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RMAN的常用命令

原创 Oracle 作者:pcj0421 时间:2013-08-09 21:11:47 0 删除 编辑
1、连接到目标数据库(不用恢复目录数据库):
Rman nocatalog target
sys/change_on_isntall@testdb
Rman catalog rman_user/rman_user@ora9rc target sys/change_on_install@testdb
2、SHOW命令:
显示rman配置: RMAN> show all;
3、REPORT命令:
  1、RMAN> report schema 报告目标数据库的物理结构;
  2、RMAN>report need backup days=3; 报告最近3天没有被备份的数据文件;
  3、RMAN> report need backup days 3 tablespace users; 在USERS表空间上3天未备份的数据文件;
  4、RMAN> report need backup incremental 3; 报告恢复数据文件需要的增量备份个数超过3次的数据文件;
  5、RMAN> report need backup redundancy 2 database; 报告备份文件低于2份的所有数据文件;
RMAN>report need backup redundancy=2;
  6、RMAN> report need backup recovery window of 6 days; 报告文件报表的恢复需要超过6天的归档日志的数据文件;
  7、RMAN> report unrecoverable; 报告数据库所有不可恢复的数据文件;
  8、RMAN> report obsolete redunndancy 2; 报告备份次数超过2次的陈旧备份;
  9、RMAN>report obsolete; 报告丢弃的备份;
4、LIST命令:列出备份信息
  1、列出数据文件备份集
   RMAN> list backup 列出详细备份;
   RMAN> list expired backup 列出过期备份;
   RMAN> list backup of database; 列出所有数据文件的备份集;
   RMAN> list backup of tablespace user01; 列出特定表空间的所有数据文件备份集;
  2、RMAN> list backup of controlfile 列出控制文件备份集;
   3、RMAN> list backup of archivelog all 列出归档日志备份集详细信息;
   RMAN>list archivelog all;      列出归档日志备份集简要信息
  4、RMAN> list backup of spfile 列出SPFILE备份集;
  5、RMAN> list copy of datafile 5 列出数据文件映像副本;
   6、RMAN> list copy of controlfile 列出控制文件映像副本;
   7、RMAN> list copy of archivelog all 列出归档日志映像副本;
  8、RMAN> list incarnation of database 列出对应物/列出数据库副本;
  9、RMAN>list backup summary; 概述可用的备份;
       B表示backup
       F表示FULL
      A表示archive log
      0 1表示incremental backup
      S说明备份状态(A AVAILABLE   X EXPIRED )
10、RMAN>list backup by file 按备份类型列出备份;
按照数据文件备份,归档日志备份,控制文件备份,服务器参数文件备份 列出
5、CROSSCHECK命令:校验备份信息
  1、RMAN> crosscheck backup 核对所有备份集;
   2、RMAN> crosscheck backup of database 核对所有数据文件的备份集;
   3、RMAN> crosscheck backup of tablespace users 核对特定表空间的备份集;
   4、RMAN> crosscheck backup of datafile 4 核对特定数据文件的备份集;
  5、RMAN> crosscheck backup of controlfile 核对控制文件的备份集;
  6、RMAN> crosscheck backup of spfile 核对SPFILE的备份集;
   7、RMAN> crosscheck backup of archivelog sequence 3 核对归档日志的备份集;
   8、RMAN> crosscheck copy 核对所有映像副本;
   9、RMAN> crosscheck copy of database 核对所有数据文件的映像副本;
   10、RMAN> crosscheck copy of tablespace users 核对特定表空间的映像副本;
  11、RMAN> crosscheck copy of datafile 6 核对特定数据文件的映像副本;
   12、RMAN> crosscheck copy of archivelog sequence 4 核对归档日志的映像副本;
   13、RMAN> crosscheck copy of controlfile 核对控制文件的映像副本;
   14、RMAN> crosscheck backup tag='SAT_BACKUP';
   15、RMAN> crosscheck backup completed after 'sysdate - 2'
   16、RMAN> crosscheck backup completed between 'sysdate - 5' and 'sysdate -2 '
  17、RMAN> crosscheck backup device type sBT;
   18、RMAN> crosscheck archivelog all;
   19、RMAN> crosscheck archivelog like '%ARC00012.001'
   20、RMAN> crosscheck archivelog from sequence 12;
   21、RMAN> crosscheck archivelog until sequence 522;
6、DELETE:删除备份
   1、RMAN> delete obsolete; 删除陈旧备份;
   2、RMAN> delete expired backup; 删除EXPIRED备份
   3、RMAN> delete expired copy; 删除EXPIRED副本;
   4、RMAN> delete backupset 19; 删除特定备份集;
   5、RMAN> delete backuppiece ''d:\backup\DEMO_19.bak'' 删除特定备份片;
  6、RMAN> delete backup 删除所有备份集;
