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Oracle管理维护中度SQL

原创 Linux操作系统 作者:波罗2009 时间:2009-05-29 17:30:44 0 删除 编辑

进入SQL*Plus

sqlplus 用户名/密码

退出SQL*Plus

exit

在sqlplus下得到帮助信息

列出全部SQL命令和SQL*Plus命令

  help

列出某个特定的命令的信息

   help 命令名

查看数据库的版本

    Select version FROM Product_component_version
    Where SUBSTR(PRODUCT,1,6)='Oracle';

在sqlplus下查看SID

   select instance_name from v$instance;
    or
    select instance_name from v$active_instances;

查看数据库的创建日期和归档方式

    Select Created, Log_Mode, Log_Mode From V$Database;

查看数据库的创建日期和归档方式

    Select Created, Log_Mode, Log_Mode From V$Database;

查看口令文件中的用户命令:
    select * from v$pwfile_users;

数据库的启动过程:
关闭数据库命令:
    shutdown immediate

启动数据库命令:
    startup

启动到nomount状态:
    startup nomount  (读取参数文件)

启动到加载数据库状态:
    alter database mount;(读取控制文件)

启动到打开数据库状态:
    alter database open;(读取数据文件和日志文件)

改变用户的缺省表空间
    alter user user_name default tablespace tablespace_name;

    select * from dba_users;

查看数据库的版本 

Select version FROM Product_component_version
Where SUBSTR(PRODUCT,1,6)='Oracle';

查询ORACLE字符集  
SQL>select * from sys.props$ where name='NLS_CHARACTERSET';

查看回滚段名称及大小

select segment_name, tablespace_name, r.status,
(initial_extent/1024) InitialExtent,(next_extent/1024) NextExtent,
max_extents, v.curext CurExtent
From dba_rollback_segs r, v$rollstat v
Where r.segment_id = v.usn(+)
order by segment_name ;


查看控制文件

select name from v$controlfile;


查看日志文件

select member from v$logfile;


查看数据库库对象

select owner, object_type, status, count(*) count# from all_objects group by owner, object_type, status;


查看数据库的创建日期和归档方式

Select Created, Log_Mode, Log_Mode From V$Database;

如何远程判断Oracle数据库的安装平台

select * from v$version;


查看数据表的参数信息

SELECT partition_name, high_value, high_value_length, tablespace_name,
pct_free, pct_used, ini_trans, max_trans, initial_extent,
next_extent, min_extent, max_extent, pct_increase, FREELISTS,
freelist_groups, LOGGING, BUFFER_POOL, num_rows, blocks,
empty_blocks, avg_space, chain_cnt, avg_row_len, sample_size,
last_analyzed
FROM dba_tab_partitions
--WHERE table_name = :tname AND table_owner = :towner
ORDER BY partition_position


查看还没提交的事务

select * from v$locked_object;
select * from v$transaction;


回滚段查看

select rownum, sys.dba_rollback_segs.segment_name Name, v$rollstat.extents
Extents, v$rollstat.rssize Size_in_Bytes, v$rollstat.xacts XActs,
v$rollstat.gets Gets, v$rollstat.waits Waits, v$rollstat.writes Writes,
sys.dba_rollback_segs.status status from v$rollstat, sys.dba_rollback_segs,
v$rollname where v$rollname.name(+) = sys.dba_rollback_segs.segment_name and
v$rollstat.usn (+) = v$rollname.usn order by rownum


捕捉运行很久的SQL

column username format a12
column opname format a16
column progress format a8

select username,sid,opname,
round(sofar*100 / totalwork,0) || '%' as progress,
time_remaining,sql_text
from v$session_longops , v$sql
where time_remaining <> 0
and sql_address = address
and sql_hash_value = hash_value


查找object为哪些进程所用
select
p.spid,
s.sid,
s.serial# serial_num,
s.username user_name,
a.type object_type,
s.osuser os_user_name,
a.owner,
a.object object_name,
decode(sign(48 - command),
1,
to_char(command), 'Action Code #' || to_char(command) ) action,
p.program oracle_process,
s.terminal terminal,
s.program program,
s.status session_status
from v$session s, v$access a, v$process p
where s.paddr = p.addr and
s.type = 'USER' and
a.sid = s.sid and
a.object='SUBSCRIBER_ATTR'
order by s.username, s.osuser


查看耗资源的进程(top session)
select s.schemaname schema_name, decode(sign(48 - command), 1,
to_char(command), 'Action Code #' || to_char(command) ) action, status
session_status, s.osuser os_user_name, s.sid, p.spid , s.serial# serial_num,
nvl(s.username, '[Oracle process]') user_name, s.terminal terminal,
s.program program, st.value criteria_value from v$sesstat st, v$session s , v$process p
where st.sid = s.sid and st.statistic# = to_number('38') and ('ALL' = 'ALL'
or s.status = 'ALL') and p.addr = s.paddr order by st.value desc, p.spid asc, s.username asc, s.osuser asc


