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oracle spatial之基础知识之四空间索引

原创 Linux操作系统 作者:liqilin0429 时间:2012-02-21 11:53:26 0 删除 编辑

空间索引

1 建立索引之前为空间层插入元数据

SQL> desc user_sdo_geom_metadata;

 名称                                      是否为空? 类型

 ----------------------------------------- -------- ----------------------------

 

 TABLE_NAME                                 NOT NULL VARCHAR2(32)

 COLUMN_NAME                               NOT NULL VARCHAR2(1024)

 DIMINFO                                      MDSYS.SDO_DIM_ARRAY

 SRID                                               NUMBER

SQL> select * from user_sdo_geom_metadata;

TABLE_NAME                COLUMN_NAME                    DIMINFO       SRID

----------                -----------------------------  -------        ----------

CUSTOMERS                        LOCATION                       8307

GC_ROAD_SEGMENT_US               GEOMETRY                       8307

US_RESTAURANTS                   LOCATION                       8307

US_INTERSTATES                   GEOM                           8307

 

为对应于customer表的LOCATION列的空间层插入元数据

user_sdo_geom_metadata 是个视图

INSERT INTO user_sdo_geom_metadata

(table_name, column_name, srid, diminfo)

VALUES

(

  'CUSTOMERS', -- TABLE_NAME

  'LOCATION', -- COLUMN_NAME

  8307, -- SRID specifying a geodetic coordinate system

  SDO_DIM_ARRAY -- DIMINFO attribute for storing dimension bounds, tolerance

  (

    SDO_DIM_ELEMENT

    (

      'LONGITUDE', -- DIMENSION NAME for first dimension

      -180, -- SDO_LB for the dimension: -180 degrees

      180, -- SDO_UB for the dimension: 180 degrees

      0.5 -- Tolerance of 0.5 meters (not 0.5 degrees: geodetic SRID)

    ),

    SDO_DIM_ELEMENT

    (

      'LATITUDE', -- DIMENSION NAME for second dimension

      -90, -- SDO_LB for the dimension: -90 degrees

      90, -- SDO_UB for the dimension: 90 degrees

      0.5 -- Tolerance of 0.5 meters (not 0.5 degrees: geodetic SRID)

    )

  )

);

DIMINFO域为每个维定义了 边界和容差(TOLERANE).它的值被设置为一个含有两个元素的SDO_DIM_ARRAY对象.

 

  2 创建空间索引

     首先删除索引:

DROP INDEX CUSTOMERS_SIDX;

   其次创建索引:

CREATE INDEX CUSTOMERS_SIDX ON CUSTOMERS(LOCATION) INDEXTYPE IS MDSYS.SPATIAL_INDEX;

   3 空间索引的参数信息

创建空间索引的语法:

CREATE INDEX ON  ()

INDEXTYPE IS MDSYS.SPATIAL_INDEX

PARAMETERS ('parameter_string');

l       TABLSPACE 参数

通过这个参数,可以指定用哪个表空间来存储空间索引表。EG tablesspace= TBS_3 会将空间索引表存储在空间表空间TBS_3
CREATE INDEX customers_sidx ON customers(location)

INDEXTYPE IS MDSYS.SPATIAL_INDEX

PARAMETERS ('TABLESPACE=TBS_3');

l       WORK_TABLSPACE 参数

创建和删除大量不同大小的表会使表空间产生很多的空间碎片。为了避免这种情况,可以使用WORK_TABLSPACE 参数来为这些工作表指定一个单独的表空间

CREATE INDEX customers_sidx ON customers(location)

INDEXTYPE IS MDSYS.SPATIAL_INDEX

PARAMETERS ('WORK_TABLESPACE= TBS_4');

 

l       SDO_DML_BATCH_SIZE 参数

在含有空间索引的表的插入和删除操作并未直接纳入该空间索引。相反,他们是在事务提交时被批量的纳入该索引中。这个参数用于指定一个事务中批量插入删除更新时的批量大小(对有大量插入的事务,该参数应该设置为50000或是10000)。

CREATE INDEX customers_sidx ON customers(location)

