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Virtual Private Databases (VPD) and Fine-Grained Access Control

Oracle 作者:caisanpx 时间:2014-01-25 22:55:09 0 删除 编辑

Virtual Private Databases (VPD) and Fine-Grained Access Control

Virtual Private Databases (VPD) allow multiple users to access a single schema whilst preventing them from accessing data that is not relevant to them. Although this type of access can be controlled by the application, access via other methods (SQL*Plus) would leave the data open to abuse. VPD uses Fine-Grained Access Control to limit which data is visible to specific users. Setting up a VPD involves the following steps.

Related articles.

Setup Test Environment

First we must create a user to act as the schema owner for this example. Obviously, you will perform the following tasks using your current schema owner.

CONNECT sys/password@service AS SYSDBA;
CREATE USER schemaowner IDENTIFIED BY schemaowner
DEFAULT TABLESPACE users TEMPORARY TABLESPACE temp;
GRANT connect, resource TO schemaowner;

CREATE USER user1 IDENTIFIED BY user1
DEFAULT TABLESPACE users TEMPORARY TABLESPACE temp;
GRANT connect, resource TO user1;

CREATE USER user2 IDENTIFIED BY user2
DEFAULT TABLESPACE users TEMPORARY TABLESPACE temp;
GRANT connect, resource TO user2;

GRANT EXECUTE ON DBMS_RLS TO PUBLIC;

CONN schemaowner/schemaowner@service

CREATE TABLE users 
(id          NUMBER(10)   NOT NULL, 
 ouser       VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL,
 first_name  VARCHAR2(50) NOT NULL,
 last_name   VARCHAR2(50) NOT NULL);

CREATE TABLE user_data 
(column1     VARCHAR2(50) NOT NULL,
 user_id     NUMBER(10)   NOT NULL);

INSERT INTO users VALUES (1,'USER1','User','One');
INSERT INTO users VALUES (2,'USER2','User','Two');
COMMIT;

GRANT SELECT, INSERT ON user_data TO user1, user2;

Create an Application Context

Grant CREATE ANY CONTEXT to the schema owner then create the context and context package.

CONNECT sys/password@service AS SYSDBA;
GRANT create any context, create public synonym TO schemaowner;

CONNECT schemaowner/schemaowner@service;

CREATE CONTEXT SCHEMAOWNER USING SCHEMAOWNER.context_package;

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE context_package AS
  PROCEDURE set_context;
END;
/

Next we create the context_package body which will actually set the user context.

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY context_package IS
  PROCEDURE set_context IS
    v_ouser  VARCHAR2(30);
    v_id     NUMBER;
  BEGIN
    DBMS_SESSION.set_context('SCHEMAOWNER','SETUP','TRUE');
    v_ouser := SYS_CONTEXT('USERENV','SESSION_USER');
    
    BEGIN
      SELECT id
      INTO   v_id
      FROM   users
      WHERE  ouser = v_ouser;
      
      DBMS_SESSION.set_context('SCHEMAOWNER','USER_ID', v_id);
    EXCEPTION
      WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN
        DBMS_SESSION.set_context('SCHEMAOWNER','USER_ID', 0);
    END;
    
    DBMS_SESSION.set_context('SCHEMAOWNER','SETUP','FALSE');
  END set_context;
END context_package;
/
SHOW ERRORS

Next we make sure that all users have access to the Context_Package.

GRANT EXECUTE ON SCHEMAOWNER.context_package TO PUBLIC;
CREATE PUBLIC SYNONYM context_package FOR SCHEMAOWNER.context_package;

Create Login Trigger

Next we must create a trigger to fire after the user logs onto the database.

CONNECT sys/password@service AS SYSDBA;
CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER SCHEMAOWNER.set_security_context
AFTER LOGON ON DATABASE
BEGIN
  SCHEMAOWNER.context_package.set_context;
END;
/
SHOW ERRORS

Create Security Policies

In order for the context package to have any effect on the users interaction with the database, we need to define a security_package for use with the security policy. This package will tell the database how to treat any interactions with the specified table.

