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【参数】ORACLE修改数据库名之完整版

原创 Linux操作系统 作者:leonarding 时间:2012-05-22 06:45:07 0 删除 编辑

引题:在实际生产环境下我们可能需要快速的复制现有的数据库,又希望新库与原库不重名,或者我们需要复制生产库用来做研发测试,如果我们采用DBCA的方式,缺点是慢并且还没有数据,就需要从新导数据,费时又麻烦。下面我就详细介绍如何修改数据库名来完成使命,采用2种方法(1. 重建控制文件修改数据库名2.使用nid工具修改数据库名)

一、重建控制文件修改数据库名

步骤概述

  • 生成controlfile创建脚本并写入trace文件
  • 执行查找trace文件语句,获取当前trace文件路径
  • 停掉数据库
  • 只复制数据文件、redo日志(不需要复制控制文件哦!)
  • 生成新的initLEO2.orac纯文本参数文件
  • 编辑新生成的initLEO2.ora 纯文本参数文件
  • 利用initLEO2.ora 纯文本参数文件创建spfileLEO2.ora二进制参数文件、
  • 数据库启动到nomount状态,加载参数文件
  • 删除原库控制文件(如果拷贝的时候包括了控制文件的话)
  • 修改/u01/app/oracle/admin/LEO/udump/leo_ora_25621.trc文件的内容

目标:我们用原库LEO复制出新库LEO2

1.生成controlfile创建脚本并写入trace文件

SYS@LEO> alter database backup controlfile to trace;

2.执行查找trace文件语句,获取当前trace文件路径

SYS@LEO> select c.value || '/' || d.instance_name || '_ora_' || to_char(a.spid,'fm99999') || '.trc' from v$process a, v$session b, v$parameter c, v$instance d  where a.addr = b.paddr and b.audsid = userenv('sessionid') and c.name = 'user_dump_dest';

Trace文件路径

C.VALUE||'/'||D.INSTANCE_NAME||'_ORA_'||TO_CHAR(A.SPID,'FM99999')||'.TRC'

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/u01/app/oracle/admin/LEO/udump/LEO_ora_25621.trc

3.停掉数据库

SYS@LEO> shutdown immediate

Database closed.

Database dismounted.

ORACLE instance shut down.

4.只复制数据文件、redo日志(不需要复制控制文件哦!)

从原来的/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO/disk1 复制到

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1

5.生成新的initLEO2.orac纯文本参数文件

export ORACLE_SID=LEO

sqlplus / as sysdba          进入原库执行命令

SYS@LEO> create pfile='/u01/app/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1/dbs/initLEO2.ora' from spfile;

6.编辑新生成的initLEO2.ora 纯文本参数文件

vim initLEO2.ora

需要修改的内容:

1)路径

*.audit_file_dest='/u01/app/oracle/admin/LEO2/adump'

*.background_dump_dest='/u01/app/oracle/admin/LEO2/bdump'

*.control_files='/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/control01.ctl','/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk2/control02.ctl','/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk3/control03.ctl'

*.core_dump_dest='/u01/app/oracle/admin/LEO2/cdump'

*.user_dump_dest='/u01/app/oracle/admin/LEO2/udump'

2)数据库名

*.db_name='LEO2'

7.利用initLEO2.ora 纯文本参数文件创建spfileLEO2.ora二进制参数文件

export ORACLE_SID=LEO2

sqlplus / as sysdba

SYS@LEO2> create spfile from pfile;        创建spfile

8.数据库启动到nomount状态,加载参数文件

SYS@LEO2> startup nomount

ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area  314572800 bytes

Fixed Size                       1219184 bytes

Variable Size                  96470416 bytes

Database Buffers          213909504 bytes

Redo Buffers                 2973696 bytes

SYS@LEO2> show parameter name

NAME                                      TYPE        VALUE

------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------

db_file_name_convert           string

db_name                                string         LEO2

db_unique_name                   string         LEO2

global_names                        boolean     FALSE

instance_name                      string         LEO2

lock_name_space                  string

log_file_name_convert          string

service_names                       string         LEO2

SYS@LEO2> select instance_name from v$instance;

INSTANCE_NAME

----------------

LEO2

9.删除原库控制文件(如果拷贝的时候包括了控制文件的话)

路径:

