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rman 恢复

原创 Linux操作系统 作者:wujunjob 时间:2011-06-14 22:18:36 0 删除 编辑
1.通过rman备份文件恢复spfile
2.通过rman备份文件恢复controlfile
3.通过rman备份文件恢复datafile
4.利用恢复回来的controlfile和datafile生成redolog
5.测试交易是否存在,并全备

我系统环境所有的文件如下:

[oracle@foway dbs]$ pwd
/opt/oracle/10g/dbs
[oracle@foway dbs]$ ls
initdw.ora
init.ora
[oracle@foway dbs]$ls /opt/oracle/oradata
已没有任何资料
[oracle@foway dbs]$ls /opt/oracle/admin
已没有任何资料
[oracle@foway dbs] ls /opt/oracle/flash_recovery_area/
ORCL
[oracle@foway dbs]ls /opt/oracle/flash_recovery_area/ORCL/backupset/
2008_07_18
[oracle@foway dbs]ls /opt/oracle/flash_recovery_area/ORCL/backupset/2008_07_18/
o1_mf_ncsnf_TAG20080718T203240_482fls2h_.bkp
o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20080718T203240_482fkb0k_.bkp

在我这台电脑上, ,系统中所有的ORCL相关的数据文件,参数文件,日志文件,控制文件全部不在了, 没有其他可用的备份文件了,只有rman备份的文件在,这可怎么办呢?

没办法只能恢复了,可怎么恢复呢?

要恢复数据文件用rman备份? 能吗? 当然不能了,因为restore必须在mount or open状态下.
参数文件,控制文件都没有怎么mount?

要mount必须有参数文件,控制文件,为此我们必须解决这2个难题了.
在解决难题前先准备ORCL的必须的目录:

[oracle@foway dbs]mkdir /opt/oracle/oradata/orcl
[oracle@foway dbs]mkdir /opt/oracle/admin/orcl/adump –p
[oracle@foway dbs]mkdir /opt/oracle/admin/orcl/cdump
[oracle@foway dbs]mkdir /opt/oracle/admin/orcl/bdump
[oracle@foway dbs]mkdir /opt/oracle/admin/orcl/udump
[oracle@foway dbs]mkdir /opt/oracle/admin/orcl/dpdump
[oracle@foway dbs]mkdir /opt/oracle/admin/orcl/pfile


难题1:spfile

有人说没参数文件我新建立一个pfile,当然这个办法是可行的,不过在10g中rman备份是自动备份了spfile的,所以我们可以利用rman来恢复spfile了.

[oracle@foway dbs]rman target / nocatalog
Recovery Manager: Release 10.2.0.4.0 - Production on Fri Jul 18 21:21:47 2008

Copyright (c) 1982, 2005, Oracle.
All rights reserved.

connected to target database (not started)

RMAN> list backup;

RMAN-00571: ===========================================================
RMAN-00569: =============== ERROR MESSAGE STACK FOLLOWS ===============
RMAN-00571: ===========================================================
RMAN-03002: failure of list command at 07/18/2008 21:24:37
RMAN-06403: could not obtain a fully authorized session
ORA-01034: ORACLE not available
ORA-27101: shared memory realm does not exist
Linux Error: 2: No such file or directorylist copy;

RMAN-00571: ===========================================================
RMAN-00569: =============== ERROR MESSAGE STACK FOLLOWS ===============
RMAN-00571: ===========================================================
RMAN-03002: failure of list command at 07/18/2008 21:24:51
RMAN-06403: could not obtain a fully authorized session
ORA-01034: ORACLE not available
ORA-27101: shared memory realm does not exist
Linux Error: 2: No such file or directory

看到上面的是正常的,因为数据库没有启动呢.
于是我们先启动数据库到nomout下
RMAN>startup nomount

startup failed: ORA-01078: failure in processing system parameters
LRM-00109: could not open parameter file '/opt/oracle/10g/dbs/initorcl.ora'

starting Oracle instance without parameter file for retrival of spfile
Oracle instance started

Total System Global Area
159383552 bytes

Fixed Size
1218268 bytes
Variable Size
54528292 bytes
Database Buffers
100663296 bytes
Redo Buffers

2973696 bytes

RMAN>list backup;
RMAN>list copy;

将与上次执行看到的一样,此时也是正常的,不必担心,下面就是利用rman备份文件来解决难题1了.

