ITPub博客

首页 > Linux操作系统 > Linux操作系统 > 【函数】Oracle “CONNECT BY” 使用

【函数】Oracle “CONNECT BY” 使用

原创 Linux操作系统 作者:散叶涔 时间:2012-04-23 00:40:07 0 删除 编辑

Oracle “CONNECT BY”是层次查询子句,一般用于树状或者层次结果集的查询。其语法是:

1
2
[ START WITH condition ]
CONNECT BY [ NOCYCLE ] condition

The start with .. connect by clause can be used to select data that has a hierarchical relationship (usually some sort of parent->child (boss->employee or thing->parts).

 

说明: 
1. START WITH:告诉系统以哪个节点作为根结点开始查找并构造结果集,该节点即为返回记录中的最高节点。 
2. 当分层查询中存在上下层互为父子节点的情况时,会返回ORA-01436错误。此时,需要在connect by后面加上NOCYCLE关键字。同时,可用connect_by_iscycle伪列定位出存在互为父子循环的具体节点。 connect_by_iscycle必须要跟关键字NOCYCLE结合起来使用

 

    接下来,用一些示例来说明“CONNECT BY”的用法。

 

[例1]

创建一个部门表,这个表有三个字段,分别对应部门ID,部门名称,以及上级部门ID

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
-- Create table
create table DEP
(
  DEPID      number(10) not null,
  DEPNAME    varchar2(256),
  UPPERDEPID number(10)
)
;

初始化一些数据

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
SQL> INSERT INTO DEP(DEPID, DEPNAME, UPPERDEPID) VALUES (0, '总经办', null);
1 row inserted
 
SQL> INSERT INTO DEP(DEPID, DEPNAME, UPPERDEPID) VALUES (1, '开发部', 0);
1 row inserted
 
SQL> INSERT INTO DEP(DEPID, DEPNAME, UPPERDEPID) VALUES (2, '测试部', 0);
1 row inserted
 
SQL> INSERT INTO DEP(DEPID, DEPNAME, UPPERDEPID) VALUES (3, 'Sever开发部', 1);
1 row inserted
 
SQL> INSERT INTO DEP(DEPID, DEPNAME, UPPERDEPID) VALUES (4, 'Client开发部', 1);
1 row inserted
 
SQL> INSERT INTO DEP(DEPID, DEPNAME, UPPERDEPID) VALUES (5, 'TA测试部', 2);
1 row inserted
 
SQL> INSERT INTO DEP(DEPID, DEPNAME, UPPERDEPID) VALUES (6, '项目测试部', 2);
1 row inserted
 
SQL> commit;
Commit complete
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
SQL> SELECT * FROM DEP;
 
      DEPID DEPNAME                                                                           UPPERDEPID
----------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------
          0 General Deparment                                                               
          1 Development                                                                                0
          2 QA                                                                                         0
          3 Server Development                                                                         1
          4 Client Development                                                                         1
          5 TA                                                                                         2
          6 Porject QA                                                                                 2
 
7 rows selected

现在我要根据“CONNECT BY”来实现树状查询结果

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
SQL> SELECT RPAD( ' ', 2*(LEVEL-1), '-' ) || DEPNAME "DEPNAME",
CONNECT_BY_ROOT DEPNAME "ROOT",
CONNECT_BY_ISLEAF "ISLEAF",
LEVEL ,
SYS_CONNECT_BY_PATH(DEPNAME, '/') "PATH"
FROM DEP
START WITH UPPERDEPID IS NULL
CONNECT BY PRIOR DEPID = UPPERDEPID;
 
DEPNAME                        ROOT                    ISLEAF      LEVEL PATH
------------------------------ ------------------- ---------- ---------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
General Deparment              General Deparment            0          1 /General Deparment
 -Development                  General Deparment            0          2 /General Deparment/Development
 ---Server Development         General Deparment            1          3 /General Deparment/Development/Server Development
 ---Client Development         General Deparment            1          3 /General Deparment/Development/Client Development
 -QA                           General Deparment            0          2 /General Deparment/QA
 ---TA                         General Deparment            1          3 /General Deparment/QA/TA
 ---Porject QA                 General Deparment            1          3 /General Deparment/QA/Porject QA
                                                    
7 rows selected

说明: 
1. CONNECT_BY_ROOT 返回当前节点的最顶端节点 
2. CONNECT_BY_ISLEAF 判断是否为叶子节点,如果这个节点下面有子节点,则不为叶子节点 
3. LEVEL 伪列表示节点深度 
4. SYS_CONNECT_BY_PATH函数显示详细路径,并用“/”分隔

[例2]

通过CONNECT BY生成序列

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
SQL> SELECT ROWNUM FROM DUAL CONNECT BY ROWNUM <= 10;
 
    ROWNUM
----------
         1
         2
         3
         4
         5
         6
         7
         8
         9
        10
 
10 rows selected

[例3]

通过CONNECT BY用于十六进度转换为十进制

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION f_hex_to_dec(p_str IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- 对象名称: f_hex_to_dec
    -- 对象描述: 十六进制转换十进制
    -- 输入参数: p_str 十六进制字符串
    -- 返回结果: 十进制字符串
    -- 测试用例: SELECT f_hex_to_dec('78A') FROM dual;
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    v_return  VARCHAR2(4000);
  BEGIN
    SELECT SUM(DATA) INTO v_return
      FROM (SELECT (CASE upper(substr(p_str, rownum, 1))
                     WHEN 'A' THEN '10'
                     WHEN 'B' THEN '11'
                     WHEN 'C' THEN '12'
                     WHEN 'D' THEN '13'
                     WHEN 'E' THEN '14'
                     WHEN 'F' THEN '15'
                     ELSE substr(p_str, rownum, 1)
                   END) * power(16, length(p_str) - rownum) DATA
              FROM dual
            CONNECT BY rownum <= length(p_str));
    RETURN v_return;
  EXCEPTION
    WHEN OTHERS THEN
      RETURN NULL;
  END;

说明:

1. CONNECT BY rownum <= length(p_str))对输入的字符串进行逐个遍历

2. 通过CASE语句,来解析十六进制中的A-F对应的10进制值

来自 “ ITPUB博客 ” ,链接:http://blog.itpub.net/26892340/viewspace-721999/,如需转载,请注明出处,否则将追究法律责任。

请登录后发表评论 登录
全部评论

注册时间:2012-04-17

  • 博文量
    44
  • 访问量
    117239