INDEXTYPE IS MDSYS.SPATIAL_INDEX

PARAMETERS ('SDO_DML_BATCH_SIZE=5000');

4  USER_SDO_INDEX_METADATA视图

SQL> desc user_sdo_index_metadata;

 名称                                      是否为空? 类型

 ----------------------------------------- -------- -------------------

 SDO_INDEX_OWNER                                    VARCHAR2(32)

 SDO_INDEX_TYPE                                     VARCHAR2(32)

 SDO_LEVEL                                          NUMBER

 SDO_NUMTILES                                       NUMBER

 SDO_MAXLEVEL                                       NUMBER

 SDO_COMMIT_INTERVAL                                NUMBER

 SDO_INDEX_TABLE                                    VARCHAR2(32)

 SDO_INDEX_NAME                                     VARCHAR2(32)

 SDO_INDEX_PRIMARY                                  NUMBER

 SDO_TSNAME                                         VARCHAR2(32)

 SDO_COLUMN_NAME                                  VARCHAR2(2048)

 SDO_RTREE_HEIGHT                                   NUMBER

 SDO_RTREE_NUM_NODES                                NUMBER

 SDO_RTREE_DIMENSIONALITY                           NUMBER

 SDO_RTREE_FANOUT                                   NUMBER

 SDO_RTREE_ROOT                                     VARCHAR2(32)

 SDO_RTREE_SEQ_NAME                                 VARCHAR2(32)

 SDO_FIXED_META                                     RAW(255)

 SDO_TABLESPACE                                     VARCHAR2(32)

 SDO_INITIAL_EXTENT                                 VARCHAR2(32)

 SDO_NEXT_EXTENT                                    VARCHAR2(32)

 SDO_PCTINCREASE                                    NUMBER

 SDO_MIN_EXTENTS                                    NUMBER

 SDO_MAX_EXTENTS                                    NUMBER

 SDO_INDEX_DIMS                                     NUMBER

 SDO_LAYER_GTYPE                                    VARCHAR2(32)

 SDO_RTREE_PCTFREE                                  NUMBER

 SDO_INDEX_PARTITION                                VARCHAR2(32)

 SDO_PARTITIONED                                    NUMBER

 SDO_RTREE_QUALITY                                  NUMBER

 SDO_INDEX_VERSION                                  NUMBER

 SDO_INDEX_GEODETIC                                 VARCHAR2(8)

 SDO_INDEX_STATUS                                   VARCHAR2(32)

 SDO_NL_INDEX_TABLE                                 VARCHAR2(33)

 SDO_DML_BATCH_SIZE                                 NUMBER

 SDO_RTREE_ENT_XPND                                 NUMBER

 SDO_ROOT_MBR                                       MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY

可以查询参数信息

SQL> select sdo_tablespace from user_sdo_index_metadata;

 

5 空间索引大小需求确定

SELECT sdo_tune.estimate_rtree_index_size

(

'SPATIAL', -- schema name

'CUSTOMERS', -- table name

'LOCATION' -- column name on which the spatial index is to be built

) sz

FROM dual;

 

6 向表中添加位置信息

 第一:创建普通表

CREATE TABLE customers

(

id NUMBER,

datasrc_id NUMBER,

name VARCHAR2(35),

category VARCHAR2(30),

street_number VARCHAR2(5),

street_name VARCHAR2(60),

city VARCHAR2(32),

postal_code VARCHAR2(16),

state VARCHAR2(32),

phone_number VARCHAR2(15),

customer_grade VARCHAR2(15)

);

 

第二 向创建好的表中插入数据

INSERT INTO customers VALUES

(

1, -- id

1, -- datasrc_id

'Pizza Hut' , -- name

'Restaurant', -- restaurant

'134', -- street_number

'12TH STREET', -- street_name

'WASHINGTON', -- city

'20003', -- postal_code

'DC', -- state

NULL, -- phone_number

'GOLD' -- customer_grade’

);

 

第三 向刚才创建好的普通表上添加位置信息

SQL> alter table customers add (location sdo_geometry);

