserName   

                        -dirServicePassword   

                        -walletPassword    ]

                [-emConfiguration

                        -dbsnmpPassword

                        -symanPassword

                        [-hostUserName

                         -hostUserPassword

                         -backupSchedule

m>]

                        [-smtpServer

ations>

                         -emailAddress ]

                        [-centralAgent ]]

 

 

Create a template from an existing database by specifying the following parameters:

        -createTemplateFromDB

                -sourceDB    ::>

                -templateName     

                -sysDBAUserName    

                -sysDBAPassword    

                [-maintainFileLocations ]

 

 

Create a clone template from an existing database by specifying the following param

eters:

        -createCloneTemplate

                -sourceSID   

                -templateName     

                [-sysDBAUserName    

                 -sysDBAPassword     ]

                [-maintainFileLocations ]

                [-datafileJarLocation      

compressed format>]

 

Generate scripts to create database by specifying the following parameters:

        -generateScripts

                -templateName

                -gdbName

                [-scriptDest       ]

 

Delete a database by specifying the following parameters:

        -deleteDatabase

                -sourceDB   

                [-sysDBAUserName    

                 -sysDBAPassword     ]

 

Configure ASM DiskGroups by specifying the following parameters:

        -configureASM

                [-asmSysPassword   ]

                [-diskString    ]

                [-diskList     

a disk group>

                 -diskGroupName

                 -redundancy    ]]

                [-recoveryDiskList       

tabase area disk group>

                 -recoveryGroupName      

--More--

 

根据帮助写出建库命令

 

[oracle@dongyang response]$ dbca -silent -cloneTemplate -gdbName orcl -sid orcl -sysPassword oracle -systemPassword oracle -emConfiguration LOCAL -dbsnmpPassword oracle -sysmanPassword oracle  characterSet AL32UTF8 -nationaICharaterSet AL16UTF16 -responseFile /home/oracle/database/response/dbca.rsp

 

 

等待完成。

登录到数据库进行相关设置

 

[oracle@dongyang ~]$ export ORACLE_SID=orcl

[oracle@dongyang ~]$ sqlplus "/ as sysdba"

查询数据库当前可以的登录的账号

SQL> select username,account_status from dba_users where account_status='OPEN';

 

USERNAME                       ACCOUNT_STATUS

------------------------------ --------------------------------

SYSTEM                         OPEN

SYS                            OPEN

MGMT_VIEW                      OPEN

SYSMAN                         OPEN

DBSNMP                         OPEN

 

SQL>

修改可以登录的账号密码

使用SQL生成一个修改用户密码的脚本

SQL> select 'alter user '||username||' identified by oracle111;' from dba_users

  2  where  account_status='OPEN';

 

'ALTERUSER'||USERNAME||'IDENTIFIEDBYORACLE111;'

------------------------------------------------------------------

alter user SYSTEM identified by oracle111;

alter user SYS identified by oracle111;

alter user MGMT_VIEW identified by oracle111;

alter user SYSMAN identified by oracle111;

alter user DBSNMP identified by oracle111;

 

将结果保存到/u01/app/oracle/pass.sql

开启spool创建一个文件

SQL> spool /u01/app/oracle/pass.sql

执行的结果都会保留在文件中

SQL> /

 

'ALTERUSER'||USERNAME||'IDENTIFIEDBYORACLE111;'

------------------------------------------------------------------

alter user SYSTEM identified by oracle111;

alter user SYS identified by oracle111;

alter user MGMT_VIEW identified by oracle111;

alter user SYSMAN identified by oracle111;

alter user DBSNMP identified by oracle111;

关闭spool

SQL> spool off

使用OS命令 只保留/u01/app/oracle/pass.sql文件中以alter开头的所有行、

 

SQL> ho sed -n '/^alter/p' /u01/app/oracle/pass.sql  -i

查看/u01/app/oracle/pass.sql文件内容

SQL> ho cat /u01/app/oracle/pass.sql

alter user SYSTEM identified by oracle111;                                     

alter user SYS identified by oracle111;                                        

alter user MGMT_VIEW identified by oracle111;                                  

alter user SYSMAN identified by oracle111;                                     

alter user DBSNMP identified by oracle111;                                      

执行脚本修改密码

SQL> @/u01/app/oracle/pass.sql

 

User altered.

 

 

User altered.

 

 

User altered.

 

 

User altered.

 

 

User altered.

