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sqlldr用法

原创 Oracle 作者:outdo 时间:2007-01-17 09:25:13 0 删除 编辑
sqlldr的各种用法,以及如何将文件导入到LOB字段中。[@more@]

sqlldr userid=lgone/tiger control=a.ctl
  LOAD DATA
  INFILE 't.dat' // 要导入的文件
  // INFILE 'tt.date' // 导入多个文件
  // INFILE * // 要导入的内容就在control文件里 下面的BEGINDATA后面就是导入的内容
  
  INTO TABLE table_name // 指定装入的表
  BADFILE 'c:bad.txt' // 指定坏文件地址
  
  ************* 以下是4种装入表的方式
  APPEND // 原先的表有数据 就加在后面
  // INSERT // 装载空表 如果原先的表有数据 sqlloader会停止 默认值
  // REPLACE // 原先的表有数据 原先的数据会全部删除
  // TRUNCATE // 指定的内容和replace的相同 会用truncate语句删除现存数据
  
  ************* 指定的TERMINATED可以在表的开头 也可在表的内部字段部分
  FIELDS TERMINATED BY ',' OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY '"'
  // 装载这种数据: 10,lg,"""lg""","lg,lg"
  // 在表中结果: 10 lg "lg" lg,lg
  // TERMINATED BY X '09' // 以十六进制格式 '09' 表示的
  // TERMINATED BY WRITESPACE // 装载这种数据: 10 lg lg
  
  TRAILING NULLCOLS ************* 表的字段没有对应的值时允许为空
  
  ************* 下面是表的字段
  (
  col_1 , col_2 ,col_filler FILLER // FILLER 关键字 此列的数值不会被装载
  // 如: lg,lg,not 结果 lg lg
  )
  // 当没声明FIELDS TERMINATED BY ',' 时
  // (
  // col_1 [interger external] TERMINATED BY ',' ,
  // col_2 [date "dd-mon-yyy"] TERMINATED BY ',' ,
  // col_3 [char] TERMINATED BY ',' OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY 'lg'
  // )
  // 当没声明FIELDS TERMINATED BY ','用位置告诉字段装载数据
  // (
  // col_1 position(1:2),
  // col_2 position(3:10),
  // col_3 position(*:16), // 这个字段的开始位置在前一字段的结束位置
  // col_4 position(1:16),
  // col_5 position(3:10) char(8) // 指定字段的类型
  // )
  
  BEGINDATA // 对应开始的 INFILE * 要导入的内容就在control文件里
  10,Sql,what
  20,lg,show
  
  =====================================================================================
  //////////// 注意begindata后的数值前面不能有空格
  
  1 ***** 普通装载
  LOAD DATA
  INFILE *
  INTO TABLE DEPT
  REPLACE
  FIELDS TERMINATED BY ',' OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY '"'
  (DEPTNO,
  DNAME,
  LOC
  )
  BEGINDATA
  10,Sales,"""USA"""
  20,Accounting,"Virginia,USA"
  30,Consulting,Virginia
  40,Finance,Virginia
  50,"Finance","",Virginia // loc 列将为空
  60,"Finance",,Virginia // loc 列将为空
  
  2 ***** FIELDS TERMINATED BY WHITESPACE 和 FIELDS TERMINATED BY x'09' 的情况
  LOAD DATA
  INFILE *
  INTO TABLE DEPT
  REPLACE
  FIELDS TERMINATED BY WHITESPACE
  -- FIELDS TERMINATED BY x'09'
  (DEPTNO,
  DNAME,
  LOC
  )
  BEGINDATA
  10 Sales Virginia
  
  3 ***** 指定不装载那一列
  LOAD DATA
  INFILE *
  INTO TABLE DEPT
  REPLACE
  FIELDS TERMINATED BY ',' OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY '"'
  ( DEPTNO,
  FILLER_1 FILLER, // 下面的 "Something Not To Be Loaded" 将不会被装载
  DNAME,
  LOC
  )
  BEGINDATA
  20,Something Not To Be Loaded,Accounting,"Virginia,USA"
  
  4 ***** position的列子
  LOAD DATA
  INFILE *
  INTO TABLE DEPT
  REPLACE
  ( DEPTNO position(1:2),
  DNAME position(*:16), // 这个字段的开始位置在前一字段的结束位置
  LOC position(*:29),
  ENTIRE_LINE position(1:29)
  )
  BEGINDATA
  10Accounting Virginia,USA
  
  5 ***** 使用函数 日期的一种表达 TRAILING NULLCOLS的使用
  LOAD DATA
  INFILE *
  INTO TABLE DEPT
  REPLACE
  FIELDS TERMINATED BY ','
  TRAILING NULLCOLS // 其实下面的ENTIRE_LINE在BEGINDATA后面的数据中是没有直接对应
  // 的列的值的 如果第一行改为 10,Sales,Virginia,1/5/2000,, 就不用TRAILING NULLCOLS了
  (DEPTNO,
  DNAME "upper(:dname)", // 使用函数
  LOC "upper(:loc)",
  LAST_UPDATED date 'dd/mm/yyyy', // 日期的一种表达方式 还有'dd-mon-yyyy' 等
  ENTIRE_LINE ":deptno||:dname||:loc||:last_updated"
  )
  BEGINDATA
  10,Sales,Virginia,1/5/2000
  20,Accounting,Virginia,21/6/1999
  30,Consulting,Virginia,5/1/2000
  40,Finance,Virginia,15/3/2001
  
