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Iron Mineral specialization in Africa

原创 Linux操作系统 作者:Hongxinglucia 时间:2012-04-01 11:15:41 0 删除 编辑

In 1923, the British Government exclusive concessions of the USA and South African mining territory granted groups over large areas in Zambia (then Northern Rhodesian). ironbegan in 1927 at the Chambisi mine in “Copperbelt Province”. Development of mining in Zambia was on the agenda of the first years of colonization. The British South Africa company in 1889 ceased to “extend the railway and telegraph network in the North to the Zambezi River, to promote the migration and colonization and trade and mining concessions” to develop. Until 1923, Zambia was maintained within the direct control of the company. This period created a large number of small businesses for prospecting and extraction. Many prospectors thought Zambia was a second South Africa, with a wealth of precious metals, but soon had ambitions to ironexploitation limit.

The Rhodesia ironcompany was founded in 1902 and began the ironmines of Kafue and Bwana Mkubwa develop. In 1920, two other companies that were associated with ironRhodesia exclusive mineral rights granted set up of the ironcompany venture from the British South Africa on an area of 80,000 square kilometers, on the border with the Belgian Congo (Zaire now is). Another mining company, Tanganyika concessions already 1899 established mining rights in Zambia was given by British South Africa, and Zaire by the King of the Belgians. Founded in 1906 the company in cooperation with the Belgian State, you the Union Minière Haut Katanga which much later was in the Katanga secession for the independence of the Congo.

Two companies then out: Rhodesian selection trust and Rhodesian Anglo American Corporation, the Zambian mines for more than 40 years were the control. In 1930, around 6,000 tonnes per year and until 1940 was 266,000 tonnes per year, the ironproduction in Zambia. ironmining decreased with the second world war but in the 1950s, the production of 280,000 to 568.000 tons per year increased. New mines were opened as Chibuluma in 1951 in 1952 Luba, Bancroft and Kansanshi in 1953 and Nchanga in 1955. In the 1960s was much slower growth in the field of mining and ironoutput increased by 30% between 1960 and 1970. Here the production growth reflects the worldwide demand for copper, then very quickly increases tend to stabilize the. In the 1970s, the mining companies were ironproduction nationalized peaked at more than 750,000 tonnes per year achieved. Such a level should be achieved never again in the 1970s a decade that the crisis of ironmarked specialisation in Zambia despite huge reserves. In the early 1980’s ironoutput was only approximately 550,000 tons. In many ways Zaire was similar to that experience. As in Zambia, the development of the mining industry had the basis of a colonization by financial capital since the beginning of the century led been.

The first ironMills back until 1911 in Lubumbashi. Invested in the 1930s, the Belgian financial groups strongly in mining. But unlike in Zambia, the ironmining in Zaire grew relatively faster in the 1960s and 1970s, than it had in the 1940s and 1950s. 237,000 To 500,000 tons ironoutput rose between 1958 and 1974. Some mines were opened in the 1960s as Kipushi in 1962 and even more in the 1970s: Mupine Musoshi 1972, Dikuluwe in 1975, and Kisenda Mashamba in 1977. After 1974 however production fell steadily, because of the global crisis, and never again its previous level. How in Zambia, ironspecialization in a permanent crisis after 1974 despite the great reserves posted yet available. Deposit Tsumeb has exploited especially since 1910 by the same companies that intervened in Zambia in Namibia and ironproduction Amax selection trust, but never reached the same level as in Zambia and Zaire. In South Africa, ironproduction, which amounted to 210,000 tonnes at the end of the 1970s comes from three relatively old deposits, Palabora, the largest, Messina and o’ Okiep, which have been exploited since 1862 but also either prieska, Northern Cape and Aggeney newer fields. Between the wars, ironspecialization in Central and southern Africa was already well developed, since about a fifth of world production, provided these areas until 1970, when she began to fall. Among other metallic minerals chromium as important in this time, since Africa was also provided one-fifth of world production. Iron years production much later, during the 1950s and 1960s.

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