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10G物理备库搭建文档

原创 Linux操作系统 作者:tonyzhou_cn 时间:2013-01-31 16:29:28 0 删除 编辑
主要步骤:
This document includes the following tasks:
•  Task 1: Gather Files and Perform. Back Up
•  Task 2: Configure Oracle Net on the Physical Standby
•  Task 3: Create the Physical Standby Instance and Database
•  Task 4: Configure the Primary Database for Data Guard
•  Task 5: Verify Data Guard Configuration
This document assumes that the following conditions are met:
•  The primary RAC database is using ASM.
•  The standby host has an existing Oracle software installation.
•  The physical standby database storage uses an existing ASM instance.
•  The primary and standby databases are using a flash recovery area.
•  Oracle Managed Files (OMF) is used for all storage.
主库操作:CHICAGO
TASK 1: GATHER FILES AND PERFORM. BACK UP
1.  On the primary node, create a staging directory. For example:
[oracle@chicago_host1 oracle]$ mkdir -p /opt/oracle/stage 
 
2.  Create the same exact path on the standby host:
[oracle@boston_host1 oracle]$ mkdir -p /opt/oracle/stage
 
3.  On the primary node, connect to th e primary database and create a PFILE
from the SPFILE in the staging directory. For example:
SQL> CREATE PFILE='/opt/oracle/stage/initCHICAGO.ora' FROM SPFILE;
 
4.  On the primary node, perform. an RMAN backup of the primary database
that places the backup pieces into the staging directory. For example:
[oracle@chicago_host1 stage]$ rman target /
RMAN> BACKUP DEVICE TYPE DISK FORMAT '/opt/oracle/stage/%U' DATABASE PLUS ARCHIVELOG;
RMAN> BACKUP DEVICE TYPE DISK FORMAT '/opt/oracle/stage/%U' CURRENT CONTROLFILE FOR STANDBY;
也可以使用下面的备份脚本。
run{
sql "alter system switch logfile";
allocate channel ch1 type disk format '/oracle/backup/primary_for_dg_%U';
backup database;
backup current controlfile for standby;
sql "alter system archive log current";
}
5.  Place a copy of the listener.ora, tnsn ames.ora, and sqlnet.ora files into the
staging directory. For example:
[oracle@chicago_host1 oracle]$ cp $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/*.ora /opt/oracle/stage
 
6.  Copy the contents of the staging  directory on the RAC node to the staging
directory on the standby host. For example:
[oracle@chicago_host1 oracle]$ scp /opt/oracle/stage/* oracle@boston_host1:/opt/oracle/stage

备库操作
TASK 2: CONFIGURE ORACLE NET SERVICES ON THE STANDBY
1.  Copy the listener.ora, tnsnames.ora, and sqlnet.ora files from the staging directory on the standby host to  the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory on the standby host.
2.  Modify the listener.ora file on the standby host to contain the hostname of the standby host.
实例:
LISTENER_RACDG =
  (DESCRIPTION_LIST =
    (DESCRIPTION =
      (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST =192.168.58.250)(PORT = 1521)(IP = FIRST))
    )
  )

SID_LIST_LISTENER =
  (SID_LIST =
    (SID_DESC =
      (SID_NAME = PLSExtProc)
      (ORACLE_HOME = /oracle/app/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1 )
      (PROGRAM = extproc)
    )
    (SID_DESC =
      (GLOBAL_DBNAME = racdg)   ----这里比较重要,如果设置了 db_unique_name的话一定要同名设置
      (ORACLE_HOME = /oracle/app/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1)
      (SID_NAME = racdg)
    )
  )

3.  Modify the tnsnames.ora file on each node, including the primary RAC nodes and standby host, to contain all primary and standby net service names. In this example, each tnsnames.ora file should contain all three of the net service names in the following table:
Primary Net Service Names  Standby Net Service Name
 