表已更改。

 

SQL> desc customers;

 名称                                      是否为空?  类型

 -----------------------------------------               --------      ---------------------

 ID                                                   NUMBER

 DATASRC_ID                                         NUMBER

 NAME                                               VARCHAR2(35)

 CATEGORY                                           VARCHAR2(30)

 STREET_NUMBER                                     VARCHAR2(5)

 STREET_NAME                                        VARCHAR2(60)

 CITY                                                  VARCHAR2(32)

 POSTAL_CODE                                         VARCHAR2(16)

 STATE                                                 VARCHAR2(32)

 PHONE_NUMBER                                       VARCHAR2(15)

 CUSTOMER_GRADE                                     VARCHAR2(15)

 LOCATION                                              PUBLIC.SDO_GEOMETRY

有了LOCATION列插入数据

INSERT INTO customers

(

ID,

DATASRC_ID,

NAME,

CATEGORY,

STREET_NUMBER,

STREET_NAME,

CITY,

POSTAL_CODE,

STATE,

PHONE_NUMBER,

CUSTOMER_GRADE

)

VALUES

(

1, -- id

1, -- datasrc_id

'Pizza Hut' , -- name

'Restaurant', -- restaurant

'134', -- street_number

'12TH STREET', -- street_name

'WASHINGTON', -- city

'20003', -- postal_code

'DC', -- state

NULL, -- phone_number

'GOLD' -- customer_grade’

);

 

第四 查询customers;表中的具体客户的地址信息

SQL> select street_number,street_name,city,state,postal_code from customers where id=1;

 

STREET_NUMBER     STREET_NAME      CITY                             STATE                            POSTAL_CODE

-------------     --------------   ------------------               -----------------                ------------

134           12TH STREET          WASHINGTON                       DC                               20003

 

 

第五 修改地理编码地址以获得显示的空间信息

UPDATE customers

SET location =

SDO_GCDR.GEOCODE_AS_GEOMETRY

(

'SPATIAL',

SDO_KEYWORDARRAY

(

 street_number || '' || street_name, -- add whitespace between street_number and street_name

 city || ',' || state || ' ' || postal_code

),

'US'

) ;

ORACLE SPATIAL 使你能够转换地址(street_number, street_name, citypostal_code)为一个在地球表面上的二维点位置

SDO_GCDR.GEOCODE_AS_GEOMETRY 这个函数分别采用模式名称和地理编码数据集名称作为第一个和最后一个参数

第二个参数是一个SDO_KEYWORDARRAY对象,由地址部件street_number, street_name, citypostal_code构成

 

第六 查询显示的结果

SQL> SELECT location;

  2  FROM customers

  3  WHERE id=1;

 

LOCATION(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(X, Y, Z), SDO_ELEM_INFO, SDO_ORDINATES)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

SDO_GEOMETRY(2001, 8307, SDO_POINT_TYPE(-77.01324, 38.8936, NULL), NULL, NULL)

 

第七 使用SDO_GEOMETRY构造函数更新LOCATION

UPDATE customers

SET location =

SDO_GEOMETRY

(

2001, -- Specify that location is a point

8307, -- Specify coordinate system id

SDO_POINT_TYPE(-77.06, 38.94, NULL), -- Specify coordinates here

NULL,

NULL

)

WHERE id=1;

 

第八 CUSTOMERS表的LOCATION列相对应的空间层插入元数据

INSERT INTO USER_SDO_GEOM_METADATA VALUES

(

'CUSTOMERS', -- TABLE_NAME

'LOCATION', -- COLUMN_NAME

SDO_DIM_ARRAY -- DIMINFO attribute for storing dimension bounds, tolerance

(

 SDO_DIM_ELEMENT

 (

 'LONGITUDE', -- DIMENSION NAME for first dimension

 -120, -- SDO_LB for the dimension

 120, -- SDO_UB for the dimension

 0.5 -- Tolerance of 0.5 meters

 ),

 SDO_DIM_ELEMENT

 (

 'LATITUDE', -- DIMENSION NAME for second dimension

 -70, -- SDO_LB for the dimension

 70, -- SDO_UB for the dimension

 0.5 -- Tolerance of 0.5 meters

 )