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/control01.ctl,

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk2/control02.ctl,

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk3/control03.ctl

10.修改/u01/app/oracle/admin/LEO/udump/leo_ora_25621.trc文件的内容

vim  leo_ora_25621.trc

把内容拷贝到vim  test.sql 临时文件中修改

定位--     Set #2. RESETLOGS case  位置

1)把CREATE CONTROLFILE REUSE DATABASE "LEO" RESETLOGS  NOARCHIVELOG

修改成

CREATE CONTROLFILE SET DATABASE "LEO2" RESETLOGS  NOARCHIVELOG

2)把在线日志文件和数据文件的路径中的“PROD”替换成“LEO2”,修改路径

例子:/u01/app/oracle/oradata/PROD/disk1/  替换

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/

使用:%s#PROD#LEO2# 方法替换所有“PROD

最后的完成版并执行此脚本,就完成了控制文件的创建

CREATE CONTROLFILE SET DATABASE "LEO2" RESETLOGS  NOARCHIVELOG

    MAXLOGFILES 30

    MAXLOGMEMBERS 5

    MAXDATAFILES 100

    MAXINSTANCES 1

    MAXLOGHISTORY 292

LOGFILE

  GROUP 1 (

    '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/redo01.log',

    '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk2/redo01_2.log'

  ) SIZE 100M,

  GROUP 2 (

    '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/redo02.log',

    '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk2/redo02_2.log'

  ) SIZE 100M,

  GROUP 3 (

    '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/redo03.log',

    '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk2/redo03_2.log'

  ) SIZE 100M,

  GROUP 4 (

    '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/redo04_1.log',

    '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk2/redo04_2.log'

  ) SIZE 100M,

GROUP 5 (

    '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/redo05_1.log',

    '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk2/redo05_2.log'

) SIZE 100M

DATAFILE

  '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/system01.dbf',

  '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/undotbs01.dbf',

  '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/sysaux01.dbf',

  '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/example01.dbf',

  '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/indx01.dbf',

  '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/tools01.dbf',

  '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/user01.dbf',

  '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/oltp01.dbf'

CHARACTER SET US7ASCII

;

11.把数据库启动到mount状态,在启动到open状态

注:必须添加 resetlogs 选项打开数据库,resetlogs 所有以前的备份和归档日志均不可用

注:当我们执行完控制文件创建脚本后,数据库就已经是mount状态了。

SYS@LEO2> select open_mode,log_mode,name,dbid,db_unique_name from v$database;

 

OPEN_MODE  LOG_MODE     NAME            DBID     DB_UNIQUE_NAME

---------- ------------ --------- ---------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------

MOUNTED NOARCHIVELOG     LEO2           1558123773  LEO2

SYS@LEO2> alter database open resetlogs;  

SYS@LEO2> select file_name,file_id,tablespace_name,status from dba_data_files;

FILE_NAME                                                            FILE_ID TABLESPACE_NAME      STATUS

-------------------------------------------------- ---------- --------

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/oltp01.dbf         8        OLTP                     AVAILABLE

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/user01.dbf        7        USERS                   AVAILABLE

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/tools01.dbf              TOOLS                   AVAILABLE

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/indx01.dbf        5         INDX                    AVAILABLE

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/example01.dbf 4        EXAMPLE               AVAILABLE

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/sysaux01.dbf    3        SYSAUX                  AVAILABLE

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/undotbs01.dbf  2        UNDOTBS              AVAILABLE

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/system01.dbf     1  SYSTEM               AVAILABLE

11.新建LEO2密码文件

orapwd file=orapwLEO2 password=oracle entries=30

 

二、使用nid工具修改数据库名

Nidoracle软件提供的一个小工具,可以修改数据库名称,位置:$ORACLE_HOME/bin/

优点:可以不用重建控制文件就修改数据库名

步骤概述

  • 验证当前数据库名,实例名,服务名参数
  • 停掉数据库
  • 数据库启动到mount状态,nid工具在mount状态下才能用,直接修改控制文件内容
  • 生成新的initLEO3.orac纯文本参数文件并修改数据库名
  • 利用initLEO3.ora 纯文本参数文件创建spfileLEO3.ora二进制参数文件
  • 创建转储目录
  • 启动数据库到open状态
  • 检查当前数据库名,实例名,服务名参数
  • 新建LEO3密码文件
  • 修改listener.oratnsnames.ora 文件内容

目标:我们用原库LEO2修改成新库LEO3,还用原来的控制文件、数据文件、在线日志

1. 验证当前数据库名,实例名,服务名参数

SYS@LEO2> show parameter name

NAME                                     TYPE        VALUE

------------------------------------ ----------- --------------------------------------------

db_file_name_convert          string

db_name                               string        LEO2

db_unique_name                  string        LEO2

global_names                       boolean     FALSE

instance_name                     string        LEO2

lock_name_space                 string

log_file_name_convert         string

service_names                      string        LEO2

SYS@LEO2> select open_mode,log_mode,name,dbid,db_unique_name from v$database;

OPEN_MODE  LOG_MODE         NAME            DBID  DB_UNIQUE_NAME

---------- ------------ --------- ---------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------

READ WRITE NOARCHIVELOG    LEO2       1558123773  LEO2

2. 停掉数据库

SYS@LEO2> shutdown immediate

Database closed.

