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【转】oracle里的常用命令

原创 Linux操作系统 作者:spectre2 时间:2011-04-03 23:16:17 0 删除 编辑

oracle里的常用命令

 

第一章:日志管理

 

1.forcing log switches

sql> alter system switch logfile;

 

2.forcing checkpoints

sql> alter system checkpoint;

 

3.adding online redo log groups

sql> alter database add logfile [group 4]

sql> ('/disk3/log4a.rdo','/disk4/log4b.rdo') size 1m;

 

4.adding online redo log members

sql> alter database add logfile member

sql> '/disk3/log1b.rdo' to group 1,

sql> '/disk4/log2b.rdo' to group 2;

 

5.changes the name of the online redo logfile

sql> alter database rename file 'c:/oracle/oradata/oradb/redo01.log'

sql> to 'c:/oracle/oradata/redo01.log';

 

6.drop online redo log groups

sql> alter database drop logfile group 3;

 

7.drop online redo log members

sql> alter database drop logfile member 'c:/oracle/oradata/redo01.log';

 

8.clearing online redo log files

sql> alter database clear [unarchived] logfile 'c:/oracle/log2a.rdo';

 

9.using logminer analyzing redo logfiles

 

a. in the init.ora specify utl_file_dir = ' '

b. sql> execute dbms_logmnr_d.build('oradb.ora','c:\oracle\oradb\log');

c. sql> execute dbms_logmnr_add_logfile('c:\oracle\oradata\oradb\redo01.log',

sql> dbms_logmnr.new);

d. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.add_logfile('c:\oracle\oradata\oradb\redo02.log',

sql> dbms_logmnr.addfile);

e. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.start_logmnr(dictfilename=>'c:\oracle\oradb\log\oradb.ora');

f. sql> select * from v$logmnr_contents(v$logmnr_dictionary,v$logmnr_parameters

sql> v$logmnr_logs);

g. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.end_logmnr;

 

第二章:表空间管理

1.create tablespaces

sql> create tablespace tablespace_name datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\file1.dbf' size 100m,

sql> 'c:\oracle\oradata\file2.dbf' size 100m minimum extent 550k [logging/nologging]

sql> default storage (initial 500k next 500k maxextents 500 pctinccease 0)

sql> [online/offline] [permanent/temporary] [extent_management_clause]

 

2.locally managed tablespace

sql> create tablespace user_data datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\user_data01.dbf'

sql> size 500m extent management local uniform. size 10m;

 

3.temporary tablespace

sql> create temporary tablespace temp tempfile 'c:\oracle\oradata\temp01.dbf'

sql> size 500m extent management local uniform. size 10m;

 

4.change the storage setting

sql> alter tablespace app_data minimum extent 2m;

sql> alter tablespace app_data default storage(initial 2m next 2m maxextents 999);

 

5.taking tablespace offline or online

sql> alter tablespace app_data offline;

sql> alter tablespace app_data online;

 

6.read_only tablespace

sql> alter tablespace app_data read only|write;

 

7.droping tablespace

sql> drop tablespace app_data including contents;

 

8.enableing automatic extension of data files

sql> alter tablespace app_data add datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data01.dbf' size 200m

sql> autoextend on next 10m maxsize 500m;

 

9.change the size fo data files manually

sql> alter database datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data.dbf' resize 200m;

 

10.Moving data files: alter tablespace

sql> alter tablespace app_data rename datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data.dbf'

sql> to 'c:\oracle\app_data.dbf';

 

11.moving data files:alter database

sql> alter database rename file 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data.dbf'

sql> to 'c:\oracle\app_data.dbf';

 

第三章:表

 

1.create a table

sql> create table table_name (column datatype,column datatype]....)

sql> tablespace tablespace_name [pctfree integer] [pctused integer]

sql> [initrans integer] [maxtrans integer]

sql> storage(initial 200k next 200k pctincrease 0 maxextents 50)

sql> [logging|nologging] [cache|nocache]

 