CHICAGO1_SERV =
 (DESCRIPTION =
  (ADDRESS = 
   (PROTOCOL = TCP)
   (HOST = chicago_host1vip)
   (PORT = 1521))
  (CONNECT_DATA =
    (SERVER = DEDICATED)
    (SERVICE_NAME = CHICAGO)
    (INSTANCE_NAME = CHICAGO1)
  )
 )  
BOSTON =
 (DESCRIPTION =
  (ADDRESS = 
   (PROTOCOL = TCP)
   (HOST = boston_host1) 可以用IP代替
   (PORT = 1521))
  (CONNECT_DATA =
    (SERVER = DEDICATED)
    (SERVICE_NAME = BOSTON)
  )
 )    

CHICAGO2_SERV =
 (DESCRIPTION =
  (ADDRESS = 
   (PROTOCOL = TCP)
   (HOST = chicago_host2vip)
   (PORT = 1521))
  (CONNECT_DATA =
    (SERVER = DEDICATED)
    (SERVICE_NAME = CHICAGO)
    (INSTANCE_NAME = CHICAGO2)
  )
 )  
 
实例:
RACDG =
  (DESCRIPTION =
    (ADDRESS_LIST =
      (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 192.168.58.250)(PORT = 1521))
    )
    (CONNECT_DATA =
      (SERVICE_NAME = racdg)
    )
  )

TASK 3: CREATE THE PHYSICAL STANDBY INSTANCE AND DATABASE
1.  To enable secure transmission of redo data, make sure the primary and
physical standby databases use a password file, and make sure the
password for the  SYS  user is identical on every system. For example:
$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/dbs   ---目录很重要
$ orapwd file=orapwBOSTON password=oracle
 
The naming and location of the password file varies on different
platforms. See  “Creating and Maintaining a Password File”  in the  Oracle
Database Administrator’s Guide for more information.
2.  Copy and rename the primary database PFILE from the staging area on
the standby host to the $ORACLE_HOME/dbs directory on the standby
host. For example:
[oracle@boston_host1 stage]$ cp initCHICAGO.ora $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/initBOSTON.ora
 
3.  Modify the standby initialization parameter file copied from the primary
node to remove RAC parameters and to include Data Guard parameters as illustrated in the following table:
Creating a Single Instance Phys ical  Standb
初始化参数 
 

RAC参数 
之前:
*.cluster_database=true
*.db_unique_name=CHICAGO
CHICAGO1.instance_name=CHICAGO1
CHICAGO2.instance_name=CHICAGO2
CHICAGO1.instance_number=1
CHICAGO2.instance_number=2
CHICAGO1.thread=1
CHICAGO2.thread=2
CHICAGO1.undo_tablespace=UNDOTBS1
CHICAGO2.undo_tablespace=UNDOTBS2
*.remote_listener=LISTENERS_CHICAGO  
CHICAGO1.LOCAL_LISTENER=LISTENER_CHICAGO_HOST1
CHICAGO2.LOCAL_LISTENER=LISTENER_CHICAGO_HOST2  *.cluster_database=false
之后:
*.db_unique_name=BOSTON
*.instance_name=BOSTON
*.thread=1
*.undo_tablespace=UNDOTBS1
   
Dataguard参数  
*.log_archive_config='dg_config=
    (BOSTON,CHICAGO)'
*.log_ archive_ dest_ 2='service=CHICAGO1_ SERV   
    valid_for=(online_logfiles,primary_role) 
    db_unique_name=CHICAGO'
*.db_file_name_convert='+DATA/CHICAGO/',
    '+DATA/BOSTON/','+RECOVERY/CHICAGO', '+RECOVERY/BOSTON'
*.log_file_name_convert='+DATA/CHICAGO/',
    '+DATA/BOSTON/','+RECOVERY/CHICAGO', '+RECOVERY/BOSTON'
*.standby_file_management=auto
*.fal_server='CHICAGO1_SERV','CHICAGO2_SERV'
*.fal_client='BOSTON'
*.service_names='BOSTON'   

