首页 > 数据库 > Oracle > ASM管理命令行三工具:KFOD、KFED和AMDU(下)


原创 Oracle 作者:realkid4 时间:2015-06-10 08:36:43 0 删除 编辑




AMDU是笔者个人觉得最像是官方工具的一个,全称为:ASM Metadata Dump UtilityAMDU最大的作用在于可以将ASM Disk GroupDISK所有可用元数据信息导出,并且整理为可读的格式内容。

AMDU最大的一个好处,在于其工作不受到Disk Group是否mount访问的影响。这个工具之所以被正式公布,主要在于Oracle Support在进行远程支持的时候,需要客户提供上载文件。




[grid@NCR-Standby-Asm ~]$ amdu help=y

a/usize         AU size for corrupt disks

-ausize : This option must be set when -baddisks is set. It

    must be a power of 2. This size is required to scan a disk looking

    for metadata, and it is normally read from the disk header. The

    value applies to all disks that do not have a valid header. The

    value from the disk header will be used if a valid header is



ba/ddisks               Include disks with bad headers

-baddisks :  Normally disks with bad disk headers, or that

    look like they were never part of a disk group, will not be

    scanned. This option forces them to be scanned anyway and to be

    considered part of the given diskgroup. This is most useful when

    a disk header has been damaged. The disk will still need to have

    a valid allocation table to drive the scan unless -fullscan is

    used. In any case at least one block in the first two AUs must be

    valid so that the disk number can be determined. The options

    -ausize and -blksize are required since these values are normally

    fetched from the disk header. If the diskgroup uses external

    redundancy then -external should be specified. These values will

    be compared against any valid disks found in the diskgroup and

    they must be the same.


bl/ksize                ASM block size for corrupt disks

-blksize : This option must be set when -baddisks is set. It

    must be a power of 2. This size is required to scan a disk looking

    for metadata, and it is normally read from the disk header. The

    value applies to all disks that do not have a valid header. The

    value from the disk header will be used if a valid header is



c/ompare                Compare file mirrors

-compare: This option only applies to file extraction from a normal or

    high redundancy disk group. Every extent that is mirrored on more

    than one discovered disk will have all sides of its mirror

    compared. If they are not identical a message will be reported

    on standard error and the report file. The message will indicate

    which copy was extracted. A count of the blocks that are not

    identical will be in the report file.


dir/ectory              Directory from previous dump

-directory : This option completely eliminates the discovery

    phase of operation. It specifies the name of a dump directory from

    a previous run of AMDU. The report file and map files are read

    instead of doing a discovery and scan. The parsing of these ASCII

    files is very dependent on them being exactly as written by AMDU.

    AMDU is unlikely to work properly if they have been modified by

    a text editor, or if some of the files are missing or truncated.

    Note that the directory may be a copy FTPed from another

    machine. The other machine may even be a different platform

    with a different endianess.


dis/kstring             Diskstring for discovery

 -diskstring : By default the null string is used for

    discovery. The null string should discover all disks the user has

    access to. Many installations specify an asm_diskstring parameter

    for their ASM instance. If so that parameter value should be given

    here. Multiple discovery strings can be specified by multiple

    occurrences of -diskstring . Beware of shell syntax

    conflicts with discovery strings. Diskstrings are usually the same

    syntax the shell uses for expanding path names on command lines so

    they will most likely need to be enclosed in single quotes.


du/mp           Diskgroups to dump

-dump : This option specifies the name of a diskgroup to

    have its metadata dumped. This option may be specified multiple

    times to dump multiple diskgroups. If the diskgroup name is ALL

    then all diskgroups encountered will be dumped. The diskgroup name

    is not case sensitive, but will be converted to uppercase for all

    reports. If this option is not specified then no map or image

    files will be created, but -extract and -print may still work.


exc/lude                Disks to exclude

-exclude : Multiple exclude options may be specified. These

    strings are used for discovery just like the values for diskstring.

    Only shallow discovery is done on these diskstrings. Any disks

    found in the exclude discovery will not be accessed. If they are

    also discovered using the -diskstring strings, then the report will

    include the information from shallow discovery along with a message

    indicating the disk was excluded.


exte/rnal               Assume external redundancy

-external: Normally AMDU determines the diskgroup redundancy from the

    disk headers. However this is not possible with the -baddisks

    option. It is assumed that the redundancy of the -baddisks

    diskgroup is normal or high unless this option is given to specify

    external redundancy.


extr/act                Files to extract

-extract .: This extracts the numbered file

    from the named diskgroup, case insensitive. This option may be

    specified multiple times to extract multiple files. The extracted

    file is placed in the dump directory under the name

    _.f  where is the diskgroup name

    in uppercase, and is the file number. The -output option

    may be used to write the file to any location. The extracted file

    will appear to have the same contents it would have if accessed

    through the database. If some portion of the file is unavailable

    then that portion of the output file will be filled with

    0xBADFDA7A, and a message will appear on stderr.


fi/ledump               Dump files rather than extract

-filedump: This option causes the file objects in the command line to

    have their blocks dumped to the image files rather than extracted.