2.copy an existing table

sql> create table table_name [logging|nologging] as subquery

 

3.create temporary table

sql> create global temporary table xay_temp as select * from xay;

on commit preserve rows/on commit delete rows

 

4.pctfree = (average row size - initial row size) *100 /average row size

pctused = 100-pctfree- (average row size*100/available data space)

 

5.change storage and block utilization parameter

sql> alter table table_name pctfree=30 pctused=50 storage(next 500k

sql> minextents 2 maxextents 100);

 

6.manually allocating extents

sql> alter table table_name allocate extent(size 500k datafile 'c:/oracle/data.dbf');

 

7.move tablespace

sql> alter table employee move tablespace users;

 

8.deallocate of unused space

sql> alter table table_name deallocate unused [keep integer]

 

9.truncate a table

sql> truncate table table_name;

 

10.drop a table

sql> drop table table_name [cascade constraints];

 

11.drop a column

sql> alter table table_name drop column comments cascade constraints checkpoint 1000;

alter table table_name drop columns continue;

 

12.mark a column as unused

sql> alter table table_name set unused column comments cascade constraints;

alter table table_name drop unused columns checkpoint 1000;

alter table orders drop columns continue checkpoint 1000

data_dictionary : dba_unused_col_tabs

 

第四章:索引

 

1.creating function-based indexes

sql> create index summit.item_quantity on summit.item(quantity-quantity_shipped);

 

2.create a B-tree index

sql> create [unique] index index_name on table_name(column,.. asc/desc) tablespace

sql> tablespace_name [pctfree integer] [initrans integer] [maxtrans integer]

sql> [logging | nologging] [nosort] storage(initial 200k next 200k pctincrease 0

sql> maxextents 50);

 

3.pctfree(index)=(maximum number of rows-initial number of rows)*100/maximum number of rows

 

4.creating reverse key indexes

sql> create unique index xay_id on xay(a) reverse pctfree 30 storage(initial 200k

sql> next 200k pctincrease 0 maxextents 50) tablespace indx;

 

5.create bitmap index

sql> create bitmap index xay_id on xay(a) pctfree 30 storage( initial 200k next 200k

sql> pctincrease 0 maxextents 50) tablespace indx;

 

6.change storage parameter of index

sql> alter index xay_id storage (next 400k maxextents 100);

 

7.allocating index space

sql> alter index xay_id allocate extent(size 200k datafile 'c:/oracle/index.dbf');

 

8.alter index xay_id deallocate unused;

 

第五章:约束

 

1.define constraints as immediate or deferred

sql> alter session set constraint[s] = immediate/deferred/default;

set constraint[s] constraint_name/all immediate/deferred;

 

2. sql> drop table table_name cascade constraints

sql> drop tablespace tablespace_name including contents cascade constraints

 

3. define constraints while create a table

sql> create table xay(id number(7) constraint xay_id primary key deferrable

sql> using index storage(initial 100k next 100k) tablespace indx);

primary key/unique/references table(column)/check

 

4.enable constraints

sql> alter table xay enable novalidate constraint xay_id;

 

5.enable constraints

sql> alter table xay enable validate constraint xay_id;

 

第六章:LOAD数据

 

1.loading data using direct_load insert

sql> insert /*+append */ into emp nologging

sql> select * from emp_old;

 

2.parallel direct-load insert

sql> alter session enable parallel dml;

sql> insert /*+parallel(emp,2) */ into emp nologging

sql> select * from emp_old;

 

3.using sql*loader

sql> sqlldr scott/tiger \

sql> control = ulcase6.ctl \

sql> log = ulcase6.log direct=true

 

第七章:reorganizing data

 

1.using expoty

$exp scott/tiger tables(dept,emp) file=c:\emp.dmp log=exp.log compress=n direct=y

 

2.using import

$imp scott/tiger tables(dept,emp) file=emp.dmp log=imp.log ignore=y

 

3.transporting a tablespace

sql>alter tablespace sales_ts read only;