 

SQL>

 

使用OS的模板建库

查看OS自带模板

 

[oracle@dongyang templates]$ pwd

/u01/app/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1/assistants/dbca/templates

[oracle@dongyang templates]$ ls

Data_Warehouse.dbc   New_Database.dbt   Seed_Database.dfb           example.dmp

General_Purpose.dbc  Seed_Database.ctl  Transaction_Processing.dbc  example01.dfb

[oracle@dongyang templates]$

 

使用通用模板静默建库

 

[oracle@dongyang ~]$ dbca -silent -createDatabase -templateName $ORACLE_HOME/assistants/dbca/templates/General_Purpose.dbc  -gdbName orcl1 sid orcl1 -sysPassword oracle -systemPassword oracle -responseFile NO_VALUE characterSet AL32UTF8 -nationaICharaterSet AL16UTF16 –emConfiguration LOCAL -dbsnmpPassword oracle -sysmanPassword oracle

 

-responseFile NO_VALUE  --不使用响应文件

 

 

也可以自己手工定义一个模板来建库

确认要克隆的库

 

[oracle@dongyang ~]$ ps -ef |grep ora_

oracle    4063     1  0 09:04 ?        00:00:12 ora_pmon_fengzi

oracle    4065     1  0 09:04 ?        00:00:06 ora_psp0_fengzi

oracle    4067     1  0 09:04 ?        00:00:06 ora_mman_fengzi

oracle    4069     1  0 09:04 ?        00:00:10 ora_dbw0_fengzi

oracle    4071     1  0 09:04 ?        00:00:09 ora_lgwr_fengzi

oracle    4073     1  0 09:04 ?        00:00:20 ora_ckpt_fengzi

oracle    4075     1  0 09:04 ?        00:00:02 ora_smon_fengzi

oracle    4077     1  0 09:04 ?        00:00:00 ora_reco_fengzi

oracle    4079     1  0 09:04 ?        00:00:15 ora_cjq0_fengzi

oracle    4081     1  0 09:04 ?        00:00:11 ora_mmon_fengzi

oracle    4083     1  0 09:04 ?        00:00:12 ora_mmnl_fengzi

oracle    4085     1  0 09:04 ?        00:00:00 ora_d000_fengzi

oracle    4087     1  0 09:04 ?        00:00:00 ora_s000_fengzi

oracle    4090     1  0 09:04 ?        00:00:05 ora_asmb_fengzi

oracle    4094     1  0 09:04 ?        00:00:06 ora_rbal_fengzi

oracle    4097     1  0 09:04 ?        00:00:00 ora_o000_fengzi

oracle    4101     1  0 09:04 ?        00:00:06 ora_rvwr_fengzi

oracle    4107     1  0 09:04 ?        00:00:00 ora_arc0_fengzi

oracle    4111     1  0 09:04 ?        00:00:01 ora_arc1_fengzi

oracle    4115     1  0 09:04 ?        00:00:01 ora_qmnc_fengzi

oracle    4127     1  0 09:05 ?        00:00:00 ora_q000_fengzi

oracle    4129     1  0 09:05 ?        00:00:01 ora_q001_fengzi

oracle    5468  4016  0 11:44 pts/2    00:00:00 grep ora_

[oracle@dongyang ~]$

 

 

克隆SIDfengzi的数据库

注意:

要克隆的数据库必须可以正常的打开与关闭。否则克隆模板不能正常使用。

 

[oracle@dongyang ~]$ dbca -help

Create a clone template from an existing database by specifying the following parameters:

        -createCloneTemplate   --创建克隆模板

                -sourceSID      --指定SID

                -templateName        --新的模板名字

                [-sysDBAUserName    

                 -sysDBAPassword     ]

                [-maintainFileLocations ]

                [-datafileJarLocation       ]

 

[oracle@dongyang ~]$ dbca -silent -createCloneTemplate -sourceSID fengzi -templateName clonefengzi

模板默认地址

 

[oracle@dongyang ~]$ ls $ORACLE_HOME/assistants/dbca/templates

Data_Warehouse.dbc   New_Database.dbt   Seed_Database.dfb           example.dmp

General_Purpose.dbc  Seed_Database.ctl  Transaction_Processing.dbc  example01.dfb

Clonefengzi.dbc       Clonefengzi.dfb       Clonefengzi.ctl

[oracle@dongyang ~]$

 

.ctl后缀文件   --是控制文件的备份

.dbc后缀文件  -- 这个就是克隆的模板

.dfb后缀文件   --RMAN进行的备份集,其中包括库中所有数据文件

使用自定义模板方式建库

使用这个模板,数据库其中的内容跟SID为fengzi的数据库中的内容是一样的。(也就是克隆技术)

 

[oracle@dongyang ~]$dbca -silent -createDatabase -templateName $ORACLE_HOME/assistants/dbca/templates/clonefengzi.dbc  -gdbName orcl2 -sid orcl2 -datafileDestination $ORACLE_BASE/oradata -responseFile NO_VALUE  characterSet AL32UTF8 -nationaICharaterSet AL16UTF16 –emConfiguration LOCAL -dbsnmpPassword oracle -sysmanPassword oracle

 

 

 

静默删除数据库

删除数据库就非常简单了

 

[oracle@dongyang ~]$ dbca –help

Delete a database by specifying the following parameters:

        -deleteDatabase

                -sourceDB    database sid>(一定是SID )

                [-sysDBAUserName    

                 -sysDBAPassword     ]

 

 

[oracle@dongyang ~]$dbca –silent –deleteDatabase  -sourceDB orcl1

 

 


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