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ORACLE 常用命令收集

原创 Linux操作系统 作者:golden_zhou 时间:2011-08-31 14:08:27 0 删除 编辑

第一章:日誌管理
  1.forcing log switches
    sql> alter system switch logfile;
    2.forcing checkpoints
    sql> alter system checkpoint;
    3.adding online redo log groups
    sql> alter database add logfile [group 4]
    sql> ('/disk3/log4a.rdo','/disk4/log4b.rdo') size 1m;
    4.adding online redo log members
    sql> alter database add logfile member
    sql> '/disk3/log1b.rdo' to group 1,
    sql> '/disk4/log2b.rdo' to group 2;
    5.changes the name of the online redo logfile
    sql> alter database rename file 'c:/oracle/oradata/oradb/redo01.log'
    sql> to 'c:/oracle/oradata/redo01.log';
    6.drop online redo log groups
    sql> alter database drop logfile group 3;
    7.drop online redo log members
    sql> alter database drop logfile member 'c:/oracle/oradata/redo01.log';
    8.clearing online redo log files
    sql> alter database clear [unarchived] logfile 'c:/oracle/log2a.rdo';
    9.using logminer analyzing redo logfiles
    a. in the init.ora specify utl_file_dir = ' '
    b. sql> execute dbms_logmnr_d.build('oradb.ora','c:\oracle\oradb\log');
    c. sql> execute dbms_logmnr_add_logfile('c:\oracle\oradata\oradb\redo01.log',
    sql> dbms_logmnr.new);
    d. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.add_logfile('c:\oracle\oradata\oradb\redo02.log',
    sql> dbms_logmnr.addfile);
    e. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.start_logmnr(dictfilename=>'c:\oracle\oradb\log\oradb.ora');
    f. sql> select * from v$logmnr_contents(v$logmnr_dictionary,v$logmnr_parameters
    sql> v$logmnr_logs);
    g. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.end_logmnr;
 
 
 
第二章:表空間管理
    1.create tablespaces
    sql> create tablespace tablespace_name datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\file1.dbf' size 100m,
    sql> 'c:\oracle\oradata\file2.dbf' size 100m minimum extent 550k [logging/nologging]
    sql> default storage (initial 500k next 500k maxextents 500 pctinccease 0)
    sql> [online/offline] [permanent/temporary] [extent_management_clause]
    2.locally managed tablespace
    sql> create tablespace user_data datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\user_data01.dbf'
    sql> size 500m extent management local uniform. size 10m;
    3.temporary tablespace
    sql> create temporary tablespace temp tempfile 'c:\oracle\oradata\temp01.dbf'
    sql> size 500m extent management local uniform. size 10m;
    4.change the storage setting
    sql> alter tablespace app_data minimum extent 2m;
    sql> alter tablespace app_data default storage(initial 2m next 2m maxextents 999);
    5.taking tablespace offline or online
    sql> alter tablespace app_data offline;
    sql> alter tablespace app_data online;
    6.read_only tablespace
    sql> alter tablespace app_data read only|write;
    7.droping tablespace
    sql> drop tablespace app_data including contents;
    8.enableing automatic extension of data files
    sql> alter tablespace app_data add datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data01.dbf'size 200m
    sql> autoextend on next 10m maxsize 500m;
    9.change the size fo data files manually
    sql> alter database datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data.dbf'resize 200m;
    10.Moving data files: alter tablespace
    sql> alter tablespace app_data rename datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data.dbf'
    sql> to 'c:\oracle\app_data.dbf';
    11.moving data files:alter database
    sql> alter database rename file 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data.dbf'
    sql> to 'c:\oracle\app_data.dbf';
 
