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Linux下分区详解之—Parted

原创 Linux操作系统 作者:wuweilong 时间:2012-05-10 11:18:35 0 删除 编辑

Linux下分区详解之—Parted

作者:吴伟龙

 

通常我们用的比较多的一般都是fdisk工具来进行分区,但是现在由于磁盘越来越廉价,而且磁盘空间越来越大;而fdisk工具他对分区是有大小限制的,它只能划分小于2T的磁盘。但是现在的磁盘空间很多都已经是远远大于2T了,甚至达到2.5T3T,那要怎么办能,有两个方法,其一是通过卷管理来实现,其二就是通过我们今天谈到的Parted工具来实现对GPT磁盘进行分区操作。

GPT格式的磁盘相当于原来MBR磁盘中原来保留4partition table4*16个字节,只留第一个16个字节,类似于扩展分区,真正的partition table512字节之后,GPT磁盘没有四个主分区的限制。

 

1、             Parted工具详解:

1.1    进入Parted的方法(在命令行输入Parted命令即可)

[root@jetsen ~]# partet

Warning: Unable to open /dev/hdc read-write (Read-only file system).  /dev/hdc has been

opened read-only.

GNU Parted 1.8.1

Using /dev/hdc

Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands.

(parted)

 

1.2    获取parted工具帮助的方法:(只需输入help即可)

(parted) help                                                            

  check NUMBER                             do a simple check on the file system

  cp [FROM-DEVICE] FROM-NUMBER TO-NUMBER   copy file system to another partition

  help [COMMAND]                           prints general help, or help on COMMAND

  mklabel,mktable LABEL-TYPE               create a new disklabel (partition table)

  mkfs NUMBER FS-TYPE                      make a FS-TYPE file system on partititon

        NUMBER

  mkpart PART-TYPE [FS-TYPE] START END     make a partition

  mkpartfs PART-TYPE FS-TYPE START END     make a partition with a file system

  move NUMBER START END                    move partition NUMBER

  name NUMBER NAME                         name partition NUMBER as NAME

  print [free|NUMBER|all]                  display the partition table, a partition, or

        all devices

  quit                                     exit program

  rescue START END                         rescue a lost partition near START and END

  resize NUMBER START END                  resize partition NUMBER and its file system

  rm NUMBER                                delete partition NUMBER

  select DEVICE                            choose the device to edit

  set NUMBER FLAG STATE                    change the FLAG on partition NUMBER

  toggle [NUMBER [FLAG]]                   toggle the state of FLAG on partition NUMBER

  unit UNIT                                set the default unit to UNIT

  version                                  displays the current version of GNU Parted

        and copyright information

(parted)

 

[root@jetsen ~]# parted --help

Usage: parted [OPTION]... [DEVICE [COMMAND [PARAMETERS]...]...]

Apply COMMANDs with PARAMETERS to DEVICE.  If no COMMAND(s) are given, run in

interactive mode.

 

OPTIONs:

  -h, --help                    displays this help message

  -i, --interactive             where necessary, prompts for user intervention

  -l, --list                    lists partition tables of all detected devices

  -s, --script                  never prompts for user intervention

  -v, --version                 displays the version

 

COMMANDs:

  check NUMBER                             do a simple check on the file system

  cp [FROM-DEVICE] FROM-NUMBER TO-NUMBER   copy file system to another partition

  help [COMMAND]                           prints general help, or help on COMMAND

  mklabel,mktable LABEL-TYPE               create a new disklabel (partition table)

  mkfs NUMBER FS-TYPE                      make a FS-TYPE file system on partititon NUMBER

  mkpart PART-TYPE [FS-TYPE] START END     make a partition

  mkpartfs PART-TYPE FS-TYPE START END     make a partition with a file system

  move NUMBER START END                    move partition NUMBER

  name NUMBER NAME                         name partition NUMBER as NAME

  print [free|NUMBER|all]                  display the partition table, a partition, or all devices

  quit                                     exit program

  rescue START END                         rescue a lost partition near START and END

  resize NUMBER START END                  resize partition NUMBER and its file system

  rm NUMBER                                delete partition NUMBER

  select DEVICE                            choose the device to edit

  set NUMBER FLAG STATE                    change the FLAG on partition NUMBER

  toggle [NUMBER [FLAG]]                   toggle the state of FLAG on partition NUMBER

  unit UNIT                                set the default unit to UNIT

  version                                  displays the current version of GNU Parted and copyright information

[root@jetsen ~]#

1.3    退出parted工具(只需输入quit即可)

(parted) quit                                                            

Information: Don't forget to update /etc/fstab, if necessary.                           

并且同时会提示及时更新/etc/fstab文件

 

2、             开始通过parted工具来对磁盘进行操作

  2.1 查看单个磁盘状态

[root@jetsen ~]# parted /dev/sdb

GNU Parted 1.8.1

Using /dev/sdb

Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands.

