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使用Linux Strace跟踪调试Oracle程序进程

Oracle 作者:lhrbest 时间:2015-06-18 15:59:05 0 删除 编辑

 

所谓操作系统,是应用程序与服务器硬件进行沟通的中间层。应用程序的所有操作,都是和操作系统进行沟通交互。操作系统负责将所有交互转化为设备语言,进行硬件交互。

我们在进行Oracle故障调试和内核原理工作的时候,经常需要了解后台运行的动作和细节。一些故障场景,如程序进程hang住、无法登陆等问题,就需要操作系统级别监控,检查定位问题。

Oracle自身已经提供了很多这类型的工具,如oradebug、各种等待事件和跟踪方式。此外,各类型的操作系统提供出很多系统级别工具,帮助我们进行监控。本篇主要介绍Linux环境中的strace工具典型使用方法,留待需要朋友待查。

 

1、环境介绍

 

笔者使用红帽Red Hat 6.5进行测试。

 

 

[root@XXX-Standby-Asm ~]# cat /etc/redhat-release

Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server release 6.5 (Santiago)

[root@XXX-Standby-Asm ~]# uname -a

Linux XXX-Standby-Asm 2.6.32-431.el6.x86_64 #1 SMP Sun Nov 10 22:19:54 EST 2013 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux

 

 

对应使用Oracle版本为11.2.0.4

 

 

[oracle@XXX-Standby-Asm ~]$ sqlplus /nolog

 

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.4.0 Production on Tue Jun 16 16:39:21 2015

Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

 

SQL> conn / as sysdba

Connected.

SQL> select * from v$version;

 

BANNER

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.4.0 - 64bit Production

PL/SQL Release 11.2.0.4.0 - Production

CORE    11.2.0.4.0      Production

TNS for Linux: Version 11.2.0.4.0 - Production

NLSRTL Version 11.2.0.4.0 – Production

 

 

2Strace命令信息

 

使用-h参数,可以调用出strace命令的语法格式和各个使用参数。

 

 

[oracle@XXX-Standby-Asm ~]$ strace -h

usage: strace [-dDffhiqrtttTvVxx] [-a column] [-e expr] ... [-o file]

              [-p pid] ... [-s strsize] [-u username] [-E var=val] ...

              [command [arg ...]]

   or: strace -c [-D] [-e expr] ... [-O overhead] [-S sortby] [-E var=val] ...

              [command [arg ...]]

-c -- count time, calls, and errors for each syscall and report summary

-f -- follow forks, -ff -- with output into separate files

-F -- attempt to follow vforks, -h -- print help message

-i -- print instruction pointer at time of syscall

-q -- suppress messages about attaching, detaching, etc.

-r -- print relative timestamp, -t -- absolute timestamp, -tt -- with usecs

-T -- print time spent in each syscall, -V -- print version

-v -- verbose mode: print unabbreviated argv, stat, termio[s], etc. args

-x -- print non-ascii strings in hex, -xx -- print all strings in hex

-a column -- alignment COLUMN for printing syscall results (default 40)

-e expr -- a qualifying expression: option=[!]all or option=[!]val1[,val2]...

   options: trace, abbrev, verbose, raw, signal, read, or write

-o file -- send trace output to FILE instead of stderr

-O overhead -- set overhead for tracing syscalls to OVERHEAD usecs

-p pid -- trace process with process id PID, may be repeated

-D -- run tracer process as a detached grandchild, not as parent

-s strsize -- limit length of print strings to STRSIZE chars (default 32)

-S sortby -- sort syscall counts by: time, calls, name, nothing (default time)

-u username -- run command as username handling setuid and/or setgid

-E var=val -- put var=val in the environment for command

-E var -- remove var from the environment for command

 

 

在诸多参数中,比较常用的有如下几个:

 

ü  -t参数:可以显示调用操作系统过程的时间。这个在诊断中很重要,如果发现某一个执行过程时间消耗大,就可以定位到是什么问题;

ü  -p参数:strace除了可以从进程启动时候开始监控之外,还可以根据操作系统进程编号,进入一个运行中的进程进行debug

ü  -o参数:输出结果如果需要以文件方式保存,就通过-o参数指定文件名称;