 
第三章:表
    1.create a table
    sql> create table table_name (column datatype,column datatype]....)
    sql> tablespace tablespace_name [pctfree integer] [pctused integer]
    sql> [initrans integer] [maxtrans integer]
    sql> storage(initial 200k next 200k pctincrease 0 maxextents 50)
    sql> [logging|nologging] [cache|nocache]
    2.copy an existing table
    sql> create table table_name [logging|nologging] as subquery
    3.create temporary table
    sql> create global temporary table xay_temp as select * from xay;
    on commit preserve rows/on commit delete rows
    4.pctfree = (average row size - initial row size) *100 /average row size
    pctused = 100-pctfree- (average row size*100/available data space)
    5.change storage and block utilization parameter
    sql> alter table table_name pctfree=30 pctused=50 storage(next 500k
    sql> minextents 2 maxextents 100);
    6.manually allocating extents
    sql> alter table table_name allocate extent(size 500k datafile 'c:/oracle/data.dbf');
    7.move tablespace
    sql> alter table employee move tablespace users;
    8.deallocate of unused space
    sql> alter table table_name deallocate unused [keep integer]
    9.truncate a table
    sql> truncate table table_name;
    10.drop a table
    sql> drop table table_name [cascade constraints];
    11.drop a column
    sql> alter table table_name drop column comments cascade constraints checkpoint 1000;
    alter table table_name drop columns continue;
    12.mark a column as unused
    sql> alter table table_name set unused column comments cascade constraints;
    alter table table_name drop unused columns checkpoint 1000;
    alter table orders drop columns continue checkpoint 1000
    data_dictionary : dba_unused_col_tabs
 
 
第四章:索引
    1.creating function-based indexes
    sql> create index summit.item_quantity on summit.item(quantity-quantity_shipped);
    2.create a B-tree index
    sql> create [unique] index index_name on table_name(column,.. asc/desc) tablespace
    sql> tablespace_name [pctfree integer] [initrans integer] [maxtrans integer]
    sql> [logging | nologging] [nosort] storage(initial 200k next 200k pctincrease 0
    sql> maxextents 50);
    3.pctfree(index)=(maximum number of rows-initial number of rows)*100/maximum number of rows
    4.creating reverse key indexes
    sql> create unique index xay_id on xay(a) reverse pctfree 30 storage(initial 200k
    sql> next 200k pctincrease 0 maxextents 50) tablespace indx;
    5.create bitmap index
    sql> create bitmap index xay_id on xay(a) pctfree 30 storage( initial 200k next 200k
    sql> pctincrease 0 maxextents 50) tablespace indx;
    6.change storage parameter of index
    sql> alter index xay_id storage (next 400k maxextents 100);
    7.allocating index space
    sql> alter index xay_id allocate extent(size 200k datafile 'c:/oracle/index.dbf');
    8.alter index xay_id deallocate unused;
 
 
第五章:約束
    1.define constraints as immediate or deferred
    sql> alter session set constraint[s] = immediate/deferred/default;
    set constraint[s] constraint_name/all immediate/deferred;
    2. sql> drop table table_name cascade constraints
    sql> drop tablespace tablespace_name including contents cascade constraints
    3. define constraints while create a table
    sql> create table xay(id number(7) constraint xay_id primary key deferrable
    sql> using index storage(initial 100k next 100k) tablespace indx);
    primary key/unique/references table(column)/check
    4.enable constraints
    sql> alter table xay enable novalidate constraint xay_id;
    5.enable constraints
    sql> alter table xay enable validate constraint xay_id;
 
 
第六章:LOAD數據
    1.loading data using direct_load insert
    sql> insert /*+append */ into emp nologging
    sql> select * from emp_old;
    2.parallel direct-load insert
    sql> alter session enable parallel dml;
    sql> insert /*+parallel(emp,2) */ into emp nologging
    sql> select * from emp_old;
    3.using sql*loader
    sql> sqlldr scott/tiger \
    sql> control = ulcase6.ctl \
    sql> log = ulcase6.log direct=true
 
