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ls命令中的 time-style

原创 Linux操作系统 作者:tianjusanren 时间:2011-03-16 10:54:41 0 删除 编辑
       在linux使用ls命令时,ls -l  默认只显示“月-日”,而不显示“年”,这样就给我们查看文件的时间属性带来困扰,这时侯,我们可以指定time-style(时间显示类型)。
       linux中time-style的参数为:
 - `full-iso'
  - `long-iso'
  - `iso'
  - `locale'
具体解释如下。(http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/manual/html_node/Formatting-file-timestamps.html)--time-style=style’List timestamps in style. style. The style should be one of the following: ‘+format’List timestamps using format, where format is interpreted like the format argument of date (see date invocation). For example, --time-style="+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S" causes ls to list timestamps like ‘2002-03-30 23:45:56’. As with date, format's interpretation is affected by the LC_TIME locale category.

If format contains two format strings separated by a newline, the former is used for non-recent files and the latter for recent files; if you want output columns to line up, you may need to insert spaces in one of the two formats.

full-iso’List timestamps in full using ISO 8601 date, time, and time zone format with nanosecond precision, e.g., ‘2002-03-30 23:45:56.477817180 -0700’. This style. is equivalent to ‘+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S.%N %z’.

This is useful because the time output includes all the information that is available from the operating system. For example, this can help explain make's behavior, since GNU make uses the full timestamp to determine whether a file is out of date.

long-iso’List ISO 8601 date and time in minutes, e.g., ‘2002-03-30 23:45’. These timestamps are shorter than ‘full-iso’ timestamps, and are usually good enough for everyday work. This style. is equivalent to ‘+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M’.
iso’List ISO 8601 dates for non-recent timestamps (e.g., ‘2002-03-30 ’), and ISO 8601 month, day, hour, and minute for recent timestamps (e.g., ‘03-30 23:45’). These timestamps are uglier than ‘long-iso’ timestamps, but they carry nearly the same information in a smaller space and their brevity helps ls output fit within traditional 80-column output lines. The following two ls invocations are equivalent:
               newline='
'
ls -l --time-style="+%Y-%m-%d $newline%m-%d %H:%M"
ls -l --time-style="iso"

localeList timestamps in a locale-dependent form. For example, a Finnish locale might list non-recent timestamps like ‘maalis 30 2002’ and recent timestamps like ‘maalis 30 23:45’. Locale-dependent timestamps typically consume more space than ‘iso’ timestamps and are harder for programs to parse because locale conventions vary so widely, but they are easier for many people to read.

The LC_TIME locale category specifies the timestamp format. The default POSIX locale uses timestamps like ‘Mar 30 2002’ and ‘Mar 30 23:45’; in this locale, the following two ls invocations are equivalent:

               newline='
'
ls -l --time-style="+%b %e %Y$newline%b %e %H:%M"
ls -l --time-style="locale"

Other locales behave differently. For example, in a German locale, --time-style="locale" might be equivalent to --time-style="+%e. %b %Y $newline%e. %b %H:%M" and might generate timestamps like ‘30. Mär 2002 ’ and ‘30. Mär 23:45’.

posix-style’List POSIX-locale timestamps if the LC_TIME locale category is POSIX, style timestamps otherwise. For example, the ‘posix-long-iso’ style. lists timestamps like ‘Mar 30 2002’ and ‘Mar 30 23:45’ when in the POSIX locale, and like ‘2002-03-30 23:45’ otherwise.

You can specify the default value of the --time-style option with the environment variable TIME_STYLE; if TIME_STYLE is not set the default style. is ‘locale’. GNU Emacs 21.3 and later use the --dired option and therefore can parse any date format, but if you are using Emacs 21.1 or 21.2 and specify a non-POSIX locale you may need to set ‘TIME_STYLE="posix-long-iso"’.


  

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