$exp sys/.. file=xay.dmp transport_tablespace=y tablespace=sales_ts

triggers=n constraints=n

$copy datafile

$imp sys/.. file=xay.dmp transport_tablespace=y datafiles=(/disk1/sles01.dbf,/disk2

/sles02.dbf)

sql> alter tablespace sales_ts read write;

 

4.checking transport set

sql> DBMS_tts.transport_set_check(ts_list =>'sales_ts' ..,incl_constraints=>true);

在表transport_set_violations 中查看

sql> dbms_tts.isselfcontained 为true 是, 表示自包含

 

第八章: managing password security and resources

 

1.controlling account lock and password

sql> alter user juncky identified by oracle account unlock;

 

2.user_provided password function

sql> function_name(userid in varchar2(30),password in varchar2(30),

old_password in varchar2(30)) return boolean

 

3.create a profile : password setting

sql> create profile grace_5 limit failed_login_attempts 3

sql> password_lock_time unlimited password_life_time 30

sql>password_reuse_time 30 password_verify_function verify_function

sql> password_grace_time 5;

 

4.altering a profile

sql> alter profile default failed_login_attempts 3

sql> password_life_time 60 password_grace_time 10;

 

5.drop a profile

sql> drop profile grace_5 [cascade];

 

6.create a profile : resource limit

sql> create profile developer_prof limit sessions_per_user 2

sql> cpu_per_session 10000 idle_time 60 connect_time 480;

 

7. view => resource_cost : alter resource cost

dba_Users,dba_profiles

 

8. enable resource limits

sql> alter system set resource_limit=true;

 

第九章:Managing users

 

1.create a user: database authentication

sql> create user juncky identified by oracle default tablespace users

sql> temporary tablespace temp quota 10m on data password expire

sql> [account lock|unlock] [profile profilename|default];

 

2.change user quota on tablespace

sql> alter user juncky quota 0 on users;

 

3.drop a user

sql> drop user juncky [cascade];

 

4. monitor user

view: dba_users , dba_ts_quotas

 

第十章:managing privileges

 

1.system privileges: view => system_privilege_map ,dba_sys_privs,session_privs

 

2.grant system privilege

sql> grant create session,create table to managers;

sql> grant create session to scott with admin option;

with admin option can grant or revoke privilege from any user or role;

 

3.sysdba and sysoper privileges:

sysoper: startup,shutdown,alter database open|mount,alter database backup controlfile,

alter tablespace begin/end backup,recover database

alter database archivelog,restricted session

sysdba: sysoper privileges with admin option,create database,recover database until

 

4.password file members: view:=> v$pwfile_users

 

5.O7_dictionary_accessibility =true restriction access to view or tables in other schema

 

6.revoke system privilege

sql> revoke create table from karen;

sql> revoke create session from scott;

 

7.grant object privilege

sql> grant execute on dbms_pipe to public;

sql> grant update(first_name,salary) on employee to karen with grant option;

 

8.display object privilege : view => dba_tab_privs, dba_col_privs

 

9.revoke object privilege

sql> revoke execute on dbms_pipe from scott [cascade constraints];

 

10.audit record view :=> sys.aud$

 

11. protecting the audit trail

sql> audit delete on sys.aud$ by access;

 

12.statement auditing

sql> audit user;

 

13.privilege auditing

sql> audit select any table by summit by access;

 

14.schema object auditing

sql> audit lock on summit.employee by access whenever successful;

 

15.view audit option : view=> all_def_audit_opts,dba_stmt_audit_opts,dba_priv_audit_opts,dba_obj_audit_opts

 

16.view audit result: view=> dba_audit_trail,dba_audit_exists,dba_audit_object,dba_audit_session,dba_audit_statement

 

第十一章: manager role

1.create roles

sql> create role sales_clerk;

sql> create role hr_clerk identified by bonus;

sql> create role hr_manager identified externally;

2.modify role

sql> alter role sales_clerk identified by commission;

sql> alter role hr_clerk identified externally;

sql> alter role hr_manager not identified;