RMAN> restore spfile
from '/opt/oracle/flash_recovery_area/ORCL/backupset/2008_07_18/o1_mf_ncsnf_TAG20080718T203240_482fls2h_.bkp';
Starting restore at 18-JUL-08
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: sid=36 devtype=DISK

channel ORA_DISK_1: autobackup found: /opt/oracle/flash_recovery_area/ORCL/backupset/2008_07_18/o1_mf_ncsnf_TAG20080718T203240_482fls2h_.bkp
channel ORA_DISK_1: SPFILE restore from autobackup complete
Finished restore at 18-JUL-08

下面是来验证spfileorcl.ora文件是否已存在:

[oracle@foway dbs]$ pwd
/opt/oracle/10g/dbs
[oracle@foway dbs]$ ls
initdw.ora
init.ora
spfileorcl.ora

恭喜你:spfile已恢复了
有了参数文件,就需要解决控制文件恢复了

难题2. 控制文件恢复

这个又怎么恢复呢? 用rman的自动备份控制文件的rman备份吗? 是的没错,只有从rman备份文件中提取出来的controlfile才能使用rman备份文件恢复datafile的.

那么这里有来种办法来实现从rman备份文件中提取出controlfie了.

方法1.

RMAN>restore controlfile from ‘/…备份文件..’;

恢复的控制文件将放在$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/cncontrl.dbf不过这个方法有时恢复的控制文件中记录的dbname与实际不一致.

方法2: 利用dbms_backup_restore提取controlfile

步骤:

[oracle@foway dbs]$sqlplus /nolog

SQL*Plus: Release 10.2.0.4.0 - Production on Fri Jul 18 21:38:21 2008

Copyright (c) 1982, 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved.

SQL> conn /as sysdba

Connected.

由于在刚才使用rman时执行了startup nomount,所以这里是connected,下面我们到nomount状态

SQL> startup force nomount

ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 167772160 bytes

Fixed Size 1218316 bytes

Variable Size 62916852 bytes

Database Buffers 100663296 bytes

Redo Buffers 2973696 bytes

SQL>DECLARE

2devtype varchar2(256);

3done boolean;

4BEGIN

5devtype:=sys.dbms_backup_restore.deviceAllocate(type=>'',ident=>'T1');

6sys.dbms_backup_restore.restoreSetDatafile;

7sys.dbms_backup_restore.restoreControlfileTo(cfname=>'/opt/oracle/oradata/orcl/control01.ctl');

8sys.dbms_backup_restore.restoreBackupPiece(done=>done,handle=>'/opt/oracle/flash_recovery_area/ORCL/backupset/2008_07_18/o1_mf_ncsnf_TAG20080718T203240_482fls2h_.bkp',params=>null);

9 sys.dbms_backup_restore.deviceDeallocate;

10 end;

11/

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

下面验证control01.ctl是否恢复:

[oracle@foway dbs]$ ls /opt/oracle/oradata/orcl/

control01.ctl

[oracle@foway dbs]$

看到了control01.ctl 恭喜你:难题2 解决了.

于是我们可以启动数据库到mount状态了.

[oracle@foway dbs]$sqlplus /nolog

SQL*Plus: Release 10.2.0.4 - Production on Fri Jul 18 21:45:32 2008

Copyright (c) 1982, 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved.

SQL> conn /as sysdba

Connected.

