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Linux系统互信ssh的配置方法

原创 Linux操作系统 作者:yhdmy 时间:2017-10-09 16:21:37 0 删除 编辑
一、ssh互信的介绍
ssh互信是两台机器(terminal-1和terminal-2)经过预先设置好认证的key文件,双方互相访问时,进行自动认证,无需再次输入密码,从而实现互信。
实现原理:
1.在要配置互信的机器(terminal-1和terminal-2)上生成各自经过认证的key文件。
2.将所有的key文件汇总到一个总的认证文件夹中。
3.将打包的key发给想要进行互信的机器(terminal-1和terminal-2)
4.互信验证

二、实验
1. 两台机器检查(sam 172.16.211.129    suzzy 172.16.211.130)
terminal-1:

  1. [root@sam ~]# hostname
  2. sam
  3. terminal-2:
  4. [root@suzzy ~]# hostname
  5. suzzy

2. sam机器ssh到suzzy机器(需要输入正确密码才可以登录)
密码正确:

  1. [root@sam ~]# ssh suzzy
  2. The authenticity of host 'suzzy (172.16.211.130)' can't be established.
  3. RSA key fingerprint is e0:4b:15:f3:fe:6c:2d:11:f7:ad:7e:a6:d6:65:0e:0d.
  4. Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
  5. Warning: Permanently added 'suzzy,172.16.211.130' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
  6. root@suzzy's password:
  7. Last login: Fri Oct 30 15:27:15 2015 from 172.16.211.1
  8. [root@suzzy ~]#

密码错误:

  1. [root@sam ~]# ssh suzzy
  2. root@suzzy's password:
  3. Permission denied, please try again.
  4. root@suzzy's password:
  5. Permission denied, please try again.
  6. root@suzzy

3. 创建互信所用到的目录并修改权限(如果没有的话),如果你用过ssh登录过对方机器,该目录会自动创建,即便登录不成功。

  1. [root@sam ~]# rm -rf .ssh
  2. [root@sam ~]# mkdir .ssh
  3. [root@sam ~]# chmod 755 .ssh
  4. [root@sam ~]# ls -la
  5. total 376
  6. dr-xr-x---. 31 root root 4096 Oct 30 16:05 .
  7. dr-xr-xr-x. 28 root root 4096 Aug 31 15:28 ..
  8. drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 4096 Nov 27 2014 .abrt
  9. ...
  10. drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Oct 30 16:05 .ssh

4. 创建密钥(默认回车)
sam机器:

  1. [root@sam ~]# /usr/bin/ssh-keygen -t rsa
  2. Generating public/private rsa key pair.
  3. Enter file in which to save the key (/root/.ssh/id_rsa):
  4. Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase):
  5. Enter same passphrase again:
  6. Your identification has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_rsa.
  7. Your public key has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub.
  8. The key fingerprint is:
  9. 70:d2:c8:c6:01:6d:1c:2b:2e:8c:89:c0:ae:fc:14:2d root@sam
  10. The key's randomart image is:
  11. +--[ RSA 2048]----+
  12. | .+o. |
  13. |. o+= |
  14. |.. ..O o |
  15. |++ ..o + |
  16. |+.oE.. S |
  17. |o .o |
  18. |.. . |
  19. | o |
  20. | . |
  21. +-----------------+
  22. [root@sam .ssh]# ll
  23. total 8
  24. -rw------- 1 root root 1675 Oct 30 17:42 id_rsa
  25. -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 390 Oct 30 17:42 id_rsa.pub

  26. [root@sam .ssh]# /usr/bin/ssh-keygen -t dsa
  27. Generating public/private dsa key pair.
  28. Enter file in which to save the key (/root/.ssh/id_dsa):
  29. Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase):
  30. Enter same passphrase again:
  31. Your identification has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_dsa.
  32. Your public key has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_dsa.pub.
  33. The key fingerprint is:
  34. 9e:12:19:4e:6a:d5:46:64:47:3d:f9:2a:11:e0:49:ad root@sam
  35. The key's randomart image is:
  36. +--[ DSA 1024]----+
  37. | .*+o. . |
  38. | * oo + |
  39. | + =. . o |
  40. | = +E . . |
  41. | o + S . . |
  42. | . o .. . |
  43. | . o . |
  44. | . |
  45. | |
  46. +-----------------+
  47. [root@sam .ssh]# ll
  48. total 16
  49. -rw------- 1 root root 672 Oct 30 17:49 id_dsa
  50. -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 598 Oct 30 17:49 id_dsa.pub
  51. -rw------- 1 root root 1675 Oct 30 17:42 id_rsa
  52. -rw-r

注:suzzy机器同上

  1. [root@suzzy ~]# ssh-keygen -t rsa
  2. Generating public/private rsa key pair.
  3. Enter file in which to save the key (/root/.ssh/id_rsa):
  4. Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase):
  5. Enter same passphrase again:
  6. Your identification has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_rsa.
  7. Your public key has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub.
  8. The key fingerprint is:
  9. d9:d1:27:75:5b:85:a2:af:77:75:83:74:d1:2a:02:35 root@suzzy
  10. The key's randomart image is:
  11. +--[ RSA 2048]----+
  12. | .E ..*|
  13. | . o...o+|
  14. | ...o..o.|
  15. | oo..+.. |
  16. | S .o..o |
  17. | .. .o|
  18. | . .o|
  19. | . . . |
  20. | . . |
  21. +-----------------+
  22. [root@suzzy ~]# ssh-keygen -t dsa
  23. Generating public/private dsa key pair.
  24. Enter file in which to save the key (/root/.ssh/id_dsa):
  25. Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase):
  26. Enter same passphrase again:
  27. Your identification has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_dsa.
  28. Your public key has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_dsa.pub.
  29. The key fingerprint is:
  30. c4:94:b1:87:9a:34:1d:35:cb:51:03:12:f1:86:b7:fe root@suzzy
  31. The key's randomart image is:
  32. +--[ DSA 1024]----+
  33. | B*=oo |
  34. | +.O + . |
  35. | o B B |
  36. | . = + . |
  37. | o S . |
  38. | . |
  39. | . |
  40. | . |
  41. | E |
  42. +