3.assigning roles

sql> grant sales_clerk to scott;

sql> grant hr_clerk to hr_manager;

sql> grant hr_manager to scott with admin option;

4.establish default role

sql> alter user scott default role hr_clerk,sales_clerk;

sql> alter user scott default role all;

sql> alter user scott default role all except hr_clerk;

sql> alter user scott default role none;

5.enable and disable roles

sql> set role hr_clerk;

sql> set role sales_clerk identified by commission;

sql> set role all except sales_clerk;

sql> set role none;

6.remove role from user

sql> revoke sales_clerk from scott;

sql> revoke hr_manager from public;

7.remove role

sql> drop role hr_manager;

8.display role information

view: =>dba_roles,dba_role_privs,role_role_privs,dba_sys_privs,role_sys_privs,role_tab_privs,session_roles

第十二章: BACKUP and RECOVERY

1. v$sga,v$instance,v$process,v$bgprocess,v$database,v$datafile,v$sgastat

2. Rman need set dbwr_IO_slaves or backup_tape_IO_slaves and large_pool_size

3. Monitoring Parallel Rollback

> v$fast_start_servers , v$fast_start_transactions

4.perform. a closed database backup (noarchivelog)

> shutdown immediate

> cp files /backup/

> startup

5.restore to a different location

> connect system/manager as sysdba

> startup mount

> alter database rename file '/disk1/../user.dbf' to '/disk2/../user.dbf';

> alter database open;

6.recover syntax

--recover a mounted database

>recover database;

>recover datafile '/disk1/data/df2.dbf';

>alter database recover database;

--recover an opened database

>recover tablespace user_data;

>recover datafile 2;

>alter database recover datafile 2;

7.how to apply redo log files automatically

>set autorecovery on

>recover automatic datafile 4;

8.complete recovery:

--method 1(mounted databae)

>copy c:\backup\user.dbf c:\oradata\user.dbf

>startup mount

>recover datafile 'c:\oradata\user.dbf;

>alter database open;

--method 2(opened database,initially opened,not system or rollback datafile)

>copy c:\backup\user.dbf c:\oradata\user.dbf (alter tablespace offline)

>recover datafile 'c:\oradata\user.dbf' or

>recover tablespace user_data;

>alter database datafile 'c:\oradata\user.dbf' online or

>alter tablespace user_data online;

--method 3(opened database,initially closed not system or rollback datafile)

>startup mount

>alter database datafile 'c:\oradata\user.dbf' offline;

>alter database open

>copy c:\backup\user.dbf d:\oradata\user.dbf

>alter database rename file 'c:\oradata\user.dbf' to 'd:\oradata\user.dbf'

>recover datafile 'e:\oradata\user.dbf' or recover tablespace user_data;

>alter tablespace user_data online;

--method 4(loss of data file with no backup and have all archive log)

>alter tablespace user_data offline immediate;

>alter database create datafile 'd:\oradata\user.dbf' as 'c:\oradata\user.dbf''

>recover tablespace user_data;

>alter tablespace user_data online

5.perform. an open database backup

> alter tablespace user_data begin backup;

> copy files /backup/

> alter database datafile '/c:/../data.dbf' end backup;

> alter system switch logfile;

6.backup a control file

> alter database backup controlfile to 'control1.bkp';

> alter database backup controlfile to trace;

7.recovery (noarchivelog mode)

> shutdown abort

> cp files

> startup

8.recovery of file in backup mode

>alter database datafile 2 end backup;

9.clearing redo log file

>alter database clear unarchived logfile group 1;

>alter database clear unarchived logfile group 1 unrecoverable datafile;

10.redo log recovery

>alter database add logfile group 3 'c:\oradata\redo03.log' size 1000k;

>alter database drop logfile group 1;

>alter database open;

or >cp c:\oradata\redo02.log' c:\oradata\redo01.log

>alter database clear logfile 'c:\oradata\log01.log';

转自:http://jinyumantang110.blog.163.com/blog/static/5457915620095105174266/

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