ü  -e参数:监控表达式。提供tracesignalreadwrite等内容,反映监控方面项目。常用的参数是trace=file,集中在操作系统文件访问层面。

 

下面,通过两个典型应用场景,来演示一下strace应用。

 

3、启动程序监控

 

strace监控研究的一个重要范例是sqlplus,很多前辈使用这个工具来测试跟踪sqlplus启动过程访问的文件形式。启动strace监控sqlplus,就是在strace命令后直接输入sqlplus命令即可。

 

 

--启动命令

[oracle@localhost ~]$ strace -t -e trace=file sqlplus /nolog

14:21:14 execve("/u01/app/oracle/bin/sqlplus", ["sqlplus", "/nolog"], [/* 31 vars */]) = 0 启动命令

14:21:14 access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

14:21:14 open("/u01/app/oracle/lib/tls/x86_64/libsqlplus.so", O_RDONLY) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

14:21:14 stat("/u01/app/oracle/lib/tls/x86_64", 0x7fff3076da50) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

14:21:14 open("/u01/app/oracle/lib/tls/libsqlplus.so", O_RDONLY) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

14:21:14 stat("/u01/app/oracle/lib/tls", 0x7fff3076da50) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

14:21:14 open("/u01/app/oracle/lib/x86_64/libsqlplus.so", O_RDONLY) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

14:21:14 stat("/u01/app/oracle/lib/x86_64", 0x7fff3076da50) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

14:21:14 open("/u01/app/oracle/lib/libsqlplus.so", O_RDONLY) = 3

14:21:14 open("/u01/app/oracle/lib/libclntsh.so.11.1", O_RDONLY) = 3

14:21:14 open("/u01/app/oracle/lib/libnnz11.so", O_RDONLY) = 3

14:21:14 open("/u01/app/oracle/lib/libdl.so.2", O_RDONLY) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

(篇幅原因,有省略……

14:21:14 access("/etc/tnsnav.ora", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

14:21:14 access("/u01/app/oracle/network/admin/tnsnav.ora", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

14:21:14 open("/u01/app/oracle/oracore/zoneinfo", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_DIRECTORY|O_CLOEXEC) = 6

14:21:14 open("/u01/app/oracle/oracore/zoneinfo/timezlrg_1.dat", O_RDONLY) = 7

14:21:14 open("/u01/app/oracle/oracore/zoneinfo/timezlrg_2.dat", O_RDONLY) = 7

(读取各种时区数据……

14:21:14 open("/u01/app/oracle/oracore/zoneinfo/timezone_14.dat", O_RDONLY) = 7

14:21:14 open("/u01/app/oracle/oracore/zoneinfo/timezlrg_14.dat", O_RDONLY) = 6

14:21:14 open("/usr/lib64/libnuma.so", O_RDONLY) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

14:21:14 open("/usr/lib64/libnuma.so.1", O_RDONLY) = 6

14:21:14 open("/proc/self/status", O_RDONLY) = 6

14:21:14 open("/sys/devices/system/node", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_DIRECTORY|O_CLOEXEC) = 6

14:21:14 open("/sys/devices/system/node/node0/meminfo", O_RDONLY) = 7

14:21:14 open("/sys/devices/system/cpu", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_DIRECTORY|O_CLOEXEC) = 6

14:21:14 open("/proc/self/status", O_RDONLY) = 6

14:21:14 open("/proc/sys/kernel/shmmax", O_RDONLY) = 6

14:21:14 open("/proc/meminfo", O_RDONLY) = 6

14:21:14 open("/usr/lib64/libnuma.so", O_RDONLY) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

14:21:14 open("/etc/localtime", O_RDONLY) = 6

14:21:14 open("/u01/app/oracle/rdbms/mesg/ocius.msb", O_RDONLY) = 6

 

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.4.0 Production on Fri Jun 12 14:21:14 2015

 

Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

 

--启动之后,读取的文件。

14:21:14 stat("login.sql", 0x7fff3076c740) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

14:21:14 stat("/u01/app/oracle/sqlplus/admin/glogin.sql", {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=368, ...}) = 0