(parted) p                                                               

 

Model: VMware, VMware Virtual S (scsi)

Disk /dev/sdb: 16.1GB

Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B

Partition Table: msdos

 

Number  Start   End     Size    Type     File system  Flags

 1      32.3kB  16.1GB  16.1GB  primary  ext3             

 

(parted)                                                                  

 

2.2 查看所有磁盘状态

[root@jetsen ~]# parted -l

Warning: Unable to open /dev/hdc read-write (Read-only file system).  /dev/hdc has been

opened read-only.

Error: Unable to open /dev/hdc - unrecognised disk label.                

 

Model: VMware, VMware Virtual S (scsi)

Disk /dev/sda: 21.5GB

Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B

Partition Table: msdos

 

Number  Start   End     Size    Type     File system  Flags

 1      32.3kB  107MB   107MB   primary  ext3         boot

 2      107MB   21.5GB  21.4GB  primary               lvm 

 

Model: VMware, VMware Virtual S (scsi)

Disk /dev/sdb: 16.1GB

Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B

Partition Table: msdos

 

Number  Start   End     Size    Type     File system  Flags

 1      32.3kB  16.1GB  16.1GB  primary  ext3             

 

Model: VMware, VMware Virtual S (scsi)

Disk /dev/sdc: 16.1GB

Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B

Partition Table: loop

Number  Start   End     Size    File system  Flags

 1      0.00kB  16.1GB  16.1GB  ext3             

 

Error: Unable to open /dev/sdd - unrecognised disk label.                

Error: Unable to open /dev/sde - unrecognised disk label.                

Error: Unable to open /dev/md0 - unrecognised disk label.                

  2.2 通过parted工具来创建大于2T的分区

[root@jetsen ~]# parted /dev/sde

GNU Parted 1.8.1     ---Parted的软件版本号

Using /dev/sde       ---将执行下面操作盘

Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands.    欢迎信息

(parted) mklabel                                           ----创建创建磁盘标签

New disk label type? gpt

(parted) p                                                ----查看分区状态

 

Model: VMware, VMware Virtual S (scsi)

Disk /dev/sde: 2190GB

Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B

Partition Table: gpt

 

Number  Start  End  Size  File system  Name  Flags

(parted) mkpart

Partition name?  []? gpt2t      ---指定分区名称

File system type? [ext2]ext3     ----指定分区类型

Start? 1                      ---指定开始位置

End? 2190GB                 ---指定结束位置

(parted) P                    ----显示分区信息                                                           

 

Model: VMware, VMware Virtual S (scsi)

Disk /dev/sde: 2190GB

Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B

Partition Table: gpt

 

Number  Start   End     Size    File system  Name   Flags

 1      17.4kB  2190GB  2190GB               gpt2t      

 

(parted) Q                              ---退出                                                          

Information: Don't forget to update /etc/fstab, if necessary.    -----提示不要忘记更新/etc/fstab文件

2.3 通过parted 工具来实现单磁盘多分区

[root@jetsen ~]# parted /dev/sdd

GNU Parted 1.8.1

Using /dev/sdd

Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands.

(parted) p                                        ---列出分区信息

Error: Unable to open /dev/sdd - unrecognised disk label.  ----由于没有打上磁盘标签,所以表现信息无法列出

(parted) mklabel                                   ----创建磁盘标签

New disk label type? gpt                             ---输入磁盘表情名

(parted) p                                        ----再次列出磁盘分区

 

Model: VMware, VMware Virtual S (scsi)               ---显示磁盘类型为SCSI磁盘

Disk /dev/sdd: 1100GB                             ---磁盘大小为1100GB

Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B               ---扇区大小为512B

Partition Table: gpt                                ----显示标签名为我刚才输入的标签名称

 

Number  Start  End  Size  File system  Name  Flags  ----现在是一新硬盘还没有创建分区

 

(parted) mkpart                                    ---创建分区

Partition name?  []? part1                           ---指定分区名称

File system type?  [ext2]? ext2                       ---定义分区类型

Start? 1G                                         ---指定起始位置

End? 10G                                         ----指定终止位置

(parted) mkpart                                    ---创建分区

Partition name?  []? part2                           ---指定分区名称

File system type?  [ext2]? ext2                       ---定义分区类型

Start? 11G                                        ---指定起始位置

End? 100G                                       ---指定终止位置

(parted) mkpart                                                

Partition name?  []? part3                             

File system type?  [ext2]?                        

Start? 101G                                    ----指定分区其实位置

End? -1                                        ----指定到分区最后                          

(parted) p                                     ----显示分区信息

 

Model: VMware, VMware Virtual S (scsi)           

Disk /dev/sdd: 1100GB

Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B

Partition Table: gpt

 

Number  Start   End     Size     File system  Name   Flags      ---查看到下面共有三个分区

 1      17.4kB  10.0GB  10000MB               part1      

 2      10.0GB  100GB   90.0GB                part2      

 3      100GB   1100GB  1000GB                part3      

 

(parted) rm 3                                     ------删除分区3

(parted) p                                        ------再次查看分区状态                       

 

Model: VMware, VMware Virtual S (scsi)

Disk /dev/sdd: 1100GB

Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B

Partition Table: gpt

 

Number  Start   End     Size     File system  Name   Flags      ----显示分区删除成功,只剩下两个分区

 1      17.4kB  10.0GB  10000MB               part1      

 2      10.0GB  100GB   90.0GB                part2      

 

(parted) quit                                                            

Information: Don't forget to update /etc/fstab, if necessary.            

