ITPub博客

首页 > Linux操作系统 > Linux操作系统 > Oracle SQL精妙SQL语句讲解

Oracle SQL精妙SQL语句讲解

原创 Linux操作系统 作者:fengzj 时间:2009-11-18 17:18:59 0 删除 编辑
Oracle SQL精妙SQL语句讲解

好东西,大家赶紧收藏吧~~~

--行列转换 行转列
DROP TABLE t_change_lc;
CREATE TABLE t_change_lc (card_code VARCHAR2(3), q NUMBER, bal NUMBER);

INSERT INTO t_change_lc
SELECT '001' card_code, ROWNUM q, trunc(dbms_random.VALUE * 100) bal FROM dual CONNECT BY ROWNUM <= 4
UNION
SELECT '002' card_code, ROWNUM q, trunc(dbms_random.VALUE * 100) bal FROM dual CONNECT BY ROWNUM <= 4;

SELECT * FROM t_change_lc;

SELECT a.card_code,
       SUM(decode(a.q, 1, a.bal, 0)) q1,
       SUM(decode(a.q, 2, a.bal, 0)) q2,
       SUM(decode(a.q, 3, a.bal, 0)) q3,
       SUM(decode(a.q, 4, a.bal, 0)) q4
  FROM t_change_lc a
GROUP BY a.card_code
ORDER BY 1;

--行列转换 列转行
DROP TABLE t_change_cl;
CREATE TABLE t_change_cl AS
SELECT a.card_code,
       SUM(decode(a.q, 1, a.bal, 0)) q1,
       SUM(decode(a.q, 2, a.bal, 0)) q2,
       SUM(decode(a.q, 3, a.bal, 0)) q3,
       SUM(decode(a.q, 4, a.bal, 0)) q4
  FROM t_change_lc a
GROUP BY a.card_code
ORDER BY 1;

SELECT * FROM t_change_cl;

SELECT t.card_code,
       t.rn q,
       decode(t.rn, 1, t.q1, 2, t.q2, 3, t.q3, 4, t.q4) bal
  FROM (SELECT a.*, b.rn
          FROM t_change_cl a,
               (SELECT ROWNUM rn FROM dual CONNECT BY ROWNUM <= 4) b) t
ORDER BY 1, 2;

--行列转换 行转列 合并
DROP TABLE t_change_lc_comma;
CREATE TABLE t_change_lc_comma AS SELECT card_code,'quarter_'||q AS q FROM t_change_lc;

SELECT * FROM t_change_lc_comma;

SELECT t1.card_code, substr(MAX(sys_connect_by_path(t1.q, ';')), 2) q
  FROM (SELECT a.card_code,
               a.q,
               row_number() over(PARTITION BY a.card_code ORDER BY a.q) rn
          FROM t_change_lc_comma a) t1
START WITH t1.rn = 1
CONNECT BY t1.card_code = PRIOR t1.card_code
       AND t1.rn - 1 = PRIOR t1.rn
GROUP BY t1.card_code;

--行列转换 列转行 分割
DROP TABLE t_change_cl_comma;
CREATE TABLE t_change_cl_comma  AS
SELECT t1.card_code, substr(MAX(sys_connect_by_path(t1.q, ';')), 2) q
  FROM (SELECT a.card_code,
               a.q,
               row_number() over(PARTITION BY a.card_code ORDER BY a.q) rn
          FROM t_change_lc_comma a) t1
START WITH t1.rn = 1
CONNECT BY t1.card_code = PRIOR t1.card_code
       AND t1.rn - 1 = PRIOR t1.rn
GROUP BY t1.card_code;

SELECT * FROM t_change_cl_comma;

SELECT t.card_code,
       substr(t.q,
              instr(';' || t.q, ';', 1, rn),
              instr(t.q || ';', ';', 1, rn) - instr(';' || t.q, ';', 1, rn)) q
  FROM (SELECT a.card_code, a.q, b.rn
          FROM t_change_cl_comma a,
               (SELECT ROWNUM rn FROM dual CONNECT BY ROWNUM <= 100) b
         WHERE instr(';' || a.q, ';', 1, rn) > 0) t
ORDER BY 1, 2;


-- 实现一条记录根据条件多表插入
DROP TABLE t_ia_src;
CREATE TABLE t_ia_src AS SELECT 'a'||ROWNUM c1, 'b'||ROWNUM c2 FROM dual CONNECT BY ROWNUM<=5;
DROP TABLE t_ia_dest_1;
CREATE TABLE t_ia_dest_1(flag VARCHAR2(10) , c VARCHAR2(10));
DROP TABLE t_ia_dest_2;
CREATE TABLE t_ia_dest_2(flag VARCHAR2(10) , c VARCHAR2(10));
DROP TABLE t_ia_dest_3;
CREATE TABLE t_ia_dest_3(flag VARCHAR2(10) , c VARCHAR2(10));