   7、RMAN> delete datafilecopy ''d:\backup\DEMO_19.bak'' 删除特定映像副本;
  8、RMAN> delete copy 删除所有映像副本;
   9、RMAN> delete archivelog all delete input;
   RMAN> delete backupset 22 format = ''d:\backup\%u.bak'' delete input
在备份后删除输入对象;
  10、RMAN> delete backupset id;
7、CHANGE命令:改变备份集的状态
  1、RMAN> change backupset 22 unavailable 改变备份集状态;
  2、RMAN> change datafilecopy ''d:\backup\demo_37.bak'' unavailable 改变映像副本状态;
   3、RMAN> change backupset 156 keep forever logs 使备份集156永久保留;
  4、RMAN> change backupset 198 keep until ''sysdate+60'' logs 使备份集198保留60天;
   5、RMAN> change backupset 156 nokeep 免除备份集156的保留期限;
   6、change backupset 117,118 delete;
   7、change backuppiece 1304 delete;
   8、change archivelog until logseq =544 delete;
8、CONFIGURE命令
  1显示当前的配置信息
     1.01 RMAN> show all;
     1.02查询RMAN设置中非默认值:
     SQL> select name,value from v$rman_configuration;
   2.常用的configure选项
     2.01保存策略(retention policy)
     configure retention policy to recovery window of 3 days;
     configure retention policy to redundancy 3;
     configure retention policy clear;
2.02备份优化backup optimization
     configure backup optimization on;
     configure backup optimization off;
     configure backup optimization clear;
2.03默认设备default device type
     configure default device type to disk;
     configure default device type to stb;
     configure default device type clear;
2.04控制文件controlfile
     configure controlfile autobackup on;
     configure controlfile autobackup format for device type disk to '/cfs01/backup/conf/conf_%F';
     configure controlfile autobackup clear;
     configrue controlfile autobackup format for device type disk clear;
     configrue snapshot controlfile name to '/cfs01/backup/snapcf/scontrofile.snp';
     configrue snapshot controlfile name clear;
2.05并行数(通道数) device type disk|stb parallelism n;
     configure device type disk|stb parallelism 2;
     configure device type disk|stb clear;
     configure channel device type disk format 'e/:rmanback_%U';
     configure channel device type disk maxpiecesize 100m
     configure channel device type disk rate 1200K
     configure channel 1 device type disk format 'e/:rmanback_%U';
     configure channel 1 device type disk maxpiecesize 100m
2.06生成备份副本datafile|archivelog backup copies
     configure datafile backup copies for device type disk|stb to 3;
     configure archivelog backup copies for device type disk|stb to 3;
     configure datafile|archivelog backup copies for device type disk|stb clear
     backup device type disk database
       format '/disk1/backup/%U', '/disk2/backup/%U', '/disk3/backup/%U';
2.07排除选项exclude
     configure exclude for tablespace 'users';
     configrue exclude clear;
2.08备份集大小maxsetsize
     configure maxsetsize to 1G|1000M|1000000K|unlimited;
     configure maxsetsize clear;
2.09其它选项auxiliary
     CONFIGURE AUXNAME FOR DATAFILE 1 TO '/oracle/auxfiles/aux_1.f';
     CONFIGURE AUXNAME FOR DATAFILE 2 TO '/oracle/auxfiles/aux_2.f';
     CONFIGURE AUXNAME FOR DATAFILE 3 TO '/oracle/auxfiles/aux_3.f';
     CONFIGURE AUXNAME FOR DATAFILE 4 TO '/oracle/auxfiles/aux_4.f';
     CONFIGURE AUXNAME FOR DATAFILE 1 CLEAR;

9、CATALOG命令 用于追加备份记录到RMAN资料库中。
  1、RMAN> catalog datafilecopy ''d:\backup\user01.bak'';