Database dismounted.

ORACLE instance shut down.

3. 数据库启动到mount状态,nid工具在mount状态下才能用,直接修改控制文件内容

export ORACLE_SID=LEO2

sqlplus / as sysdba

SYS@LEO2> startup mount

ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area  314572800 bytes

Fixed Size                       1219184 bytes

Variable Size                  96470416 bytes

Database Buffers          213909504 bytes

Redo Buffers                 2973696 bytes

Database mounted.

SYS@LEO2> exit

nid help=y

DBNEWID: Release 10.2.0.1.0 - Production on Mon May 21 16:57:06 2012

Copyright (c) 1982, 2005, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Keyword     Description                              (Default)

-----------------------------------------------------------------

TARGET       Username/Password               (NONE)

DBNAME     New database name               (NONE)

LOGFILE      Output Log                               (NONE)

REVERT       Revert failed change                NO

SETNAME    Set a new database name only NO

APPEND      Append to output log                NO

HELP           Displays these messages         NO

nid  target=sys/oracle dbname=LEO3

DBNEWID: Release 10.2.0.1.0 - Production on Mon May 21 16:59:10 2012

Copyright (c) 1982, 2005, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connected to database LEO2 (DBID=1558123773)       --已连接当前数据库名

Connected to server version 10.2.0                   --已连接服务器版本

Control Files in database:                           --控制文件路径

    /u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/control01.ctl

    /u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk2/control02.ctl

    /u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk3/control03.ctl

--是否同意修改数据库ID和数据库名

Change database ID and database name LEO2 to LEO3? (Y/[N]) =>y

Proceeding with operation

Changing database ID from 1558123773 to 1231291551  --修改数据库ID

Changing database name from LEO2 to LEO3                   --修改数据库名

    Control File /u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/control01.ctl – modified --控制文件已修改

    Control File /u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk2/control02.ctl – modified

    Control File /u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk3/control03.ctl – modified

    Datafile /u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/system01.dbf - dbid changed, wrote new name

    Datafile /u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/undotbs01.dbf - dbid changed, wrote new name

    Datafile /u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/sysaux01.dbf - dbid changed, wrote new name

    Datafile /u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/example01.dbf - dbid changed, wrote new name

    Datafile /u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/indx01.dbf - dbid changed, wrote new name

    Datafile /u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/tools01.dbf - dbid changed, wrote new name

    Datafile /u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/user01.dbf - dbid changed, wrote new name

    Datafile /u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/oltp01.dbf - dbid changed, wrote new name

    Control File /u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk1/control01.ctl - dbid changed, wrote new name

    Control File /u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk2/control02.ctl - dbid changed, wrote new name

    Control File /u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk3/control03.ctl - dbid changed, wrote new name

    Instance shut down         --当前数据库已经关闭

 

Database name changed to LEO3.  数据库名已经修改完毕

Modify parameter file and generate a new password file before restarting.

--修改参数文件和在重启之前生成新的密码文件

Database ID for database LEO3 changed to 1231291551.

--数据库ID已经修改为:1231291551.

All previous backups and archived redo logs for this database are unusable.

--以前的备份和归档日志均不可用

Database has been shutdown, open database with RESETLOGS option.

--数据库已关闭,必须使用RESETLOGS选项打开数据库

Succesfully changed database name and ID.

--已成功修改数据库名和数据库ID

DBNEWID - Completed succesfully.