),

8307 -- SRID value for specifying a geodetic coordinate system

);

 

第九

SQL> DESC SDO_GEOMETRY;

 名称                                      是否为空? 类型

 ----------------------------------------- -------- -------------------------

 

 SDO_GTYPE                                          NUMBER

 SDO_SRID                                            NUMBER

 SDO_POINT                                           MDSYS.SDO_POINT_TYPE

 SDO_ELEM_INFO                                      MDSYS.SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY

 SDO_ORDINATES                                      MDSYS.SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY

SDO_POINT仅能够存储 三个坐标(X,YZ.这就是说 在数据是三维或低于三维 的时候才适合。对于饲喂的点,只能使用SDO_ELEM_INFOSDO_ORDINATES属性。

 

l         查询CUSTOMER表中LOCATION列的SDO_GTYPE

SQL> select ct.location.sdo_gtype from customers ct ;

 

LOCATION.SDO_GTYPE

------------------

              2001

l         SDO_SRID这个属性为几何体规定了空间参考系或是坐标系,选择一个合适的坐标系需要看以下的表

SQL> desc mdsys.cs_srs;

 名称                                      是否为空? 类型

 ----------------------------------------- -------- ---------------------

 

 CS_NAME                                            VARCHAR2(80)

 SRID                                      NOT NULL NUMBER(38)

 AUTH_SRID                                          NUMBER(38)

 AUTH_NAME                                          VARCHAR2(256)

 WKTEXT                                             VARCHAR2(2046)

 CS_BOUNDS                                          MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY

 WKTEXT3D                                           VARCHAR2(4000)

l         SDO_POINT这个属性定义了点的坐标,例如客户的位置。这个属性的类型是另一种对象类型SDO_POINT_TYPE.

SQL> DESC SDO_POINT_TYPE;

 名称                                      是否为空? 类型

 ----------------------------------------- -------- ---------

 

 X                                                  NUMBER

 Y                                                  NUMBER

 Z                                                  NUMBER

 

2012/2/16

n       构造简单二维几何体的案例来插入数据(充分使用SDO_ELEM_INFOSDO_ORDINATES属性)

第一:创建一个存储所有几何示例的表

CREATE TABLE geometry_examples

(

name VARCHAR2(100),

description VARCHAR2(100),

geom SDO_GEOMETRY

);

SQL> desc geometry_examples;

 名称                                      是否为空? 类型

 ----------------------------------------- -------- --------------------

 

 NAME                                               VARCHAR2(100)

 DESCRIPTION                                        VARCHAR2(100)

 GEOM                                               PUBLIC.SDO_GEOMETRY

第二: 插入数据

INSERT INTO geometry_examples (name, description, geom) VALUES

(

  'POINT',

  '2-dimensional Point at coordinates (-79,37) with srid set to 8307',

  SDO_GEOMETRY

  (

    2001, -- SDO_GTYPE format: D00T. Set to 2001 for a 2-dimensional point

    8307, -- SDO_SRID (geodetic)

    SDO_POINT_TYPE

    (

      -79, -- ordinate value for Longitude

      37, -- ordinate value Latitude

      NULL -- no third dimension (only 2 dimensions)

    ),

    NULL,

    NULL

  )

);

ORACLE SPATIAL要求经度坐标放在第一位,维度坐标放在第二维。

第三:用熟知文本(SQL/MM)来构造一个点几何体

SELECT SDO_GEOMETRY(' POINT(-79 37) ', 8307) geom FROM DUAL;

GEOM(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(X, Y, Z), SDO_ELEM_INFO, SDO_ORDINATES)

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

SDO_GEOMETRY(2001, 8307, SDO_POINT_TYPE(-79, 37, NULL), NULL, NULL)

 

第四:SDO_ORDINATES数组中(而不是SDO_POINT中)存储点坐标

INSERT INTO geometry_examples VALUES

(

  '2-D POINT stored in SDO_ORDINATES',

  '2-dimensional Point at coordinates (-79, 37) with srid set to 8307',

  SDO_GEOMETRY

  (

    2001, -- SDO_GTYPE format: D00T. Set to 2001 for as a 2-dimensional point

    8307, -- SDO_SRID

    NULL, -- SDO_POINT attribute set to NULL

    SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY -- SDO_ELEM_INFO attribute (see Table 4-2 for values)

    (

      1, -- Offset is 1

      1, -- Element-type is 1 for a point

      1 -- Interpretation specifies # of points. In this case 1.