SQL> startup force mount

ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 167772160 bytes

Fixed Size 1218316 bytes

Variable Size 62916852 bytes

Database Buffers 100663296 bytes

Redo Buffers 2973696 bytes

ORA-00205: error in identifying control file, check alert log for more info

我们已经恢复了控制文件了,怎么还是有错误呢,其实不用担心,看看spfile中的记录先

SQL> show parameter control_files

 NAME TYPE VALUE

------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------

control_files string /opt/oracle/oradata/orcl/contr

ol01.ctl, /opt/oracle/oradata/

orcl/control02.ctl, /opt/oracl

e/oradata/orcl/control03.ctl

SQL>

既然如此,我们就把控制文件同步下好了.

SQL> ho cp /opt/oracle/oradata/orcl/control01.ctl /opt/oracle/oradata/orcl/control02.ctl

SQL> ho cp /opt/oracle/oradata/orcl/control01.ctl /opt/oracle/oradata/orcl/control03.ctl

SQL> alter database mount;

Database altered.

SQL> ho ls /opt/oracle/oradata/orcl/

control01.ctl control02.ctl control03.ctl

好了到这里我们已经成功解决了难题2了.

有了恢复后的控制文件,我们就可以使用rman查看与使用以前的rman备份了.

恢复datafile 步骤:

rman target / nocatalog

Recovery Manager: Release 10.2.0.4 - Production on Fri Jul 18 21:49:10 2008

Copyright (c) 1982, 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved.

connected to target database: ORCL (DBID=1188209463, not open)

using target database control file instead of recovery catalog

RMAN>

太好了终于看到了正常的rman登陆信息了.

那就list copy|backup 看看能找到我们的

o1_mf_ncsnf_TAG20080718T203240_482fls2h_.bkp

o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20080718T203240_482fkb0k_.bkp

文件吗.

RMAN> list copy;

specification does not match any archive log in the recovery catalog

RMAN> list backup;

List of Backup Sets

===================

 BS Key Type LV Size Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time

------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------

1 Full 495.41M DISK 00:00:41 18-JUL-08

BP Key: 1 Status: AVAILABLE Compressed: NO Tag: TAG20080718T203240

Piece Name: /opt/oracle/flash_recovery_area/ORCL/backupset/2008_07_18/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20080718T203240_482fkb0k_.bkp

List of Datafiles in backup set 1

File LV Type Ckp SCN Ckp Time Name

---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----

1 Full 453304 18-JUL-08 /opt/oracle/oradata/orcl/system01.dbf

2 Full 453304 18-JUL-08 /opt/oracle/oradata/orcl/undotbs01.dbf

3 Full 453304 18-JUL-08 /opt/oracle/oradata/orcl/sysaux01.dbf

4 Full 453304 18-JUL-08 /opt/oracle/oradata/orcl/users01.dbf

RMAN>

太好了,总于可以使用restore,recover来恢复datafile了.

RMAN> restore database;

Starting restore at 18-JUL-08

Starting implicit crosscheck backup at 18-JUL-08

allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: sid=156 devtype=DISK

Crosschecked 1 objects

Finished implicit crosscheck backup at 18-JUL-08

Starting implicit crosscheck copy at 18-JUL-08

using channel ORA_DISK_1

Finished implicit crosscheck copy at 18-JUL-08

searching for all files in the recovery area

cataloging files...

cataloging done

List of Cataloged Files

=======================

File Name: /opt/oracle/flash_recovery_area/ORCL/backupset/2008_07_18/o1_mf_ncsnf_TAG20080718T203240_482fls2h_.bkp

using channel ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile backupset restore

channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set

restoring datafile 00001 to /opt/oracle/oradata/orcl/system01.dbf

restoring datafile 00002 to /opt/oracle/oradata/orcl/undotbs01.dbf

restoring datafile 00003 to /opt/oracle/oradata/orcl/sysaux01.dbf

restoring datafile 00004 to /opt/oracle/oradata/orcl/users01.dbf

channel ORA_DISK_1: reading from backup piece /opt/oracle/flash_recovery_area/ORCL/backupset/2008_07_18/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20080718T203240_482fkb0k_.bkp

