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HBase使用例子(中文翻译)

Hadoop 作者:it686888 时间:2011-04-27 22:23:19 0 删除 编辑

通过编码(java)的形式对HBase进行一系列的管理涉及到对表的管理、数据的操作等。

1、  对表的创建、删除、显示以及修改等,可以用HBaseAdmin,一旦创建了表,那么可以通过HTable的实例来访问表,每次可以往表里增加数据。

2、  插入数据

创建一个Put对象,在这个Put对象里可以指定要给哪个列增加数据,以及当前的时间戳等值,然后通过调用HTable.put(Put)来提交操作,子猴在这里提请注意的是:在创建Put对象的时候,你必须指定一个行(Row)值,在构造Put对象的时候作为参数传入。

3、  获取数据

要获取数据,使用Get对象,Get对象同Put对象一样有好几个构造函数,通常在构造的时候传入行值,表示取第几行的数据,通过HTable.get(Get)来调用。

4、  浏览每一行

通过Scan可以对表中的行进行浏览,得到每一行的信息,比如列名,时间戳等,Scan 相当于一个游标,通过next()来浏览下一个,通过调用HTable.getScanner(Scan) 来返回一个ResultScanner对象。HTable.get(Get)HTable.getScanner(Scan) 都是返回一个Result。Result是一个KeyValue的链表,

5、  删除

使用Delete来删除记录,通过调用HTable.delete(Delete)来执行删除操作。(注:删除这里有些特别,也就是删除并不是马上将数据从表中删除。)

6、 

7、  新增、获取、删除在操作过程中会对所操作的行加一个锁,而浏览却不会。

8、  簇(cluster)的访问

客户端代码通过ZooKeeper来访问找到簇,也就是说ZooKeeper quorum将被使用,那么相关的类(包)应该在客户端的类(classes)目录下,即客户端一定要找到文件hbase-site.xml。

下面是一个例子,假定你已经创建了一个表:myTable,还有一个column family(这个找不到合适的翻译词语):myColumnFamily:

import java.io.IOException;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.HBaseConfiguration;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.client.Get;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.client.HTable;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.client.Put;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.client.Result;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.client.ResultScanner;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.client.Scan;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.util.Bytes;
// Class that has nothing but a main.
// Does a Put, Get and a Scan against an hbase table.
public class MyLittleHBaseClient {
  public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
    // You need a configuration object to tell the client where to connect.
    // When you create a HBaseConfiguration, it reads in whatever you've set
    // into your hbase-site.xml and in hbase-default.xml, as long as these can
    // be found on the CLASSPATH
    HBaseConfiguration config = new HBaseConfiguration();
    // This instantiates an HTable object that connects you to
    // the "myLittleHBaseTable" table.
    HTable table = new HTable(config, "myLittleHBaseTable");
    // To add to a row, use Put.  A Put constructor takes the name of the row
    // you want to insert into as a byte array.  In HBase, the Bytes class has
    // utility for converting all kinds of java types to byte arrays.  In the
    // below, we are converting the String "myLittleRow" into a byte array to
    // use as a row key for our update. Once you have a Put instance, you can
    // adorn it by setting the names of columns you want to update on the row,
    // the timestamp to use in your update, etc.If no timestamp, the server
    // applies current time to the edits.
    Put p = new Put(Bytes.toBytes("myLittleRow"));
    // To set the value you'd like to update in the row 'myLittleRow', specify
    // the column family, column qualifier, and value of the table cell you'd
    // like to update.  The column family must already exist in your table
    // schema.  The qualifier can be anything.  All must be specified as byte
    // arrays as hbase is all about byte arrays.  Lets pretend the table
    // 'myLittleHBaseTable' was created with a family 'myLittleFamily'.
    p.add(Bytes.toBytes("myLittleFamily"), Bytes.toBytes("someQualifier"),
      Bytes.toBytes("Some Value"));
    // Once you've adorned your Put instance with all the updates you want to
    // make, to commit it do the following (The HTable#put method takes the
    // Put instance you've been building and pushes the changes you made into
    // hbase)
    table.put(p);
    // Now, to retrieve the data we just wrote. The values that come back are
    // Result instances. Generally, a Result is an object that will package up
    // the hbase return into the form you find most palatable.
    Get g = new Get(Bytes.toBytes("myLittleRow"));
    Result r = table.get(g);
    byte [] value = r.getValue(Bytes.toBytes("myLittleFamily"),
      Bytes.toBytes("someQualifier"));
    // If we convert the value bytes, we should get back 'Some Value', the
    // value we inserted at this location.
    String valueStr = Bytes.toString(value);
    System.out.println("GET: " + valueStr);
    // Sometimes, you won't know the row you're looking for. In this case, you
    // use a Scanner. This will give you cursor-like interface to the contents
    // of the table.  To set up a Scanner, do like you did above making a Put
    // and a Get, create a Scan.  Adorn it with column names, etc.
    Scan s = new Scan();
    s.addColumn(Bytes.toBytes("myLittleFamily"), Bytes.toBytes("someQualifier"));
    ResultScanner scanner = table.getScanner(s);
    try {
      // Scanners return Result instances.
      // Now, for the actual iteration. One way is to use a while loop like so:
      for (Result rr = scanner.next(); rr != null; rr = scanner.next()) {
        // print out the row we found and the columns we were looking for
        System.out.println("Found row: " + rr);
      }
      // The other approach is to use a foreach loop. Scanners are iterable!
      // for (Result rr : scanner) {
      //   System.out.println("Found row: " + rr);
      // }
    } finally {
      // Make sure you close your scanners when you are done!
      // Thats why we have it inside a try/finally clause
      scanner.close();
    }
  }
}
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