    This can be combined with the -novirtual option to selectively

    dump only some of the metadata files. It may also be used to dump

    user files (number >= 256) so that all mirrored copies can be



fo/rmer         Include dropped disks

-former: Normally disks marked as former are not scanned, but this

    option will scan them and include their contents in the output.

    This is useful when it is necessary to look at the contents of a

    disk that was dropped. Note that dropped normal disks will not have

    any entries in their allocation tables and thus only the physically

    addressed extents will be dumped. Force dropped disks will not have

    status former in their disk headers and are not affected by this

    option. However if DROP DISKGROUP is used, the disks will have the

    contents as of the time of the drop, and will be in status former.

    Thus this option is useful for extracting files from a dropped



fu/llscan               Scan entire disk

-fullscan: This option reads every AU on the disk and looks at the

    contents of the AU rather than limiting the AU's read based on the

    allocation table. This is useful when the allocation table is

    corrupt or needs recovery. An AU will be written to the image file

    if it starts with a block that contains a valid ASM block header.

    The file and extent information for the map will be extracted from

    the block header. Physically addressed metadata will be dumped

    regardless of its contents. This option is incompatible with

    extracting a file. It is an error to specify -extract with this

    option. Note that this option is likely to find old garbage

    metadata in unallocated AU's since there is no means of

    determining what is allocated. Thus there may be many different

    copies of the same block, possibly of different versions.


h/ex            Always print block contents in hex

-hex: This prints the block contents in hex without attempting to print

    them as ASM metadata. This is useful when the block is known to not

    be ASM metadata. It avoids the ASM block header dump and ensures

    the block is not accidentally interpreted as ASM metadata. This

    option requires at least one -print option.


noa/cd          Do not dump ACD

-noacd: This option limits the dumping of the Active Change Directory

    to just the control blocks that contain the checkpoint. There is

    126 MB of ACD per ASM instance (42 MB for external redundancy). It

    is normally of no interest if there has been a clean shutdown or

    no updates for a while. This option avoids dumping a lot of

    unimportant data. The blocks will still be read and checked for

    corruption. The map file will still contain entries for the ACD

    extents, but the block counts will be zero.


nod/ir          Do not create a dump directory

-nodir: No dump directory is created, and no files are created in it.

    The directory name is not written to standard out. The report file

    is written to standard out before any block printouts from any

    -print options.  This option conflicts with -filedump. It is an

    error to specify this and extract a file to the dump directory.


noe/xtract              Do not create extracted file

-noextract: This prevents files from being extracted to an output

    file, but the file will be read and any errors in selecting the

    correct output will be reported. This is most useful in

    combination with the -compare option.


noh/eart                Do not check for heartbeat

-noheart: Normally the heartbeat block will be saved at discovery time

    and checked when the disk is scanned. A sleep is added between

    discovery and scanning to ensure there is time for the heartbeat

    to be written. If the heartbeat block changes then it is most

    likely that the diskgroup containing this disk is mounted by an

    active ASM instance. An error and warning is generated but

    operation proceeds normally. This option suppresses this check

    and avoids the sleep.


noi/mage                Do not create image files

-noimage: No image files will be created n the dump directory. All

    the reads specified by the read options will still be done. The

    map files may be used to find blocks on the disks themselves. In

    the map file, the count of blocks dumped, the image file sequence

    number, and the byte offset in the image file will all always be

    zero (C00000 S0000 B0000000000)


nom/ap          Do not create map or image files

-nomap: No map file is created and no image file is created. The only

    output is the report file. The -noimage option is assumed if this

    is set since an image file without a map is useless. The options

    -noscan and -noread also result in no map or image files, but

    -nomap still reads the metadata to check for I/O errors and corrupt



nop/rint                Do no print block contents

-noprint: This suppresses the printout of the block contents for

    blocks printed with the -print option. It is useful for getting

    just the block reports without a lot of data. This option requires

    at least one -print option.


