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Gentoo Linux x86 Quick Install Guide

原创 Linux操作系统 作者:baizhaoxian 时间:2008-12-10 14:28:34 0 删除 编辑

1.  Introduction

This guide contains all commands you should use to complete a stage3 installation of Gentoo. You need a connection to the Internet to download the stage3 and Portage snapshots.

New users should read the Handbook as it gives a better overview about the installation process.

Timing output follows all commands that take more than a couple of seconds to finish. Commands were timed on an AMD 2000 1.66 Ghz PC with 512 MB of RAM and two SATA disks connected to a hardware controller.

Code Listing 1.1: Test box specs

(The following specs and the timing information should help you determine

a rough estimate of the time you need to complete your install)

# grep bogo /proc/cpuinfo

bogomips       : 3337.81

# hdparm -tT /dev/sda

/dev/sda:

 Timing cached reads:   1100 MB in  2.00 seconds = 549.97 MB/sec

 Timing buffered disk reads:  224 MB in  3.01 seconds =  74.36 MB/sec

# grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo

MemTotal:       509248 kB

2.  Quick Install Guide

Installation Media

Download a CD from one of our mirrors. You can find the minimal CD ISO in releases/x86//installcd or the LiveCD ISO in releases/x86//livecd. The minimal installation CD is only useful for Internet-based installations. You can use the LiveCD to perform. a networkless installation as documented in the 2008.0 x86 installation handbook. The minimal CD is recommended.

Burn the CD and boot it.

Booting the CD

Press F2 at the boot screen to find out what boot options exist. You can either start gentoo or gentoo-nofb, the latter disables the framebuffer. If you booted the LiveCD, don't forget to add the nox option to prevent the X graphical environment from starting. Several options allow to enable or disable some features. If all goes well, your hardware will be detected and all modules will be loaded. If the kernel fails to boot properly or if your computer hangs during the boot procedure, you may have to experiment with different configurations. The safest way is probably to use the nodetect option and then load required modules explicitly.

Code Listing 2.1: Boot the minimal CD

Gentoo Linux Installation LiveCD                     http://www.gentoo.org

Enter to Boot; F1 for kernels  F2 for options.

boot: gentoo-nofb

  (or in case of problems)

boot: gentoo-nofb nodetect

Optional: loading modules

If you used the nodetect option, once booted, load the required modules. You need to enable networking and have access to your disks. The lspci command can help you identify your hardware.

Code Listing 2.2: Load required modules

livecd root # lspci

(Use lspci's output to identify required modules)

(The following is an example, adapt it to your hardware)

livecd root # modprobe 3w-9xxx

livecd root # modprobe r8169

Network Configuration

If your network does not work already, you can use net-setup to configure your network. You might need to load support for your network card using modprobe prior to the configuration. If you have ADSL, use pppoe-setup and pppoe-start. For PPTP support, first edit /etc/ppp/chap-secrets and /etc/ppp/options.pptp and then use pptp .

For wireless access, use iwconfig to set the wireless parameters and then use either net-setup again or run ifconfig, dhcpcd and/or route manually.

If you are behind a proxy, do not forget to initialize your system using export http_proxy, ftp_proxy and RSYNC_PROXY.

Code Listing 2.3: Configure networking the guided way

livecd root # net-setup eth0

Alternatively, you can start networking manually. The following example assigns the IP address 192.168.1.10 to your PC and defines 192.168.1.1 as your router and name server.

Code Listing 2.4: Configure networking the manual way

livecd root # ifconfig eth0 192.168.1.10/24

livecd root # route add default gw 192.168.1.1

livecd root # echo nameserver 192.168.1.1 > /etc/resolv.conf

The installation CD allows you to start an sshd server, add additional users, run irssi (a command-line chat client) and surf the web using lynx or links.

Optional: connect to your new box over ssh

The most interesting feature is of course sshd. You can start it and then connect from another machine and cut and paste commands from this guide.

Code Listing 2.5: Start sshd

livecd root # time /etc/init.d/sshd start

 * Generating hostkey ...

(sshd generates the key and displays more output)

 * starting sshd ...                            [ok]

real   0m13.688s

user   0m9.420s

sys    0m0.090s

Now, set the root password on the liveCD so that you can connect to it from another PC. Please note that allowing root to connect over ssh is not recommended under normal circumstances. If you can't trust your local network, use a long and complex password, you should use it only once as it will disappear after your first reboot.

Code Listing 2.6: Set the root password

livecd root # passwd

New UNIX password: type_a_password

Retype new UNIX password: type_a_password

passwd: password updated successfully

Now, you can start a terminal on another PC and connect to your new box, follow the rest of this guide in another window, and cut and paste commands.

Code Listing 2.7: Connect to your new box from another PC

(Use the IP address of your new box)

$ ssh root@192.168.1.10

The authenticity of host '192.168.1.10 (192.168.1.10)' can't be established.

RSA key fingerprint is 96:e7:2d:12:ac:9c:b0:94:90:9f:40:89:b0:45:26:8f.

Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes

Warning: Permanently added '192.168.1.10' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.

Password: type_the_password

Preparing the Disks

Use fdisk or cfdisk to create your partition layout. You need at least a swap partition (type 82) and one Linux partition (type 83). The following scenario creates a /boot, a swap and a main partition as used in our handbook. Replace sda with your disk.

Code Listing 2.8: Create the partitions

livecd ~ # fdisk /dev/sda

(The rest of this guide uses the following partitioning scheme)

livecd ~ # fdisk -l /dev/sda

Disk /dev/sda: 599.9 GB, 599978409984 bytes

255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 72943 cylinders

Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System

/dev/sda1               1          12       96358+  83  Linux

/dev/sda2              13         110      787185   82  Linux swap / Solaris

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