CONNECT schemaowner/schemaowner@service;

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE security_package AS
  FUNCTION user_data_insert_security(owner VARCHAR2, objname VARCHAR2)
    RETURN VARCHAR2;
  
  FUNCTION user_data_select_security(owner VARCHAR2, objname VARCHAR2)
    RETURN VARCHAR2;
END security_package;
/

Next we create the security_package body.

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY Security_Package IS
  FUNCTION user_data_select_security(owner VARCHAR2, objname VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS
    predicate VARCHAR2(2000);
  BEGIN
    predicate := '1=2';
    IF (SYS_CONTEXT('USERENV','SESSION_USER') = 'SCHEMAOWNER') THEN
      predicate := NULL;
    ELSE 
      predicate := 'USER_ID = SYS_CONTEXT(''SCHEMAOWNER'',''USER_ID'')';
    END IF;
    RETURN predicate;
  END user_data_select_security;

  FUNCTION user_data_insert_security(owner VARCHAR2, objname VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS
    predicate VARCHAR2(2000);
  BEGIN
    predicate := '1=2';
    IF (SYS_CONTEXT('USERENV','SESSION_USER') = 'SCHEMAOWNER') THEN
      predicate := NULL;
    ELSE 
      predicate := 'USER_ID = SYS_CONTEXT(''SCHEMAOWNER'',''USER_ID'')';
    END IF;
    RETURN Predicate;
  END user_data_insert_security;
END security_package;
/
SHOW ERRORS

Next we make sure that all users have access to the Security_Package.

GRANT EXECUTE ON SCHEMAOWNER.security_package TO PUBLIC;
CREATE PUBLIC SYNONYM security_package FOR SCHEMAOWNER.security_package;

Apply Security Policies to Tables

The DBMS_RlS package is used to apply the security policay, implemented by security_package, to the the relevant tables.

BEGIN
  DBMS_RLS.add_policy('SCHEMAOWNER', 'USER_DATA', 'USER_DATA_INSERT_POLICY', 
                      'SCHEMAOWNER', 'SECURITY_PACKAGE.USER_DATA_INSERT_SECURITY',
                      'INSERT', TRUE);
  DBMS_RLS.add_policy('SCHEMAOWNER', 'USER_DATA', 'USER_DATA_SELECT_POLICY',
                      'SCHEMAOWNER', 'SECURITY_PACKAGE.USER_DATA_SELECT_SECURITY',
                      'SELECT');
END;
/

Test VPD

Finally, test that the VPD is working correctly.

CONNECT user1/user1@service;
INSERT INTO schemaowner.user_data (column1, user_id) VALUES ('User 1', 1);
INSERT INTO schemaowner.user_data (column1, user_id) VALUES ('User 2', 2);
COMMIT;

CONNECT user2/user2@service
INSERT INTO schemaowner.user_data (column1, user_id) VALUES ('User 1', 1);
INSERT INTO schemaowner.user_data (column1, user_id) VALUES ('User 2', 2);
COMMIT;

CONNECT schemaowner/schemaowner@service
SELECT * FROM schemaowner.user_data;
CONNECT user1/user1@Service;
SELECT * FROM schemaowner.user_data;
CONNECT user2/user2@Service
SELECT * FROM schemaowner.user_data;

Notice that:

  • When connected to USER1, only the first insert will work.
  • When connected to USER2, only the second insert will work.
  • The failing inserts produce the following error.
    ORA-28115: policy with check option violation
  • Once the inserts are finished, there will be two rows in the table, as seen when connected as SCHEMAOWNER. When connected as USER1 or USER2, only the single row they inserted will be visible.

What Next

Once you're happy with the basic mechanism you can extend the Security_Package to cover all tables where restricted access is neccessary, remembering to apply all security policies to the relevant tables.

For more information see:

Hope this helps. Regards Tim...

转自:http://www.oracle-base.com/articles/9i/oracle-label-security-9i.php

































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