-- DBNEWID成功完成

4. 生成新的initLEO3.orac纯文本参数文件并修改数据库名和路径

SYS@LEO2> create pfile='/u01/app/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1/dbs/initLEO3.ora' from spfile;

vim  initLEO3.ora

1)路径

*.audit_file_dest='/u01/app/oracle/admin/LEO3/adump'

*.background_dump_dest='/u01/app/oracle/admin/LEO3/bdump'

*.control_files='/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO3/disk1/control01.ctl','/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO2/disk2/control02.ctl','/u01/app/oracle/oradata/LEO3/disk3/control03.ctl'

*.core_dump_dest='/u01/app/oracle/admin/LEO3/cdump'

*.user_dump_dest='/u01/app/oracle/admin/LEO3/udump'

2)数据库名

*.db_name='LEO3'

5. 利用initLEO3.ora 纯文本参数文件创建spfileLEO3.ora二进制参数文件

SYS@LEO2> create spfile='/u01/app/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1/dbs/spfileLEO3.ora' from pfile='/u01/app/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1/dbs/initLEO3.ora';

6.创建转储目录

mkdir -p $ORACLE_BASE/admin/LEO3/adump

mkdir -p $ORACLE_BASE/admin/LEO3/bdump

mkdir -p $ORACLE_BASE/admin/LEO3/cdump

mkdir -p $ORACLE_BASE/admin/LEO3/udump

7. 直接启动数据库到open状态

注:必须添加 resetlogs 选项打开数据库,resetlogs 所有以前的备份和归档日志均不可用

export ORACLE_SID=LEO3

sqlplus / as sysdba

SYS@LEO3> startup

ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area  314572800 bytes

Fixed Size                       1219184 bytes

Variable Size                  96470416 bytes

Database Buffers          213909504 bytes

Redo Buffers                 2973696 bytes

Database mounted.

ORA-01589: must use RESETLOGS or NORESETLOGS option for database open

必须使用RESETLOGSNORESETLOGS 选项打开数据库

SYS@LEO3> alter database open resetlogs;

8. 检查当前数据库名,实例名,服务名参数

SYS@LEO3> show parameter name

NAME                                     TYPE        VALUE

------------------------------------ ----------- ----------------------------------------------------

db_file_name_convert          string

db_name                               string        LEO3

db_unique_name                  string        LEO3

global_names                       boolean     FALSE

instance_name                     string         LEO3

lock_name_space                 string

log_file_name_convert         string

service_names                      string        LEO3

SYS@LEO3> select open_mode,log_mode,name,dbid,db_unique_name from v$database;

 

OPEN_MODE  LOG_MODE     NAME            DBID DB_UNIQUE_NAME

---------- ------------ --------- ---------- ------------------------------

READ WRITE NOARCHIVELOG    LEO3         1231291551   LEO3

SYS@LEO3> select instance_name,status from v$instance;

INSTANCE_NAME    STATUS

---------------- ------------ ------------

LEO3              OPEN

9. 新建LEO3密码文件

orapwd file=orapwLEO3 password=oracle entries=30

10. 修改listener.oratnsnames.ora 文件内容

cd  /u01/app/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1/network/admin

修改vim listener.ora

LISTENER=

  (DESCRIPTION=

    (ADDRESS_LIST=

      (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=192.168.1.10)(PORT=1521))

      (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=extproc))))

 

SID_LIST_LISTENER=

  (SID_LIST=

    (SID_DESC=

      (GLOBAL_DBNAME=LEO3)

      (ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1)

      (SID_NAME=LEO3))

    (SID_DESC=

      (SID_NAME=plsextproc)

      (ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1)

      (PROGRAM=extproc)))

修改 vim tnsnames.ora

LEO3=

  (description =

    (address=(protocol=tcp)(host=192.168.1.10)(port=1521))

    (connect_data=

        (server = dedicated)

        (service_name = LEO3)

  )

  )

重启监听

lsnrctl reload listener

LSNRCTL for Linux: Version 10.2.0.1.0 - Production on 21-MAY-2012 17:34:29

Copyright (c) 1991, 2005, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connecting to (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=secdb1)(PORT=1521)))

The command completed successfully

测试监听

sqlplus system/oracle@LEO3

SQL*Plus: Release 10.2.0.1.0 - Production on Mon May 21 17:35:25 2012

Copyright (c) 1982, 2005, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connected to:

Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.1.0 - Production

With the Partitioning, OLAP and Data Mining options

SYSTEM@LEO3>

 

小结:到此所有的数据库名、实例名、服务名已经都被修改过来了,有了这2种方法我们可以快速的建立起带数据的新数据库。支持我们的研发和测试

注意:参数文件修改

      控制文件修改

      密码文件修改

      监听文件修改

      数据文件和日志文件根据需要进行创建

 

Leonarding

2012.5.21

于天津&summer

bloghttp://space.itpub.net/26686207

 

来自 “ ITPUB博客 ” ,链接:http://blog.itpub.net/26686207/viewspace-730563/,如需转载,请注明出处,否则将追究法律责任。

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