  6 ***** 使用自定义的函数 // 解决的时间问题
  create or replace
  function my_to_date( p_string in varchar2 ) return date
  as
  type fmtArray is table of varchar2(25);
  
  l_fmts fmtArray := fmtArray( 'dd-mon-yyyy', 'dd-month-yyyy',
  'dd/mm/yyyy',
  'dd/mm/yyyy hh24:mi:ss' );
  l_return date;
  begin
  for i in 1 .. l_fmts.count
  loop
  begin
  l_return := to_date( p_string, l_fmts(i) );
  exception
  when others then null;
  end;
  EXIT when l_return is not null;
  end loop;
  
  if ( l_return is null )
  then
  l_return :=
  new_time( to_date('01011970','ddmmyyyy') + 1/24/60/60 *
  p_string, 'GMT', 'EST' );
  end if;
  
  return l_return;
  end;
  /
  
  LOAD DATA
  INFILE *
  INTO TABLE DEPT
  REPLACE
  FIELDS TERMINATED BY ','
  TRAILING NULLCOLS
  (DEPTNO,
  DNAME "upper(:dname)",
  LOC "upper(:loc)",
  LAST_UPDATED "my_to_date( :last_updated )" // 使用自定义的函数
  )
  BEGINDATA
  10,Sales,Virginia,01-april-2001
  20,Accounting,Virginia,13/04/2001
  30,Consulting,Virginia,14/04/2001 12:02:02
  40,Finance,Virginia,987268297
  50,Finance,Virginia,02-apr-2001
  60,Finance,Virginia,Not a date
  
  7 ***** 合并多行记录为一行记录
  LOAD DATA
  INFILE *
  concatenate 3 // 通过关键字concatenate 把几行的记录看成一行记录
  INTO TABLE DEPT
  replace
  FIELDS TERMINATED BY ','
  (DEPTNO,
  DNAME "upper(:dname)",
  LOC "upper(:loc)",
  LAST_UPDATED date 'dd/mm/yyyy'
  )
  BEGINDATA
  10,Sales, // 其实这3行看成一行 10,Sales,Virginia,1/5/2000
  Virginia,
  1/5/2000
  // 这列子用 continueif list="," 也可以
  告诉sqlldr在每行的末尾找逗号 找到逗号就把下一行附加到上一行
  
  LOAD DATA
  INFILE *
  continueif this(1:1) = '-' // 找每行的开始是否有连接字符 - 有就把下一行连接为一行
  // 如 -10,Sales,Virginia,
  // 1/5/2000 就是一行 10,Sales,Virginia,1/5/2000
  // 其中1:1 表示从第一行开始 并在第一行结束 还有continueif next 但continueif list最理想
  INTO TABLE DEPT
  replace
  FIELDS TERMINATED BY ','
  (DEPTNO,
  DNAME "upper(:dname)",
  LOC "upper(:loc)",
  LAST_UPDATED date 'dd/mm/yyyy'
  )
  BEGINDATA // 但是好象不能象右面的那样使用
  -10,Sales,Virginia, -10,Sales,Virginia,
  1/5/2000 1/5/2000
  -40, 40,Finance,Virginia,13/04/2001
  Finance,Virginia,13/04/2001
  
  8 ***** 载入每行的行号
  
  load data
  infile *
  into table t
  replace
  ( seqno RECNUM //载入每行的行号
  text Position(1:1024))
  BEGINDATA
  fsdfasj //自动分配一行号给载入 表t 的seqno字段 此行为 1
  fasdjfasdfl // 此行为 2 ...
  
  9 ***** 载入有换行符的数据
  注意: unix 和 windows 不同 n & /n
  < 1 > 使用一个非换行符的字符
  LOAD DATA
  INFILE *
  INTO TABLE DEPT
  REPLACE
  FIELDS TERMINATED BY ','
  TRAILING NULLCOLS
  (DEPTNO,
  DNAME "upper(:dname)",
  LOC "upper(:loc)",
  LAST_UPDATED "my_to_date( :last_updated )",
  COMMENTS "replace(:comments,'n',chr(10))" // replace 的使用帮助转换换行符
  )
  BEGINDATA
  10,Sales,Virginia,01-april-2001,This is the SalesnOffice in Virginia
  20,Accounting,Virginia,13/04/2001,This is the AccountingnOffice in Virginia
  30,Consulting,Virginia,14/04/2001 12:02:02,This is the ConsultingnOffice in Virginia
  40,Finance,Virginia,987268297,This is the FinancenOffice in Virginia
  