 
第七章:reorganizing data
    1.using expoty
    $exp scott/tiger tables(dept,emp) file=c:\emp.dmp log=exp.log compress=n direct=y
    2.using import
    $imp scott/tiger tables(dept,emp) file=emp.dmp log=imp.log ignore=y
    3.transporting a tablespace
    sql>alter tablespace sales_ts read only;
    $exp sys/.. file=xay.dmp transport_tablespace=y tablespace=sales_ts
    triggers=n constraints=n
    $copy datafile
    $imp sys/.. file=xay.dmp transport_tablespace=y datafiles=(/disk1/sles01.dbf,/disk2
    /sles02.dbf)
    sql> alter tablespace sales_ts read write;
    4.checking transport set
    sql> DBMS_tts.transport_set_check(ts_list =>'sales_ts' ..,incl_constraints=>true);
    在表transport_set_violations 中查看
    sql> dbms_tts.isselfcontained 為true 是, 表示自包含
 
 
第八章: managing password security and resources
    1.controlling account lock and password
    sql> alter user juncky identified by oracle account unlock;
    2.user_provided password function
    sql> function_name(userid in varchar2(30),password in varchar2(30),
    old_password in varchar2(30)) return boolean
    3.create a profile : password setting
    sql> create profile grace_5 limit failed_login_attempts 3
    sql> password_lock_time unlimited password_life_time 30
    sql>password_reuse_time 30 password_verify_function verify_function
    sql> password_grace_time 5;
    4.altering a profile
    sql> alter profile default failed_login_attempts 3
    sql> password_life_time 60 password_grace_time 10;
    5.drop a profile
    sql> drop profile grace_5 [cascade];
    6.create a profile : resource limit
    sql> create profile developer_prof limit sessions_per_user 2
    sql> cpu_per_session 10000 idle_time 60 connect_time 480;
    7. view => resource_cost : alter resource cost
    dba_Users,dba_profiles
    8. enable resource limits
    sql> alter system set resource_limit=true;
 
 
第九章:Managing users
    1.create a user: database authentication
    sql> create user juncky identified by oracle default tablespace users
    sql> temporary tablespace temp quota 10m on data password expire
    sql> [account lock|unlock] [profile profilename|default];
    2.change user quota on tablespace
    sql> alter user juncky quota 0 on users;
    3.drop a user
    sql> drop user juncky [cascade];
    4. monitor user
    view: dba_users , dba_ts_quotas
 
 
第十章:managing privileges
    1.system privileges: view => system_privilege_map ,dba_sys_privs,session_privs
    2.grant system privilege
    sql> grant create session,create table to managers;
    sql> grant create session to scott with admin option;
    with admin option can grant or revoke privilege from any user or role;
    3.sysdba and sysoper privileges:
    sysoper: startup,shutdown,alter database open|mount,alter database backup controlfile,
    alter tablespace begin/end backup,recover database
    alter database archivelog,restricted session
    sysdba: sysoper privileges with admin option,create database,recover database until
    4.password file members: view:=> v$pwfile_users
    5.O7_dictionary_accessibility =true restriction access to view or tables in other schema
    6.revoke system privilege
    sql> revoke create table from karen;
    sql> revoke create session from scott;
    7.grant object privilege
    sql> grant execute on dbms_pipe to public;
    sql> grant update(first_name,salary) on employee to karen with grant option;
    8.display object privilege : view => dba_tab_privs, dba_col_privs
    9.revoke object privilege
    sql> revoke execute on dbms_pipe from scott [cascade constraints];
    10.audit record view :=> sys.aud$
    11. protecting the audit trail
    sql> audit delete on sys.aud$ by access;
    12.statement auditing
    sql> audit user;
    13.privilege auditing
    sql> audit select any table by summit by access;
    14.schema object auditing
    sql> audit lock on summit.employee by access whenever successful;
    15.view audit option : view=> all_def_audit_opts,dba_stmt_audit_opts,dba_priv_audit_opts,
dba_obj_audit_opts
    16.view audit result: view=> dba_audit_trail,dba_audit_exists,dba_audit_object,
dba_audit_session,dba_audit_statement
 
 
 