    ),

    SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY -- SDO_ORDINATES attribute

    (

      -79, -- Ordinate value for Longitude

      37 -- Ordinate value for Latitude

    )

  )

);

Offset:永远设置为1,因为在SDO_ORDINATES中只有一个元素

Element-type:与几何体的SDO_GTYPE类型中的T值直接对应

Interpretation:表示一个元素更细微的信息

 

第五:认识SDO_ELEM_INFOSDO_ORDINATES属性

SDO_ELEM_INFO属性是SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY类型的,这个类型同样是一个数字型VARRAY,最大容量是1048576个数字。

SDO_ORDINATES属性是SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY类型的,这个想是一个数字型VARRAY(可变长度数组)

 

第五:了解存储四维点的案例

INSERT INTO geometry_examples VALUES

(

  '4-D POINT',

  '4-dimensional Point at (Xa=>2, Ya=>2, Za=>2, La=>2) with srid set to NULL',

  SDO_GEOMETRY

  (

    4001, -- SDO_GTYPE: D00T. Set to 4001 as it is a 4-dimensional point

    NULL, -- SDO_SRID

    NULL, -- SDO_POINT_TYPE is null

    SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1,1,1), -- Indicates a point element

    SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(2,2,2,2) -- Store the four ordinates here

  )

);

 

n       通过直线连接的线串(充分使用SDO_ELEM_INFOSDO_ORDINATES属性)

为二维的线串插入值

INSERT INTO geometry_examples VALUES

(

  'LINE STRING',

  '2-D line string connecting A(Xa=>1,Ya=>1),B(Xb=>2, Yb=>2), C(Xc=>2,Yc=>1)',

  SDO_GEOMETRY

  (

    2002, -- SDO_GTYPE: D00T. Set to 2002 as it is a 2-dimensional line string

    32774, -- SDO_SRID

    NULL, -- SDO_POINT_TYPE is null

    SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY -- SDO_ELEM_INFO attribute (see Table 4-2 for values)

    (

      1, -- Offset is 1

      2, -- Element-type is 2 for a LINE STRING

      1 -- Interpretation is 1 if line string is connected by straight lines.

    ),

    SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY -- SDO_ORDINATES attribute

    (

      1,1, -- Xa, Ya values

      2,2, -- Xb, Yb values

      2,1 -- Xc, Yc values

    )

  )

);

 

n       通过弧线连接的线串(充分使用SDO_ELEM_INFOSDO_ORDINATES属性)

为二维的弧线插入值

INSERT INTO geometry_examples VALUES

(

  'ARCSTRING',

  '2-D arc connecting A(Xa=>1,Ya=>1),B(Xb=>2, Yb=>2), C(Xc=>2,Yc=>1)',

  SDO_GEOMETRY

  (

    2002, -- SDO_GTYPE: D00T. Set to 2002 as it is a 2-dimensional line string

    32774, -- SDO_SRID

    NULL, -- SDO_POINT_TYPE is null

    SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY -- SDO_ELEM_INFO attribute (see Table 4-2 for values)

    (

      1, -- Offset is 1

      2, -- Element-type is 2 for a LINE STRING

      2 -- Interpretation is 2 if line string is connected by ARCs.