channel ORA_DISK_1: restored backup piece 1

piece handle=/opt/oracle/flash_recovery_area/ORCL/backupset/2008_07_18/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20080718T203240_482fkb0k_.bkp tag=TAG20080718T203240

channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:56

Finished restore at 18-JUL-08

RMAN>

此时可以在$ORACLE_BASE/oradata/orcl/下看到期望已久的datafile了.

[oracle@foway dbs] ls /opt/oracle/oradata/orcl/

control01.ctl control02.ctl control03.ctl sysaux01.dbf system01.dbf undotbs01.dbf users01.dbf

[oracle@foway dbs]

不过此时还没有完哈,需要在接在励.

由于没有redo log日志文件所以我们不应用日志恢复:

RMAN> recover database noredo;

Starting recover at 18-JUL-08

using channel ORA_DISK_1

Finished recover at 18-JUL-08

RMAN>

到目前我们已经拥有了参数文件,控制文件,数据文件了:

[oracle@foway dbs] ls /opt/oracle/oradata/orcl/

ls /opt/oracle/oradata/orcl/

control01.ctl control02.ctl control03.ctl sysaux01.dbf system01.dbf

undotbs01.dbf users01.dbf

[oracle@foway dbs] ls /opt/oracle/10g/dbs/

alert_orcl.log hc_orcl.dat initdw.ora init.ora lkORCL spfileorcl.ora

还差一个密码文件,以及相关的日志文件了.

先解决密码文件:

[oracle@foway dbs] orapwd file=/opt/oracle/10g/dbs/orapworcl password=uplooking entries=5

[oracle@foway dbs] ls /opt/oracle/10g/dbs/

ls /opt/oracle/10g/dbs/

alert_orcl.log initdw.ora lkORCL spfileorcl.ora

hc_orcl.dat init.ora orapworcl

下面需要完成最后一个工作了.

通过已经恢复的controlfile and datafile 来演算出redo log file了.

步骤:

[oracle@foway dbs]sqlplus /nolog

SQL*Plus: Release 10.2.0.4 - Production on Fri Jul 18 21:58:05 2008

Copyright (c) 1982, 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved.

SQL> conn /as sysdba

Connected.

SQL> startup force mount

ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 167772160 bytes

Fixed Size 1218316 bytes

Variable Size 62916852 bytes

Database Buffers 100663296 bytes

Redo Buffers 2973696 bytes

Database mounted.

SQL>alter system set "_allow_resetlogs_corruption"=TRUE;

alter system set "_allow_resetlogs_corruption"=TRUE

*

ERROR at line 1:

ORA-02095: specified initialization parameter cannot be modified

SQL> alter system set "_allow_resetlogs_corruption"=TRUE scope=spfile;

System altered.

SQL>ho ls /opt/oracle/oradata/orcl/

control01.ctl control03.ctl sysaux01.dbf undotbs01.dbf

control02.ctl orapworcl system01.dbf users01.dbf

下面没有redo log file ,下面我将演算出redo log

SQL>startup force

ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 167772160 bytes

Fixed Size 1218316 bytes

Variable Size 62916852 bytes

Database Buffers 100663296 bytes

Redo Buffers 2973696 bytes

Database mounted.

ORA-01589: must use RESETLOGS or NORESETLOGS option for database open

SQL>alter database open resetlogs;

Database altered.

SQL> ho ls /opt/oracle/oradata/orcl/

control01.ctl orapworcl redo03.log temp01.dbf

control02.ctl redo01.log sysaux01.dbf undotbs01.dbf

control03.ctl redo02.log system01.dbf users01.dbf

SQL>

好了一切都搞定了,可以安心睡觉了。

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