第十一章: manager role
    1.create roles
    sql> create role sales_clerk;
    sql> create role hr_clerk identified by bonus;
    sql> create role hr_manager identified externally;
    2.modify role
    sql> alter role sales_clerk identified by commission;
    sql> alter role hr_clerk identified externally;
    sql> alter role hr_manager not identified;
    3.assigning roles
    sql> grant sales_clerk to scott;
    sql> grant hr_clerk to hr_manager;
    sql> grant hr_manager to scott with admin option;
    4.establish default role
    sql> alter user scott default role hr_clerk,sales_clerk;
    sql> alter user scott default role all;
    sql> alter user scott default role all except hr_clerk;
    sql> alter user scott default role none;
    5.enable and disable roles
    sql> set role hr_clerk;
    sql> set role sales_clerk identified by commission;
    sql> set role all except sales_clerk;
    sql> set role none;
    6.remove role from user
    sql> revoke sales_clerk from scott;
    sql> revoke hr_manager from public;
    7.remove role
    sql> drop role hr_manager;
    8.display role information
    view: =>dba_roles,dba_role_privs,role_role_privs,dba_sys_privs,
role_sys_privs,role_tab_privs,session_roles
 
 
 
第十二章: BACKUP and RECOVERY
    1. v$sga,v$instance,v$process,v$bgprocess,v$database,v$datafile,v$sgastat
    2. Rman need set dbwr_IO_slaves or backup_tape_IO_slaves and large_pool_size
    3. Monitoring Parallel Rollback
    > v$fast_start_servers , v$fast_start_transactions
    4.perform. a closed database backup (noarchivelog)
    > shutdown immediate
    > cp files /backup/
    > startup
    5.restore to a different location
    > connect system/manager as sysdba
    > startup mount
    > alter database rename file '/disk1/../user.dbf'to '/disk2/../user.dbf';
    > alter database open;
    6.recover syntax
    --recover a mounted database
    >recover database;
    >recover datafile '/disk1/data/df2.dbf';
    >alter database recover database;
    --recover an opened database
    >recover tablespace user_data;
    >recover datafile 2;
    >alter database recover datafile 2;
    7.how to apply redo log files automatically
    >set autorecovery on
    >recover automatic datafile 4;
    8.complete recovery:
    --method 1(mounted databae)
    >copy c:\backup\user.dbf c:\oradata\user.dbf
    >startup mount
    >recover datafile 'c:\oradata\user.dbf;
    >alter database open;
    --method 2(opened database,initially opened,not system or rollback datafile)
 
 
>copy c:\backup\user.dbf c:\oradata\user.dbf (alter tablespace offline)
    >recover datafile 'c:\oradata\user.dbf' or
    >recover tablespace user_data;
    >alter database datafile 'c:\oradata\user.dbf' online or
    >alter tablespace user_data online;
    --method 3(opened database,initially closed not system or rollback datafile)
    >startup mount
    >alter database datafile 'c:\oradata\user.dbf' offline;
    >alter database open
    >copy c:\backup\user.dbf d:\oradata\user.dbf
    >alter database rename file 'c:\oradata\user.dbf'to 'd:\oradata\user.dbf'
    >recover datafile 'e:\oradata\user.dbf' or recover tablespace user_data;
    >alter tablespace user_data online;
    --method 4(loss of data file with no backup and have all archive log)
    >alter tablespace user_data offline immediate;
    >alter database create datafile 'd:\oradata\user.dbf'as 'c:\oradata\user.dbf''
    >recover tablespace user_data;
    >alter tablespace user_data online
    5.perform. an open database backup
    > alter tablespace user_data begin backup;
    > copy files /backup/
    > alter database datafile '/c:/../data.dbf' end backup;
    > alter system switch logfile;
    6.backup a control file
    > alter database backup controlfile to 'control1.bkp';
    > alter database backup controlfile to trace;
    7.recovery (noarchivelog mode)
    > shutdown abort
    > cp files
    > startup
    8.recovery of file in backup mode
    >alter database datafile 2 end backup;
    9.clearing redo log file
    >alter database clear unarchived logfile group 1;
    >alter database clear unarchived logfile group 1 unrecoverable datafile;
    10.redo log recovery
    >alter database add logfile group 3 'c:\oradata\redo03.log'size 1000k;
    >alter database drop logfile group 1;
    >alter database open;
    or >cp c:\oradata\redo02.log' c:\oradata\redo01.log
    >alter database clear logfile 'c:\oradata\log01.log';

 


 

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