查看锁(lock)情况
select ls.osuser os_user_name, ls.username user_name,
decode(ls.type, 'RW', 'Row wait enqueue lock', 'TM', 'DML enqueue lock', 'TX',
'Transaction enqueue lock', 'UL', 'User supplied lock') lock_type,
o.object_name object, decode(ls.lmode, 1, null, 2, 'Row Share', 3,
'Row Exclusive', 4, 'Share', 5, 'Share Row Exclusive', 6, 'Exclusive', null)
lock_mode, o.owner, ls.sid, ls.serial# serial_num, ls.id1, ls.id2
from sys.dba_objects o, ( select s.osuser, s.username, l.type,
l.lmode, s.sid, s.serial#, l.id1, l.id2 from v$session s,
v$lock l where s.sid = l.sid ) ls where o.object_id = ls.id1 and o.owner
<> 'SYS' order by o.owner, o.object_name


根据sid查是哪台电脑的链接
column osuser format a15
column username format a10
column machine format a30
select osuser,machine,username,sid,serial# from v$session where sid='128';

根据sid查对应的sql
select SID,SQL_TEXT from v$open_cursor where SID='128';


查看等待(wait)情况
SELECT v$waitstat.class, v$waitstat.count count, SUM(v$sysstat.value) sum_value
FROM v$waitstat, v$sysstat WHERE v$sysstat.name IN ('db block gets',
'consistent gets') group by v$waitstat.class, v$waitstat.count


查看sga情况
SELECT NAME, BYTES FROM SYS.V_$SGASTAT ORDER BY NAME ASC


查看catched object
SELECT owner, name, db_link, namespace,
type, sharable_mem, loads, executions,
locks, pins, kept FROM v$db_object_cache


查看V$SQLAREA
SELECT SQL_TEXT, SHARABLE_MEM, PERSISTENT_MEM, RUNTIME_MEM, SORTS,
VERSION_COUNT, LOADED_VERSIONS, OPEN_VERSIONS, USERS_OPENING, EXECUTIONS,
USERS_EXECUTING, LOADS, FIRST_LOAD_TIME, INVALIDATIONS, PARSE_CALLS, DISK_READS,
BUFFER_GETS, ROWS_PROCESSED FROM V$SQLAREA


查看object分类数量
select decode (o.type#,1,'INDEX' , 2,'TABLE' , 3 , 'CLUSTER' , 4, 'VIEW' , 5 ,
'SYNONYM' , 6 , 'SEQUENCE' , 'OTHER' ) object_type , count(*) quantity from
sys.obj$ o where o.type# > 1 group by decode (o.type#,1,'INDEX' , 2,'TABLE' , 3
, 'CLUSTER' , 4, 'VIEW' , 5 , 'SYNONYM' , 6 , 'SEQUENCE' , 'OTHER' ) union select
'COLUMN' , count(*) from sys.col$ union select 'DB LINK' , count(*) from


按用户查看object种类
select u.name schema, sum(decode(o.type#, 1, 1, NULL)) indexes,
sum(decode(o.type#, 2, 1, NULL)) tables, sum(decode(o.type#, 3, 1, NULL))
clusters, sum(decode(o.type#, 4, 1, NULL)) views, sum(decode(o.type#, 5, 1,
NULL)) synonyms, sum(decode(o.type#, 6, 1, NULL)) sequences,
sum(decode(o.type#, 1, NULL, 2, NULL, 3, NULL, 4, NULL, 5, NULL, 6, NULL, 1))
others from sys.obj$ o, sys.user$ u where o.type# >= 1 and u.user# =
o.owner# and u.name <> 'PUBLIC' group by u.name order by
sys.link$ union select 'CONSTRAINT' , count(*) from sys.con$


有关connection的相关信息

1)查看有哪些用户连接
select s.osuser os_user_name, decode(sign(48 - command), 1, to_char(command),
'Action Code #' || to_char(command) ) action, p.program oracle_process,
status session_status, s.terminal terminal, s.program program,
s.username user_name, s.fixed_table_sequence activity_meter, '' query,
0 memory, 0 max_memory, 0 cpu_usage, s.sid, s.serial# serial_num
from v$session s, v$process p where s.paddr=p.addr and s.type = 'USER'
order by s.username, s.osuser

2)根据v.sid查看对应连接的资源占用等情况
select n.name,
v.value,
n.class,
n.statistic#
from v$statname n,
v$sesstat v
where v.sid = 71 and
v.statistic# = n.statistic#
order by n.class, n.statistic#

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