14:21:14 access("/u01/app/oracle/sqlplus/admin/glogin.sql", F_OK) = 0

14:21:14 statfs("/u01/app/oracle/sqlplus/admin/glogin.sql", {f_type="EXT2_SUPER_MAGIC", f_bsize=4096, f_blocks=174170552, f_bfree=147038320, f_bavail=138190973, f_files=44236800, f_ffree=44019067, f_fsid={1821877354, 763674030}, f_namelen=255, f_frsize=4096}) = 0

14:21:14 open("/u01/app/oracle/sqlplus/admin/glogin.sql", O_RDONLY) = 7

 

 

如果在启动sqlplus过程中,直接进行登录。跟踪过程中还包括了登录动作。

 

 

[oracle@localhost ~]$ strace -t -e trace=file sqlplus / as sysdba

14:29:30 execve("/u01/app/oracle/bin/sqlplus", ["sqlplus", "/", "as", "sysdba"], [/* 31 vars */]) = 0

(相同篇幅内容,略……

 

 

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.4.0 Production on Fri Jun 12 14:29:30 2015

 

Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

--差异部分

14:29:30 open("/u01/app/oracle/dbs/cm_xxxdb.dat", O_RDONLY|O_DSYNC) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

14:29:30 getcwd("/home/oracle", 256)    = 13

14:29:30 open("/proc/self/cmdline", O_RDONLY) = 7

14:29:30 open("/etc/nsswitch.conf", O_RDONLY) = 7

14:29:30 open("/u01/app/oracle/lib/libnss_files.so.2", O_RDONLY) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

14:29:30 open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY) = 7

14:29:30 open("/lib64/libnss_files.so.2", O_RDONLY) = 7

14:29:30 open("/etc/passwd", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 7

14:29:30 open("/u01/app/oracle/lib/libnque11.so", O_RDONLY) = 7

14:29:30 getcwd("/home/oracle", 256)    = 13

14:29:30 open("/u01/app/oracle/nls/data/lx20369.nlb", O_RDONLY) = 7

14:29:30 open("/u01/app/oracle/nls/data/lx207d0.nlb", O_RDONLY) = 7

14:29:30 readlink("/proc/self/fd/0", "/dev/pts/0", 254) = 10

14:29:30 open("/etc/passwd", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 7

14:29:30 open("/etc/host.conf", O_RDONLY) = 7

14:29:30 open("/etc/resolv.conf", O_RDONLY) = 7

14:29:30 open("/etc/hosts", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 7

14:29:30 open("/etc/hostid", O_RDONLY)  = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

14:29:30 open("/etc/hosts", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 7

14:29:30 open("/u01/app/oracle/rdbms/mesg/oraus.msb", O_RDONLY) = 7

 

Connected to:

Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.4.0 - 64bit Production

With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options

 

14:29:30 stat("login.sql", 0x7fff0a822b10) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

14:29:30 stat("/u01/app/oracle/sqlplus/admin/glogin.sql", {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=368, ...}) = 0

14:29:30 access("/u01/app/oracle/sqlplus/admin/glogin.sql", F_OK) = 0

14:29:30 statfs("/u01/app/oracle/sqlplus/admin/glogin.sql", {f_type="EXT2_SUPER_MAGIC", f_bsize=4096, f_blocks=174170552, f_bfree=147038317, f_bavail=138190970, f_files=44236800, f_ffree=44019066, f_fsid={1821877354, 763674030}, f_namelen=255, f_frsize=4096}) = 0

14:29:30 open("/u01/app/oracle/sqlplus/admin/glogin.sql", O_RDONLY) = 7

 

 

4、跟踪执行进程方式

 

除了上面介绍的方法外,strace还可以直接跟踪监控正在执行的系统进程。下面我们来观察一下straceOracle后台CKPT进程的监控。

 

 

[oracle@XXX-Standby-Asm ~]$ ps -ef | grep ckpt

grid     15950     1  0 Jun05 ?        00:01:02 asm_ckpt_+ASM

oracle   18608 17848  0 17:35 pts/0    00:00:00 grep ckpt

oracle   21395     1  0 Jun08 ?        00:04:27 ora_ckpt_xxxstb

 