其他参数
之前: 
*.background_dump_dest= 
    /opt/oracle/admin/CHICAGO/bdump
*.core_dump_dest=
    /opt/oracle/admin/CHICAGO/cdump
*.user_dump_dest=
    /opt/oracle/admin/CHICAGO/udump
*.audit_file_dest=
    /opt/oracle/admin/CHICAGO/adump
*.db_recovery_dest=’+RECOVERY’
*.log_archive_dest_1 ='LOCATION=+DATA/CHICAGO/'
*.dispatchers=CHICAGOXDB 
 
之后:
*.background_dump_dest= 
    /opt/oracle/admin/BOSTON/bdump
*.core_dump_dest=
    /opt/oracle/admin/BOSTON/cdump
*.user_dump_dest=
    /opt/oracle/admin/BOSTON/udump
*.audit_file_dest=
    /opt/oracle/admin/BOSTON/adump
*.db_recovery_dest=’+RECOVERY’
*.log_archive_dest_1=
    'LOCATION=USE_DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST'
*.dispatchers=BOSTONXDB  
 
         For more information about these initialization parameters, see Chapter 13, “Initialization Parameters” in  Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration manual.
     If you are using an SPFILE instead of an initialization parameter file, then see the  “Managing Initialization Parameters Using a Server Parameter File” section in the  Oracle Database Administrator’s Guide for instructions on managing an SPFILE.

4.  Connect to the ASM instance on the standby host, and create a directory within the DATA disk group that has the same name as the DB_UNIQUE_NAME of the physical standby database. For example:
SQL> ALTER DISKGROUP data ADD DIRECTORY '+DATA/BOSTON';
 
5.  Connect to the physical standby database, with the standby in the IDLE
state, and create an SPFILE in  the standby DATA disk group:
SQL> CREATE SPFILE='+DATA/BOSTON/spfileBOSTON.ora' FROM PFILE='?/dbs/initBOSTON.ora';
 
6.  In the $ORACLE_HOME/dbs direct ory on the standby host, create a PFILE that is named init oracle_sid.ora that contains a pointer to the SPFILE. For example:
[oracle@boston_host1 oracle]$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/dbs
[oracle@boston_host1 dbs]$ echo "SPFILE='+DATA/BOSTON/spfileBOSTON.ora'" > initBOSTON.ora
 
7.  Create the dump directories on the standby host as referenced in the standby initialization parameter file. For example:
[oracle@boston_host1 oracle]$ mkdir -p $ORACLE_BASE/admin/BOSTON/bdump
[oracle@boston_host1 oracle]$ mkdir -p $ORACLE_BASE/admin/BOSTON/cdump
[oracle@boston_host1 oracle]$ mkdir -p $ORACLE_BASE/admin/BOSTON/udump
[oracle@boston_host1 oracle]$ mkdir -p $ORACLE_BASE/admin/BOSTON/adump
 
8.  After setting up the appropriate environment variables on the standby host, such as ORACLE_SID, ORACLE_HOME, and PATH, start the physical standby database instance without mounting the control file.
SQL> STARTUP NOMOUNT
 
9.  From the standby host, duplicate th e primary database as a standby into the ASM disk group. For example:
$ rman target sys/oracle@CHICAGO1_SERV auxiliary /
RMAN> DUPLICATE TARGET DATABASE FOR STANDBY;
 
10.  Connect to the physical standby database, and create the standby redo logs to support the standby role. The standby redo logs must be the same size as the primary database online logs.  The recommended number of standby redo logs is: 
(maximum # of logfiles +1) * maximum # of threads
 
This example uses two online log files for each thread. Thus, the number of standby redo logs should be (2 + 1) * 2 = 6. That is, one more standby redo log file for each thread.
SQL> ALTER DATABASE ADD STANDBY LOGFILE THREAD 1 
GROUP 5 SIZE 10M,
GROUP 6 SIZE 10M,
GROUP 7 SIZE 10M;
 
