RAID 0+1: We stripe together drives 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 into RAID 0 stripe set "A", and drives 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 into RAID 0 stripe set "B". We then mirror A and B using RAID 1. If one drive fails, say drive #2, then the entire stripe set "A" is lost, because RAID 0 has no redundancy; the RAID 0+1 array continues to chug along because the entire stripe set "B" is still functioning. However, at this point you are reduced to running what is in essence a straight RAID 0 array until drive #2 can be fixed. If in the meantime drive #9 goes down, you lose the entire array.
RAID 1+0: We mirror drives 1 and 2 to form RAID 1 mirror set "A"; 3 and 4 become "B"; 5 and 6 become "C"; 7 and 8 become "D"; and 9 and 10 become "E". We then do a RAID 0 stripe across sets A through E. If drive #2 fails now, only mirror set "A" is affected; it still has drive #1 so it is fine, and the RAID 1+0 array continues functioning. If while drive #2 is being replaced drive #9 fails, the array is fine, because drive #9 is in a different mirror pair from #2. Only two failures in the same mirror set will cause the array to fail, so in theory, five drives can fail--as long as they are all in different sets--and the array would still be fine.
Clearly, RAID 1+0 is more robust than RAID 0+1. Now, if the controller running RAID 0+1 were smart, when drive #2 failed it would continue striping to the other four drives in stripe set "A", and if drive #9 later failed it would "realize" that it could use drive #4 in its stead, since it should have the same data. This functionality would theoretically make RAID 0+1 just as fault-tolerant as RAID 1+0. Unfortunately, most controllers aren't that smart. It pays to ask specific questions about how a multiple RAID array implementation handles multiple drive failures, but in general, a controller won't swap drives between component sub-arrays unless the manufacturer of the controller specifically says it will.
The same impact on fault tolerance applies to rebuilding. Consider again the example above. In RAID 0+1, if drive #2 fails, the data on five hard disks will need to be rebuilt, because the whole stripe set "A" will be wiped out. In RAID 1+0, only drive #2 has to be rebuilt. Again here, the advantage is to RAID 1+0.
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