SELECT * FROM t_ia_src;
SELECT * FROM t_ia_dest_1;
SELECT * FROM t_ia_dest_2;
SELECT * FROM t_ia_dest_3;

INSERT ALL
WHEN (c1 IN ('a1','a3')) THEN
INTO t_ia_dest_1(flag,c) VALUES(flag1,c2)
WHEN (c1 IN ('a2','a4')) THEN
INTO t_ia_dest_2(flag,c) VALUES(flag2,c2)
ELSE
INTO t_ia_dest_3(flag,c) VALUES(flag1||flag2,c1||c2)
SELECT c1,c2, 'f1' flag1, 'f2' flag2 FROM t_ia_src;

-- 如果存在就更新,不存在就插入用一个语句实现
DROP TABLE t_mg;
CREATE TABLE t_mg(code VARCHAR2(10), NAME VARCHAR2(10));

SELECT * FROM t_mg;

MERGE INTO t_mg a
USING (SELECT 'the code' code, 'the name' NAME FROM dual) b
ON (a.code = b.code)
WHEN MATCHED THEN
  UPDATE SET a.NAME = b.NAME
WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN
  INSERT (code, NAME) VALUES (b.code, b.NAME);
  
-- 抽取/删除重复记录
DROP TABLE t_dup;
CREATE TABLE t_dup AS SELECT 'code_'||ROWNUM code, dbms_random.string('z',5) NAME FROM dual CONNECT BY ROWNUM<=10;
INSERT INTO t_dup SELECT  'code_'||ROWNUM code, dbms_random.string('z',5) NAME FROM dual CONNECT BY ROWNUM<=2;

SELECT * FROM t_dup;

SELECT * FROM t_dup a WHERE a.ROWID <> (SELECT MIN(b.ROWID) FROM t_dup b WHERE a.code=b.code);

SELECT b.code, b.NAME
  FROM (SELECT a.code,
               a.NAME,
               row_number() over(PARTITION BY a.code ORDER BY a.ROWID) rn
          FROM t_dup a) b
WHERE b.rn > 1;

-- IN/EXISTS的不同适用环境
-- t_orders.customer_id有索引
SELECT a.*
  FROM t_employees a
WHERE a.employee_id IN
       (SELECT b.sales_rep_id FROM t_orders b WHERE b.customer_id = 12);

SELECT a.*
  FROM t_employees a
WHERE EXISTS (SELECT 1
          FROM t_orders b
         WHERE b.customer_id = 12
           AND a.employee_id = b.sales_rep_id);

-- t_employees.department_id有索引
SELECT a.*
  FROM t_employees a
WHERE a.department_id = 10
   AND EXISTS
(SELECT 1 FROM t_orders b WHERE a.employee_id = b.sales_rep_id);

SELECT a.*
  FROM t_employees a
WHERE a.department_id = 10
   AND a.employee_id IN (SELECT b.sales_rep_id FROM t_orders b);
   
-- FBI
DROP TABLE t_fbi;
CREATE TABLE t_fbi AS
SELECT ROWNUM rn, dbms_random.STRING('z',10) NAME , SYSDATE + dbms_random.VALUE * 10 dt FROM dual
CONNECT BY ROWNUM <=10;

CREATE INDEX idx_nonfbi ON t_fbi(dt);

DROP INDEX idx_fbi_1;
CREATE INDEX idx_fbi_1 ON t_fbi(trunc(dt));

SELECT * FROM t_fbi WHERE trunc(dt) = to_date('2006-09-21','yyyy-mm-dd') ;

-- 不建议使用
SELECT * FROM t_fbi WHERE to_char(dt, 'yyyy-mm-dd') = '2006-09-21';

-- LOOP中的COMMIT/ROLLBACK
DROP TABLE t_loop PURGE;
create TABLE t_loop AS SELECT * FROM user_objects WHERE 1=2;

SELECT * FROM t_loop;

-- 逐行提交
DECLARE
BEGIN
  FOR cur IN (SELECT * FROM user_objects) LOOP
    INSERT INTO t_loop VALUES cur;
    COMMIT;
  END LOOP;
END;

-- 模拟批量提交
DECLARE
  v_count NUMBER;
BEGIN
  FOR cur IN (SELECT * FROM user_objects) LOOP
    INSERT INTO t_loop VALUES cur;
    v_count := v_count + 1;
    IF v_count >= 100 THEN
      COMMIT;
    END IF;
  END LOOP;
  COMMIT;
END;