SQL> ALTER DATABASE ADD STANDBY LOGFILE THREAD 2 
GROUP 8 SIZE 10M,
GROUP 9 SIZE 10M,
GROUP 10 SIZE 10M;
These statements create two standb y log members for each group, and each member is 10MB in size. One member is created in the directory specified by the DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST initialization parameter, and the other member is created in the directory specified by DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST initialization parameter. Because this example assumes that there are two redo log groups in two threads, the next group is group five.
You can check the number and group numbers of the redo logs by querying the V$LOG view:
SQL> SELECT * FROM V$LOG;
SQL> SELECT * FROM V$STANDBY_LOG;
SQL> SELECT * FROM V$LOGFILE;
11.  Start managed recovery and real-time apply on the standby database:
SQL> ALTER DATABASE RECOVER MANAGED STANDBY DATABASE USING CURRENT LOGFILE DISCONNECT;

TASK 4: CONFIGURE THE PRIMARY DATABASE FOR DATA GUARD
1.  Configure the primary database initialization parameters to support both the primary and standby roles.
*.log_archive_config='dg_config=(BOSTON,CHICAGO)'
*.log_archive_dest_2='service=BOSTON valid_for=(online_logfiles,primary_role) db_unique_name=BOSTON'
*.db_file_name_convert='+DATA/BOSTON/','+DATA/CHICAGO/', '+RECOVERY/BOSTON','+RECOVERY/CHICAGO'
*.log_file_name_convert='+DATA/BOSTON/','+DATA/CHICAGO/', '+RECOVERY/BOSTON','+RECOVERY/CHICAGO'
*.standby_file_management=auto
*.fal_server='BOSTON'
CHICAGO1.fal_client='CHICAGO1_SERV'
CHICAGO2.fal_client='CHICAGO2_SERV'
*.service_names=CHICAGO
 
For more information about these initialization parameters, see Chapter 13, “Initialization Parameters” in  the  Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration manual. 
If you are using an SPFILE instead of an initialization parameter file, then see the  “Managing Initialization Parameters Using a Server Parameter File” section in the  Oracle Database Administrator’s Guide for instructions on managing an SPFILE.  
Note that all the parameters listed above can be dynamically modified with the exception of the standby role pa rameters log_file_name_convert and db_file_name_convert.  It is recomme nded to set the parameters with “scope=spfile” so that they can be put into effect upon the next role change.
2.  Create standby redo logs on the primary database to support the standby role. The standby redo logs are the same size as the primary database online logs. The recommended number of standby redo  logs is one more than the number of online redo logs for each thread. Because this example has two online redo logs for each thread, three standby re do logs are required for each thread. (可选)
SQL> ALTER DATABASE ADD STANDBY LOGFILE THREAD 1 
GROUP 5 SIZE 10M,
GROUP 6 SIZE 10M,
GROUP 7 SIZE 10M;
 
SQL> ALTER DATABASE ADD STANDBY LOGFILE THREAD 2 
GROUP 8 SIZE 10M,
GROUP 9 SIZE 10M,
GROUP 10 SIZE 10M;
 
These statements create two standb y log members for each group, and each member is 10MB in size. One member is created in the directory specified by the DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST initialization parameter, and the other member is created in the directory specified by DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST initialization parameter. Because this example assumes that there are two redo log groups in two threads, the next group is group five. You can check the number and group numbers of the redo logs by querying the V$LOG view:
SQL> SELECT * FROM V$LOG;
 
SQL> SELECT * FROM V$STANDBY_LOG;
 
SQL> SELECT * FROM V$LOGFILE;
 
See the “Configure a Standby Redo Log” section in  Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration  manual for more information.
TASK 5: VERIFY DATA GUARD CONFIGURATION
1.  On the physical standby database, query the V$ARCHIVED_LOG  view to identify existing files in the ar chived redo log. For example: 
SQL> SELECT SEQUENCE#, FIRST_TIME, NEXT_TIME FROM V$ARCHIVED_LOG ORDER BY SEQUENCE#;
 
2.  On the primary database, issue the following SQL statement to force a log switch and archive the current online redo log file group: 
SQL> ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE LOG CURRENT;
 
3.  On the physical standby database, query the V$ARCHIVED_LOG  view to verify that the redo data was r eceived and archived on the standby database: 
SQL> SELECT SEQUENCE#, FIRST_TIME, NEXT_TIME FROM V$ARCHIVED_LOG ORDER BY SEQUENCE#;
 
 
 

 

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