   RMAN>catalog controlfile ''d:\backup\demo.ctl'';
   RMAN> catalog archivelog ''d:\backup\demo_25.bak'';
注册副本;
   2、RMAN> catalog backuppiece ''d:\backup\demo_40.dbf'' 注册备份片;
   3、RMAN> catalog start with ''d:\bak'' 注册特定目录的所有备份文件;
  4、RMAN> change datafilecopy ''d:\bak\user01.bak'' uncatalog;
    RMAN> change controlfilecopy ''d:\bak\demo.ctl'' uncatalog;
     RMAN> change backuppiece ''d:\bak\demo_25.bak'' uncatalog;
     注销备份记录
10、FORMAT字符串替代变量:
   使用FORMAT参数时可使用的各种替换变量,如下:
     %d:数据库名称;
     %D:位于该月中的天数(DD);
     %M:位于该年中的月份(MM);
     %F:一个基于DBID唯一的名称,这个格式的形式为c-IIIIIIIIII-YYYYMMDD-QQ,其中IIIIIIIIII为该数据库的DBID,
      YYYYMMDD为日期,QQ是一个1-256的序列;
    %n:数据库名称,并且会在右侧用x字符进行填充,使其保持长度为8;
     %u:是一个由备份集编号和建立时间压缩后组成的8字符名称。利用%u可以为每个备份集生成一个唯一的名称;
     %p:表示备份集中备份片段的编号,从1开始编号;
     %c:备份片的拷贝数(从1开始编号);
     %U:是%u_%p_%c的简写形式,利用它可以为每一个备份片段(即磁盘文件)生成一个唯一名称,
这是最常用的命名方式;
    %s:备份集的号;
     %t:备份集时间戳;
    %T:年月日格式(YYYYMMDD);s
     注:如果在BACKUP命令中没有指定FORMAT选项,则RMAN默认使用%U为备份片段命名。
11、validate命令
     1、validate命令验证备份集片是否能够被还原;
     2、list backup summary;得到了备份集得主键ID如40,然后validate backupset 40;
12、恢复目录的记录删除
   1. $Oracle_HOME/rdbms/admin/prgrmanc.sql脚本定期删除恢复目录中具有DELETED状态的记录
   2.要删除旧的对应物记录incarnation.必须从DBINC表中删除这些对应物,
     使用RC_DATABASE_INCARNATION视图来确定要删除的对应物。记录要删除的每个对应物的DBINC_KEY,
    随后启动SQL*Plus,执行delete from dbinc where dbinc_key=2;
13、手工同步恢复目录:resync catalog;
14、在RMAN中存储脚本
   1,连接到目标数据库和恢复目录
   2,创建脚本
    RMAN>create script. my_bk_script
       2>{backup database plus archivelog;}
   3,打印脚本
     RMAN>print script. my_bk_script;
   4,运行这个脚本,备份目标数据库
     RMAN>run {execute scipt my_bk_script;}
   5删除脚本
      RMAN>delete script. my_bk_script;
15、archivelog模式下的完全恢复
  step1:set oracle_sid=testdb
      rman target rman_user/password
      configure controlfile autobackup on;
  step2:backup database plus archivelog delete input;
  step3:shutdown immediate;
  step4:重命名所有的数据文件和控制文件,不重命名联机重做日志。
step5: startup nomount;
     set DBID=****
     restore controlfile from autobackup;
     alter database mount;
  step6: restore database;
     recover database;
     alter database open resetlogs;
16、表空间恢复
  sql"alter tablespace users offline";
  sql"alter tablespace tools offline";
  restore tablespace users,tools;
  recover tablespace users,tools;
  sql"alter tablespace users online";
  sql"alter tablespace tools online";
17、数据文件恢复
sql"alter database datafile 3 offline";
  sql"alter database datafile 'd:oracleoradatausers01.dbf' offline";
  restore datafile 3
  restore datafile 'd:oracleoradatausers01.dbf';
  recover datafile 3
  recover datafile 'd:oracleoradatausers01.dbf';
  sql"alter database datafile 3 online";
  sql"alter database datafile 'd:oracleoradatausers01.dbf'online";
18、RMAN高级恢复
  1基于时间点的恢复
  run
  {
  set until time "to_date('07/01/02 15:00:00','mm/dd/yy hh24:mi:ss')"
  restore database;
  recover database;
  alter database open resetlogs;
}
  2基于SCN的恢复
  startup mount;
  restore database UNTIL SCN 10000;
  recover database UNTIL SCN 10000;
  alter database open resetlogs;
  3基于日志序列的恢复
  startup mount;
  restore database UNTIL SEQUENCE 100 thread 1;
  recover database UNTIL SEQUENCE 100 thread 1;
  alter database open resetlogs;

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