norea/d         Shallow discovery only

-noread: This eliminates any reading of any disks at all. Only shallow

    discovery will be done. The report will end after the discovery

    section. It is an error to specify this option and specify a file

    to extract or blocks to print. It is an error to specify this

    and -fullscan.


norep/ort               Do not generate a report

-noreport: This suppresses the generation of the report file. It is

    most useful in combination with -nodir and -print to get block

    printouts without a lot of clutter. It is unnecessary to include

    this with -directory since no report is generated then anyway.


nosc/an         Deep discovery only

-noscan: This eliminates any reading of any disks after deep

    discovery. This results in just doing a deep discovery using the

    disksting parameter. The report will end after the discovery

    section. It is an error to specify this option and specify a file

    to extract. It is an error to specify this and -fullscan.


nosu/bdir               Do not create a dump directory

-nosubdir: No dump directory is created, but files are still created.

    The directory name is not written to standard out. The report file

    and any other dump or extract  files are written to the current

    directory or to the directory indicated by -parentdir. This means

    that if multiple AMDU dumps are requested using this option, the

    report file will always correspond to the last dump requested.


nov/irtual              Do not dump virtual metadata

-novirtual: This option eliminates reading of any virtual metadata.

    Only the physically addressed metadata will be read. This

    implicitly eliminates the ACD and extent maps so -noacd and

    -noxmap will be assumed.


nox/map         Do not dump extent maps

-noxmap: This option eliminates reading of the indirect extents

    containing the file extent maps. This is the bulk of the metadata

    in most diskgroups. Even the entries in the map file will be



o/utput         Files to create for extract

-output : This option specifies a different file for

    writing an extracted file. The file will be overwritten if it

    already exists. This option requires that exactly one file is

    extracted via the -extract option.


pa/rent         Parent for dump directory

-parent : By default the dump directory is created in the

    current directory, but another directory can be specified using

    this option. The parent directory for the dump directory must

    already exist.


pr/int          Block to print

-print : This option prints one or more blocks to standard

    out. This option may be specified multiple times to print multiple

    s. The printout contains information about how each

    block was read as well as a formatted printout. Multiple blocks

    matching the same may be found when scanning the

    disks. For example there may be multiple disks that have headers

    for the same diskgroup and disk number. If the block is from a

    mirrored file then multiple copies should exist on different disks.

    If multiple copies of the same block have identical contents then

    only one formatted printout of the contents will be generated, but

    a header will be printed for each copy. A may include

    a count of sequential blocks to print. A may specify

    a block either by disk or file.

   ::= | .C

   ::= | |

        | |












r/egistry               Dump registry files

-registry: The ASM registries will be read and dumped to the image

    file. There will be no block consistency checks since these files

    do not have ASM cache headers. To dump one specific registry

    specify -filedump and include the file object for the registry

    (e.g. DATA.255).


s/pfile         Extract usable spfile

-spfile: This causes extract to render the resulting file in a form  

    that is directly usable by startup. Without this option, AMDU  

    will extract the file as a regular ASM file including all ASM  

specific headers and such






[grid@NCR-Standby-Asm ~]$ amdu


[grid@NCR-Standby-Asm ~]$ ls -l | grep amdu

drwxr-xr-x 2 grid oinstall 4096 Jun  5 10:15 amdu_2015_06_05_10_15_47





[grid@NCR-Standby-Asm ~]$ cd amdu_2015_06_05_10_15_47/

[grid@NCR-Standby-Asm amdu_2015_06_05_10_15_47]$ ls -l

total 8

-rw-r--r-- 1 grid oinstall 5350 Jun  5 10:15 report.txt

[grid@NCR-Standby-Asm amdu_2015_06_05_10_15_47]$ more report.txt



******************************* AMDU Settings ********************************

ORACLE_HOME = /u01/app/grid/product/11.2.0/grid

System name:    Linux

Node name:      NCR-Standby-Asm

Release:        2.6.32-431.el6.x86_64

Version:        #1 SMP Sun Nov 10 22:19:54 EST 2013

Machine:        x86_64

amdu run:       05-JUN-15 10:15:47

Endianess:      1


--------------------------------- Operations ---------------------------------


------------------------------- Disk Selection -------------------------------

 -diskstring ''

------------------------------ Reading Control -------------------------------


------------------------------- Output Control -------------------------------


********************************* DISCOVERY **********************************


----------------------------- DISK REPORT N0001 ------------------------------

                Disk Path: ORCL:DATA1

           Unique Disk ID:

               Disk Label: DATA1

     Physical Sector Size: 512 bytes

                Disk Size: 20489 megabytes

               Group Name: DATA

                Disk Name: DATA1

       Failure Group Name: DATA1

              Disk Number: 0

            Header Status: 3

       Disk Creation Time: 2015/05/05 09:27:12.410000

          Last Mount Time: 2015/06/01 08:45:51.489000

    Compatibility Version: 0x0b200000(11020000)

         Disk Sector Size: 512 bytes

         Disk size in AUs: 20489 AUs

         Group Redundancy: 1

      Metadata Block Size: 4096 bytes

                  AU Size: 1048576 bytes

                   Stride: 113792 AUs

      Group Creation Time: 2015/05/05 09:27:12.333000

  File 1 Block 1 location: AU 2

              OCR Present: NO





通过加入参数,可以实现转储特定Disk Group的内部信息。



[grid@NCR-Standby-Asm ~]$ cd /dev/oracleasm/disks/

[grid@NCR-Standby-Asm disks]$ ls -l

total 0

brw-rw---- 1 grid asmadmin 8, 17 May 22 16:57 DATA1

brw-rw---- 1 grid asmadmin 8, 18 May 22 16:57 DATA2

brw-rw---- 1 grid asmadmin 8, 19 May 22 16:57 DATA3

brw-rw---- 1 grid asmadmin 8, 21 May 22 16:57 DATA5

brw-rw---- 1 grid asmadmin 8, 22 May 22 16:57 DATA6



[grid@NCR-Standby-Asm oracleasm]$ cd ~

[grid@NCR-Standby-Asm ~]$ amdu -diskstring '/dev/oracleasm/disks/DATA*' -dump 'DATA'



[grid@NCR-Standby-Asm ~]$ cd amdu_2015_06_05_10_22_11/

[grid@NCR-Standby-Asm amdu_2015_06_05_10_22_11]$ ls -l

total 60448

-rw-r--r-- 1 grid oinstall 61882368 Jun  5 10:22 DATA_0001.img

-rw-r--r-- 1 grid oinstall     5360 Jun  5 10:22

-rw-r--r-- 1 grid oinstall     7325 Jun  5 10:22 report.txt



新增加文件,为Disk Group DATA的映射信息。



[grid@NCR-Standby-Asm amdu_2015_06_05_10_22_11]$ more

N0001 D0000 R00 A00000000 F00000000 I0 E00000000 U00 C00256 S0001 B0000000000 

N0001 D0000 R00 A00000001 F00000000 I0 E00000000 U00 C00256 S0001 B0001048576 

N0001 D0000 R00 A00000002 F00000001 I0 E00000000 U00 C00256 S0001 B0002097152 

N0001 D0000 R00 A00000003 F00000003 I0 E00000000 U00 C00256 S0001 B0003145728 

N0001 D0000 R00 A00000004 F00000003 I0 E00000003 U00 C00256 S0001 B0004194304 

N0001 D0000 R00 A00000005 F00000003 I0 E00000006 U00 C00256 S0001 B0005242880 



使用-extract命令,可以直接从ASM Disk Group中抽取文件。



SQL> show parameter control 


NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE

------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------

control_file_record_keep_time        integer     7

control_files                        string      +DATA/sicsstb/controlfile/current.260.878897845, +RECO/sicsstb/controlfile/current.256.878897845

control_management_pack_access       string      DIAGNOSTIC+TUNING






[grid@NCR-Standby-Asm ~]$ amdu -extract DATA.260


AMDU-00204: Disk N0001 is in currently mounted diskgroup DATA

AMDU-00201: Disk N0001: 'ORCL:DATA1'






[grid@NCR-Standby-Asm ~]$ srvctl stop database -d sicsstb

[grid@NCR-Standby-Asm ~]$ srvctl stop asm -f

[grid@NCR-Standby-Asm ~]$ amdu -extract DATA.260


[grid@NCR-Standby-Asm ~]$



抽取成功,进入目录。以ASCII格式打开control file



[grid@NCR-Standby-Asm ~]$ cd amdu_2015_06_05_10_29_25/

[grid@NCR-Standby-Asm amdu_2015_06_05_10_29_25]$ ls -l

total 9528

-rw-r--r-- 1 grid oinstall 9748480 Jun  5 10:29 DATA_260.f

-rw-r--r-- 1 grid oinstall    7971 Jun  5 10:29 report.txt


[grid@NCR-Standby-Asm amdu_2015_06_05_10_29_25]$ strings DATA_260.f | grep +DATA




















[grid@NCR-Standby-Asm amdu_2015_06_05_10_29_25]$ strings DATA_260.f | grep +RECO














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