 

root角度,跟踪进程编号21395的后台进程。

 

 

[root@XXX-Standby-Asm ~]# strace -t -p 21395

Process 21395 attached - interrupt to quit

17:36:42 times({tms_utime=12512, tms_stime=14273, tms_cutime=0, tms_cstime=0}) = 645608271

17:36:42 semtimedop(6062085, {{16, -1, 0}}, 1, {1, 840000000}) = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)

17:36:44 getrusage(RUSAGE_SELF, {ru_utime={125, 122978}, ru_stime={142, 730301}, ...}) = 0

17:36:44 getrusage(RUSAGE_SELF, {ru_utime={125, 122978}, ru_stime={142, 730301}, ...}) = 0

17:36:44 times({tms_utime=12512, tms_stime=14273, tms_cutime=0, tms_cstime=0}) = 645608455

17:36:44 times({tms_utime=12512, tms_stime=14273, tms_cutime=0, tms_cstime=0}) = 645608455

17:36:44 read(16, "MSA\0\2\0\10\0P\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\20?P\r\0\0\0\0\0\200\330\266\177\177\0\0"..., 80) = 80

17:36:44 read(16, "MSA\0\2\0\10\0P\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\20?P\r\0\0\0\0\0\200\330\266\177\177\0\0"..., 80) = 80

17:36:44 times({tms_utime=12512, tms_stime=14273, tms_cutime=0, tms_cstime=0}) = 645608455

17:36:44 semtimedop(6062085, {{16, -1, 0}}, 1, {3, 0}) = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable) –三秒差异

17:36:47 getrusage(RUSAGE_SELF, {ru_utime={125, 123978}, ru_stime={142, 731301}, ...}) = 0

17:36:47 getrusage(RUSAGE_SELF, {ru_utime={125, 123978}, ru_stime={142, 731301}, ...}) = 0

17:36:47 times({tms_utime=12512, tms_stime=14273, tms_cutime=0, tms_cstime=0}) = 645608755

17:36:47 times({tms_utime=12512, tms_stime=14273, tms_cutime=0, tms_cstime=0}) = 645608755

17:36:47 read(16, "MSA\0\2\0\10\0P\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\20?P\r\0\0\0\0\0\200\330\266\177\177\0\0"..., 80) = 80

17:36:47 read(16, "MSA\0\2\0\10\0P\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\20?P\r\0\0\0\0\0\200\330\266\177\177\0\0"..., 80) = 80

17:36:47 read(16, "MSA\0\2\0\10\0P\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\20?P\r\0\0\0\0\0\200\330\266\177\177\0\0"..., 80) = 80

17:36:47 read(16, "MSA\0\2\0\10\0P\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\20?P\r\0\0\0\0\0\200\330\266\177\177\0\0"..., 80) = 80

17:36:47 read(16, "MSA\0\2\0\10\0P\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\20?P\r\0\0\0\0\0\200\330\266\177\177\0\0"..., 80) = 80

17:36:47 read(16, "MSA\0\2\0\10\0P\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\20?P\r\0\0\0\0\0\200\330\266\177\177\0\0"..., 80) = 80

17:36:47 times({tms_utime=12512, tms_stime=14273, tms_cutime=0, tms_cstime=0}) = 645608756

17:36:47 times({tms_utime=12512, tms_stime=14273, tms_cutime=0, tms_cstime=0}) = 645608756

17:36:47 times({tms_utime=12512, tms_stime=14273, tms_cutime=0, tms_cstime=0}) = 645608756

17:36:47 times({tms_utime=12512, tms_stime=14273, tms_cutime=0, tms_cstime=0}) = 645608756

17:36:47 times({tms_utime=12512, tms_stime=14273, tms_cutime=0, tms_cstime=0}) = 645608756

17:36:47 semtimedop(6062085, {{16, -1, 0}}, 1, {3, 0}^C

Process 21395 detached

 

 

从里面,我们可以看到ckpt的动作方式。

 

5、结论

 

StraceLinux环境下的一个非常有用的工具。用好这个工具,可以让我们更加接近内核细节,丰富知识能力。


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