-- 真正的批量提交
DECLARE
  CURSOR cur IS
    SELECT * FROM user_objects;
  TYPE rec IS TABLE OF user_objects%ROWTYPE;
  recs rec;
BEGIN
  OPEN cur;
  WHILE (TRUE) LOOP
    FETCH cur BULK COLLECT
      INTO recs LIMIT 100;
    -- forall 实现批量
    FORALL i IN 1 .. recs.COUNT
      INSERT INTO t_loop VALUES recs (i);
    COMMIT;
    EXIT WHEN cur%NOTFOUND;
  END LOOP;
  CLOSE cur;
END;

-- 悲观锁定/乐观锁定
DROP TABLE t_lock PURGE;
CREATE TABLE t_lock AS SELECT 1 ID FROM dual;

SELECT * FROM t_lock;

-- 常见的实现逻辑,隐含bug
DECLARE
  v_cnt NUMBER;
BEGIN
  -- 这里有并发性的bug
  SELECT MAX(ID) INTO v_cnt FROM t_lock;

  -- here for other operation
  v_cnt := v_cnt + 1;
  INSERT INTO t_lock (ID) VALUES (v_cnt);
  COMMIT;
END;

-- 高并发环境下,安全的实现逻辑
DECLARE
  v_cnt NUMBER;
BEGIN
  -- 对指定的行取得lock
  SELECT ID INTO v_cnt FROM t_lock WHERE ID=1 FOR UPDATE;
  -- 在有lock的情况下继续下面的操作
  SELECT MAX(ID) INTO v_cnt FROM t_lock;

  -- here for other operation
  v_cnt := v_cnt + 1;
  INSERT INTO t_lock (ID) VALUES (v_cnt);
  COMMIT; --提交并且释放lock
END;

-- 硬解析/软解析
DROP TABLE t_hard PURGE;
CREATE TABLE t_hard (ID INT);

SELECT * FROM t_hard;

DECLARE
  sql_1   VARCHAR2(200);
BEGIN
  -- hard parse
  -- java中的同等语句是 Statement.execute()
  FOR i IN 1 .. 1000 LOOP
    sql_1 := 'insert into t_hard(id) values(' || i || ')';
    EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql_1;
  END LOOP;
  COMMIT;

  -- soft parse
  --java中的同等语句是 PreparedStatement.execute()
  sql_1   := 'insert into t_hard(id) values(:id)';
  FOR i IN 1 .. 1000 LOOP
    EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql_1
      USING i;
  END LOOP;
  COMMIT;
END;



-- 正确的分页算法
SELECT *
  FROM (SELECT a.*, ROWNUM rn
          FROM (SELECT * FROM t_employees ORDER BY first_name) a
         WHERE ROWNUM <= 500)
WHERE rn > 480 ;

-- 分页算法(why not this one)
SELECT a.*, ROWNUM rn
  FROM (SELECT * FROM t_employees ORDER BY first_name) a
WHERE ROWNUM <= 500 AND ROWNUM > 480;

-- 分页算法(why not this one)
SELECT b.*
  FROM (SELECT a.*, ROWNUM rn
          FROM t_employees a
         WHERE ROWNUM < = 500
         ORDER BY first_name) b
WHERE b.rn > 480;

-- OLAP
-- 小计合计
SELECT CASE
         WHEN a.deptno IS NULL THEN
          '合计'
         WHEN a.deptno IS NOT NULL AND a.empno IS NULL THEN
          '小计'
         ELSE
          '' || a.deptno
       END deptno,
       a.empno,
       a.ename,
       SUM(a.sal) total_sal
  FROM scott.emp a
GROUP BY GROUPING SETS((a.deptno),(a.deptno, a.empno, a.ename),());

-- 分组排序
SELECT a.deptno,
       a.empno,
       a.ename,
       a.sal,
       -- 可跳跃的rank
       rank() over(PARTITION BY a.deptno ORDER BY a.sal DESC) r1,
       -- 密集型rank
       dense_rank() over(PARTITION BY a.deptno ORDER BY a.sal DESC) r2,
       -- 不分组排序
       rank() over(ORDER BY sal DESC) r3
  FROM scott.emp a
  ORDER BY a.deptno,a.sal DESC;
  
-- 当前行数据和前/后n行的数据比较
SELECT a.empno,
       a.ename,
       a.sal,
       -- 上面一行
       lag(a.sal) over(ORDER BY a.sal DESC) lag_1,
       -- 下面三行
       lead(a.sal, 3) over(ORDER BY a.sal DESC) lead_3
  FROM scott.emp a
ORDER BY a.sal DESC;

来自 “ ITPUB博客 ” ,链接:http://blog.itpub.net/219982/viewspace-619978/,如需转载,请注明出处,否则将追究法律责任。

请登录后发表评论 登录
全部评论

注册时间:2008-11-11

  • 博文量
    76
  • 访问量
    177403