5. 将每个主机上的公共密钥文件id_rsa.pub和id_dsa.pub的内容复制到~/.ssh/authorized_keys文件中。并把这个文件分别放到所有机器中。注意,当您第一次使用ssh访问远程主机时,其RSA密钥是未知的,所以提示确认一下,确认完毕后SSH将记录远程主机的RSA密钥,以后连接该主机就不用密码了。

  1. [root@sam .ssh]# cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
  2. [root@sam .ssh]# cat ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
  3. [root@sam .ssh]# ssh root@suzzy cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
  4. The authenticity of host 'suzzy (172.16.211.130)' can't be established.
  5. RSA key fingerprint is e0:4b:15:f3:fe:6c:2d:11:f7:ad:7e:a6:d6:65:0e:0d.
  6. Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
  7. Warning: Permanently added 'suzzy,172.16.211.130' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
  8. root@suzzy's password:
  9. [root@sam .ssh]# ssh root@suzzy cat ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
  10. root@suzzy

6. 检查总密钥文件

  1. [root@sam .ssh]# ls -l authorized_keys
  2. -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1980 Oct 30 18:19 authorized_keys
  3. [root@sam .ssh]# cat authorized_keys
  4. ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAABIwAAAQEAzxsnq3tyb50Z+uRGp0tFpMOSTqZpvOvcyrB0S2vbL0YdUl4oJg2xnwo6duteS5EHzoVKzRjSdfrDM5owKRVsWJnufAA/o6z0kiiYje6Cvfd5hlw/jgJtU1TVuzZsj+bwnCzWuSKfkkM/uhBvWk9UQe0GuTClUn4bxuXuFNGwWuDi020pwwNLdUbEtH93rhWFGskUrj9s2RLd3eDquT18TQzNGwwG0PrbedxyT57aVdbqKyLnxMDx/eOHKW4dWZQMIaUe/n73rjuGG43F6oRFk3R52bMSdOqYqljUSI5FmtBAAO1AyTALldg09rdg6PqTlYyQvLt1T9JVok6BLm9nHQ== root@sam
  5. ssh-dss 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 root@sam
  6. ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAABIwAAAQEA1H5kArvHN1jagQEUIwTHBEQXI0CHNgMJMZrnIlgNY2ssSFKfJdCdA8bfBtoIesfBSLfyQHFFqwh5CZqfXTlhL6JLlVL0anUnpEHX9v5B1vrNIfsQTXhfjXpyJOJNd1pWFweOQLq/fSvuoWvxQQESBloN8rUFs+eXvxMYi4y5rfQ+9MkJ6y+6HA1JB2KlHadzoA0vbZ4JxS/gcifhAzCv0goEw6ulNwHxdgx4Sp3EG+i8QxlSjV3BJ16FknaMRV8eMy8+pRibY6dWB+FW7sV5rQoT9/2PaqgUf0rMvCPzDE4aNpPYPXiU53dX+691iarmQo1Km26YHu7gDPsGbxa+lw== root@suzzy
  7. ssh-dss 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 root@suzzy

7. 将总密钥文件传到其他机器对应目录

  1. [root@sam .ssh]# scp authorized_keys root@suzzy:~/.ssh/
  2. root@suzzy

8. 测试连接(首次还是需要YES下,第二次便可以不需要)

  1. [root@sam ~]# ssh suzzy
  2. Last login: Fri Oct 30 18:25:38 2015 from sam
  3. [root@suzzy ~]# ssh sam
  4. Last login: Fri Oct 30 18:26:34 2015 from suzzy
  5. [root@sam ~]#

9. 将authorized_keys文件权限变更为600,以便安全,每台都需要更改

  1. [root@sam ~]# cd .ssh
  2. [root@sam .ssh]# ls -l authorized_keys
  3. -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1980 Oct 30 18:19 authorized_keys
  4. [root@sam .ssh]# chmod 600 authorized_keys
  5. [root@sam .ssh]# ls -l authorized_keys
  6. -rw

三、总结
     这个互信操作在Oracle 10g配置RAC(real application cluster)前是需要手工来操作的,从11G安装开始,可以在图形界面按钮式配置,相当容易,但我们还是应该掌握该技巧,在需要免密登录时还是要通过手工配置。看家的本领可不能丢。

来自 “ ITPUB博客 ” ,链接:http://blog.itpub.net/26148431/viewspace-2145771/,如需转载,请注明出处,否则将追究法律责任。

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曾就职于铁道科学研究院,太极计算机公司,合力中税。负责过国家电网数据库部署、迁移、升级、灾备等实施规划工作。大唐发电厂、北京市公安局数据库运维及优化工作。现任金融工场高级DBA岗位,负责oracle、mysql数据库相关工作。拥有Oracle技术10g/11g的 OCP与OCM认证,Oracle YEP成员,OCM联盟成员。

注册时间:2013-04-22

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