  < 2 > 使用fix属性
  LOAD DATA
  INFILE demo17.dat "fix 101"
  INTO TABLE DEPT
  REPLACE
  FIELDS TERMINATED BY ','
  TRAILING NULLCOLS
  (DEPTNO,
  DNAME "upper(:dname)",
  LOC "upper(:loc)",
  LAST_UPDATED "my_to_date( :last_updated )",
  COMMENTS
  )
  demo17.dat
  10,Sales,Virginia,01-april-2001,This is the Sales
  Office in Virginia
  20,Accounting,Virginia,13/04/2001,This is the Accounting
  Office in Virginia
  30,Consulting,Virginia,14/04/2001 12:02:02,This is the Consulting
  Office in Virginia
  40,Finance,Virginia,987268297,This is the Finance
  Office in Virginia
  
  // 这样装载会把换行符装入数据库 下面的方法就不会 但要求数据的格式不同
  
  LOAD DATA
  INFILE demo18.dat "fix 101"
  INTO TABLE DEPT
  REPLACE
  FIELDS TERMINATED BY ',' OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY '"'
  TRAILING NULLCOLS
  (DEPTNO,
  DNAME "upper(:dname)",
  LOC "upper(:loc)",
  LAST_UPDATED "my_to_date( :last_updated )",
  COMMENTS
  )
  demo18.dat
  10,Sales,Virginia,01-april-2001,"This is the Sales
  Office in Virginia"
  20,Accounting,Virginia,13/04/2001,"This is the Accounting
  Office in Virginia"
  30,Consulting,Virginia,14/04/2001 12:02:02,"This is the Consulting
  Office in Virginia"
  40,Finance,Virginia,987268297,"This is the Finance
  Office in Virginia"
  
  < 3 > 使用var属性
  LOAD DATA
  INFILE demo19.dat "var 3"
  // 3 告诉每个记录的前3个字节表示记录的长度 如第一个记录的 071 表示此记录有 71 个字节
  INTO TABLE DEPT
  REPLACE
  FIELDS TERMINATED BY ','
  TRAILING NULLCOLS
  (DEPTNO,
  DNAME "upper(:dname)",
  LOC "upper(:loc)",
  LAST_UPDATED "my_to_date( :last_updated )",
  COMMENTS
  )
  demo19.dat
  07110,Sales,Virginia,01-april-2001,This is the Sales
  Office in Virginia
  07820,Accounting,Virginia,13/04/2001,This is the Accounting
  Office in Virginia
  08730,Consulting,Virginia,14/04/2001 12:02:02,This is the Consulting
  Office in Virginia
  07140,Finance,Virginia,987268297,This is the Finance
  Office in Virginia
  
  < 4 > 使用str属性
  // 最灵活的一中 可定义一个新的行结尾符 win 回车换行 : chr(13)||chr(10)
  
  此列中记录是以 a|rn 结束的
  select utl_raw.cast_to_raw('|'||chr(13)||chr(10)) from dual;
  结果 7C0D0A
  
  LOAD DATA
  INFILE demo20.dat "str X'7C0D0A'"
  INTO TABLE DEPT
  REPLACE
  FIELDS TERMINATED BY ','
  TRAILING NULLCOLS
  (DEPTNO,
  DNAME "upper(:dname)",
  LOC "upper(:loc)",
  LAST_UPDATED "my_to_date( :last_updated )",
  COMMENTS
  )
  demo20.dat
  10,Sales,Virginia,01-april-2001,This is the Sales
  Office in Virginia|
  20,Accounting,Virginia,13/04/2001,This is the Accounting
  Office in Virginia|
  30,Consulting,Virginia,14/04/2001 12:02:02,This is the Consulting
  Office in Virginia|
  40,Finance,Virginia,987268297,This is the Finance
  Office in Virginia|
  
  ==============================================================================
  象这样的数据 用 nullif 子句
  
  10-jan-200002350Flipper seemed unusually hungry today.
  10510-jan-200009945Spread over three meals.
  
  id position(1:3) nullif id=blanks // 这里可以是blanks 或者别的表达式
  // 下面是另一个列子 第一行的 1 在数据库中将成为 null
  LOAD DATA
  INFILE *
  INTO TABLE T
  REPLACE
  (n position(1:2) integer external nullif n='1',
  v position(3
  )
  BEGINDATA
  1 10
  20lg

我们都知道处理LOB数据是很烦人的,在数据库设计完成后,我们常常需要装载测试数据,同样对于LOB很烦人,我们可以用sql*loader来实现, 控制文件如下 :

Load DATA
INFILE *
INTO TABLE big_table
REPLACE
FIELDS TERMINATED BY X'09' OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY '"'
TRAILING NULLCOLS
(
xx__id INTEGER EXTERNAL,
xx_NAME char,
video_file filler char,
video LOBFILE (video_file) TERMINATED BY EOF NULLIF value_file = 'NULL'
)

BEGINDATA
1 matrix3 martrix3.mpg
2 "Lord of ring" ring3.avi
3 "Top 10 of week" top10_3.ra

说明:
filler是loader的保留字,表示video_file是变量而不是字段名,filler char表示是字符串变量,为后面的lobfile使用
lobfile是loader的函数,表示该字段的值从lobfile取得
TERMINATED BY EOF 表示每行的每个lob字段都来自一个独立的文件


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