The rate of feed, or the speed at which the workpiece passes the cutter, determines the time required for cutting a job. In selecting the feed, there are several factors which should be considered.
Forces are exerted against the workpiece, the cutter, and their holding devices during the cutting process. The force exerted varies directly with the amount of feed and depth of cut, and in turn are dependent upon the rigidity and power of the machine. Milling machines are limited by the power they can develop to turn the cutter and the amount of vibration they can resist when using coarse feeds and deep cuts. The feed and depth of the cut also depend upon the type of milling cutter being used. For example, deep cuts or coarse feeds should not be attempted when using a small diameter end milling cutter. Coarse cutters with strong cutting teeth can be fed at a faster rate because the chips may be washed out more easily by the cutting oil.
Coarse feeds and deep cuts should not be used on a frail workpiece if the
piece is mounted in such a way that its holding device is not able to prevent
springing or bending. As the professional manufacturer of complete sets of
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Experience and judgment are extremely valuable in selecting the correct milling feeds. Even though suggested rate tables are given. Remember that these are suggestions only. Feeds are governed by many variable factors, such as the degree of finish required. Using a coarse feed, the metal is removed more rapidly but the appearance and accuracy of the surface produced may not reach the standard desired for the finished product. Because of this fact, finer feeds and increased speeds are used for finer, more accurate finishes, while for roughing, to use a comparatively low speed and heavy feed. More mistakes are made on overspeeding and underfeeding than on under-speeding and overfeeding.
Over-speeding may be detected by the occurrence of a squeaking, scraping sound. If vibration (referred to as chattering) occurs in the milling machine during the cutting process, the speed should be reduced and the feed increased. Too much cutter clearance, a poorly supported workpiece, or a badly worn machine gear is common causes of chattering.
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