 

[root@jetsen ~]# ls -l /dev/sdd*

brw-r----- 1 root disk 8, 48 May 10 16:48 /dev/sdd

brw-r----- 1 root disk 8, 49 May 10 16:48 /dev/sdd1

brw-r----- 1 root disk 8, 50 May 10 16:48 /dev/sdd2

[root@jetsen ~]#

  2.3 通过parted 工具来删除分区

[root@jetsen ~]# parted /dev/sde

GNU Parted 1.8.1

Using /dev/sde

Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands.

(parted) p                                                                

Model: VMware, VMware Virtual S (scsi)

Disk /dev/sde: 2190GB

Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B

Partition Table: gpt

 

Number  Start   End     Size    File system  Name   Flags

 1      17.4kB  2190GB  2190GB               gpt2t      

 

(parted) rm 1            ----删除分1号分区                                                         

(parted) p              ----显示分区信息,看如下是没有分区的                                                  

Model: VMware, VMware Virtual S (scsi)

Disk /dev/sde: 2190GB

Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B

Partition Table: gpt

 

Number  Start  End  Size  File system  Name  Flags

 

(parted) q                                                               

Information: Don't forget to update /etc/fstab, if necessary.            

[root@jetsen ~]#

  2.4 通过parted 工具来创建文件系统

[root@jetsen ~]# parted /dev/sdd                          -----选择要格式化的磁盘

GNU Parted 1.8.1

Using /dev/sdd

Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands.

(parted) mkfs 2 ext3                                   ----格式化的类型为ext3分区号为2-

Warning: The existing file system will be destroyed and all data on the partition will

be lost. Do you want to continue?

parted: invalid token: 2

Yes/No? yes                                          ----再次确认是否格式化

Partition number? 2                                   -----再次输入磁盘分区号                   

File system?  [ext2]?                                  ----格式化的类型

(parted)                                                               

查看格式化是否成功:

(parted) p                                           -----查看文件系统是否被格式化

Model: VMware, VMware Virtual S (scsi)

Disk /dev/sdd: 1100GB

Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B

Partition Table: gpt

 

Number  Start   End     Size     File system  Name   Flags

 1      17.4kB  10.0GB  10000MB               part1      

 2      10.0GB  100GB   90.0GB   ext2         part2       -------可以看到文件系统类型为ext2,可确定文件系统已经被格式化了。

 

(parted)    

挂载刚才格式化后的文件系统

[root@jetsen ~]# cd /                                         -----退到根目录

[root@jetsen /]# mkdir part2                                   -----创建part目录

[root@jetsen /]# mount /dev/sdd2 /part2                         -----/dev/sdd2 挂载到/part2

[root@jetsen /]# df –h                                         -----查看分区信息

Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on

/dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVol00

                       18G  5.8G   11G  35% /

/dev/sda1              99M   12M   82M  13% /boot

tmpfs                 506M  4.0K  506M   1% /dev/shm

/dev/sdd2              83G   52K   79G   1% /part2        ------可以看到已经被挂载上来              

[root@jetsen /]# cd /part2

[root@jetsen part2]# mkdir 1111                               ------并且可以访问

[root@jetsen part2]# ls

1111  lost+found

[root@jetsen part2]#

删除和恢复分区

[root@jetsen /]# umount /dev/sdd2                     ----卸载分区

[root@jetsen /]# parted /dev/sdd                       ---通过parted选择/dev/sdd磁盘进入操作

GNU Parted 1.8.1

Using /dev/sdd

Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands.

(parted) rm 2                                      ------删除磁盘分区

(parted) rescue                         -------对磁盘分区进行恢复

Start? 10G                                                                

End? 100G                                                                

Information: A ext2 primary partition was found at 10.0GB -> 100GB.  Do you want to add

it to the partition table?

Yes/No/Cancel? Yes                     ----告诉

(parted) print                                                           

 

Model: VMware, VMware Virtual S (scsi)

Disk /dev/sdd: 1100GB

Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B

Partition Table: gpt

 

Number  Start   End     Size     File system  Name   Flags

 1      17.4kB  10.0GB  10000MB               part1      

 2      10.0GB  100GB   90.0GB   ext2                    

 

(parted)

[root@jetsen /]# cd /part2                            ----神奇吧,数据也被恢复回来了

[root@jetsen part2]# ls

1111  lost+found                                                          

 

  2.6 通过parted工具来验证和维护文件系统及分区。

验证文件系统的完整性:

(parted) check 1                                                         

Error: File system was not cleanly unmounted!  You should run e2fsck.  Modifying an

unclean file system could cause severe corruption.

Ignore/Cancel? ignore                                                     

Information: The ext2 file system passed a basic check.  For a more comprehensive check,

use the e2fsck program.

(parted)                                                 

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