    ),

    SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY -- SDO_ORDINATES attribute

    (

      1,1, -- Xa, Ya values

      2,2, -- Xb, Yb values

      2,1 -- Xc, Yc values

    )

  )

);

 

n       多边形,边界通过直线连接的环(充分使用SDO_ELEM_INFOSDO_ORDINATES属性)

为直线连接的多边形插入值

INSERT INTO geometry_examples VALUES

(

  'POLYGON',

  '2-D polygon connecting A(Xa, Ya), B(Xb, Yb), C(Xc, Yc), D(Xd, Yd)',

  SDO_GEOMETRY

  (

    2003,   -- SDO_GTYPE: D00T. Set to 2003 as it is a 2-dimensional polygon

    32774,  -- SDO_SRID

    NULL,   -- SDO_POINT_TYPE is null

    SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY -- SDO_ELEM_INFO attribute (see Table 4-2 for values)

    (

      1,      -- Offset is 1

      1003,   -- Element-type is 1003 for an outer POLYGON element

      1       -- Interpretation is 1 if boundary is connected by straight lines.

    ),

    SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY -- SDO_ORDINATES attribute

    (

      1,1,    -- Xa, Ya values

      2,-1,   -- Xb, Yb values

      3,1,    -- Xc, Yc values

      2,2,    -- Xd, Yd values

      1,1     -- Xa, Ya values : Repeat first vertex to close the ring

    )

  )

);

 

n       圆(充分使用SDO_ELEM_INFOSDO_ORDINATES属性)

为圆插入值

INSERT INTO geometry_examples VALUES

(

  'CIRCLE POLYGON',

  '2-D circle polygon with 3 boundary points A(Xa,Ya), B(Xb,Yb), C(Xc,Yc)',

  SDO_GEOMETRY

  (

    2003,     -- SDO_GTYPE: D00T. Set to 2003 as it is a 2-dimensional polygon

    32774,    -- SDO_SRID

    NULL,     -- SDO_POINT_TYPE is null

    SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY -- SDO_ELEM_INFO attribute (see Table 4-2 for values)

    (

      1,      -- Offset is 1

      1003,   -- Element-type is 1003 for (an outer) POLYGON

      4       -- Interpretation is 4 if polygon is a CIRCLE

    ),

    SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY -- SDO_ORDINATES attribute

    (

      1,1,    -- Xa, Ya values

      3,1,    -- Xb, Yb values

      2,2     -- Xc, Yc values

    )

  )

);

 

查询相关属性值的内容

SQL> select ge.geom.sdo_elem_info from  geometry_examples ge;

 

GEOM.SDO_ELEM_INFO

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1, 1)

SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1, 1)

SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 2, 1)

SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 2, 2)

SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 1)

SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 4)

 

已选择7行。

 

SQL> select ge.geom.sdo_ordinates from  geometry_examples ge;

 

GEOM.SDO_ORDINATES

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(-79, 37)

SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(2, 2, 2, 2)

SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 1)

SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 1)

SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(1, 1, 2, -1, 3, 1, 2, 2, 1, 1)

SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(1, 1, 3, 1, 2, 2)

 

已选择7行。

 

SQL> select ge.geom.sdo_point from  geometry_examples ge;

 

GEOM.SDO_POINT(X, Y, Z)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

SDO_POINT_TYPE(-79, 37, NULL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

已选择7行。

SQL> select ge.geom.sdo_srid from  geometry_examples ge;

 

GEOM.SDO_SRID

-------------

         8307

         8307

 

        32774

        32774

        32774

        32774

 

已选择7行。

 

SQL> select ge.geom.sdo_gtype from  geometry_examples ge;

 

GEOM.SDO_GTYPE

--------------

          2001

          2001

          4001

          2002

          2002

          2003

          2003

 

已选择7行。

 

 

修改相关属性值的内容

 

 

调试空间数据库运用的函数

Getnumelem

Getnumverticces

Getvertices

SELECT SDO_UTIL.GETNUMELEM(geom) nelem

FROM sales_regions

WHERE id=10000;

 

SELECT SDO_UTIL.GETNUMVERTICES(geom) nverts

FROM sales_regions

WHERE id=10000;

 

来自 “ ITPUB博客 ” ,链接:http://blog.itpub.net/20976446/viewspace-716850/,如需转载,请注明出处,否则将追究法律责任。

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