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GoldenGate基本原理

原创 Oracle 作者:Jet_Zhang 时间:2018-01-19 10:56:30 0 删除 编辑

什么是GoldenGate

官方定义:
Oracle GoldenGate is a comprehensive software package for real-time data integration and replication in heterogeneous IT environments.The product set enables high availability solutions, real-time data integration, transactional change data capture, data replication, transformations, and verification between operational and analytical enterprise systems.

大白话版:
Oracle GoldenGate(OGG)只会做一件事:复制数据。除此之外,啥也不会。
  • 专一
  • 高效
  • 跨平台

OGG支持的平台

支持的数据库:
Oracle
  • MySQL
  • DB2
  • SQL Server
  • NonStop SQL/MX
  • Sybase
  • Teradata
  • TimesTen
  • PostgreSQL
  • Informix
支持的平台:
  • Unix(Solaris,AIX,HP-UX)
  • Linux
  • Windows
  • z/OS
  • HP NonStop
支持的操作:
  • DML
  • DDL

OGG支持的架构




OGG基本原理-Oracle的Redo Log机制



LGWR: Log Writer Process
日志写进程,将缓存中的Change Vector写入到文件(Online Redo Log)中

ARCn: Archiver Processes
归档进程,对Online Redo Log进行拷贝

Redo Log:
记录数据库的变更数据(Change Vector)。
分为:Online Redo Log和Archived Redo Log

OGG基本原理-工作机制






主要进程:
  • Manager
  • 总控进程
  • 管理其它进程
  • 管理网络端口
  • 管理TRAIL文件
  • 管理运行日志
Extract
  • 数据抓取
  • 数据分发(Data Pump)
Replicat
  • 数据应用
Collector
  • 数据接收

主要文件:
Trail
数据的记录

Checkpoints
数据检查点信息


OGG的安装

环境: CentOS 6.7/Oracle 11.2.0.4/GoldenGate 11.2.1.0.32

Step 1. 设置环境变量
export ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/database/11.2.0/db_1
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib
export PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$PATH

Step 2. 解压缩软件包
cd /u01/app/oracle/product/ogg/gghome/11.2.1/gghome_1
tar xf fbo_ggs_Linux_x64_ora11g_64bit.tar

Step 3. 安装运行目录
cd /u01/app/oracle/product/ogg/gghome/11.2.1/gghome_1
./ggsci
GGSCI> create subdirs


OGG实施的基本步骤

场景:源库的表J.T1实时同步到目标库的J.T1


Step 1. 源端OGG账号配置
SQL> CREATE TABLESPACE GGS DATAFILE '+DATA01' SIZE 4G;
SQL> CREATE USER GGS IDENTIFIED BY GGS123 DEFAULT TABLESPACE GGS QUOTA UNLIMITED ON GGS;
SQL> GRANT DBA TO GGS;


$ ./keygen 128 1
0xD63ED81A1DA4DA0596004362410C5522
$ cat > ENCKEYS
DEFKEY 0xD63ED81A1DA4DA0596004362410C5522


GGSCI> encrypt password GGS123 encryptkey DEFKEY
Encrypted password:  AADAAAAAAAAAAAGAJDSJTIIEHJJBOBPDNEZBYIAAPDOCCFGILFMAOGNCMCCAXABIQIFIJAXCKBLFQIMC
Algorithm used:  AES128

Step 2. 源端数据库配置
SQL> ALTER DATABASE FORCE LOGGING;
SQL> ALTER DATABASE ADD SUPPLEMENTAL LOG DATA;


GGSCI> dblogin userid ggs, password AADAAAAAAAAAAAGAJDSJTIIEHJJBOBPDNEZBYIAAPDOCCFGILFMAOGNCMCCAXABIQIFIJAXCKBLFQIMC, encryptkey DEFKEY
GGSCI> add trandata J.T1


Step 3. 源端Manager进程配置
GGSCI> edit params MGR
PORT 7809
PURGEOLDEXTRACTS /data01/oracle/ogg/dirdat/ta*, USECHECKPOINTS, MINKEEPDAYS 30
AUTORESTART ER *, RETRIES 5, WAITMINUTES 1, RESETMINUTES 30
LAGREPORTMINUTES 30
LAGCRITICALMINUTES 60
GGSCI> start MGR


Step 4. 源端Extract进程配置
GGSCI> edit params EJT
EXTRACT EJT
SETENV (ORACLE_HOME="/u01/app/oracle/product/database/11.2.0/db_1")
SETENV (ORACLE_SID="stest")
USERID GGS, PASSWORD AADAAAAAAAAAAAGAJDSJTIIEHJJBOBPDNEZBYIAAPDOCCFGILFMAOGNCMCCAXABIQIFIJAXCKBLFQIMC, ENCRYPTKEY DEFKEY
TRANLOGOPTIONS DBLOGREADER, DBLOGREADERBUFSIZE 2097152
EXTTRAIL /data01/oracle/ogg/dirdat/ta
DISCARDFILE /u01/app/oracle/product/ogg/gghome/11.2.1/gghome_1/dirrpt/EJT.dsc, APPEND Megabytes 256
DISCARDROLLOVER AT 00:00 on SUNDAY
REPORTROLLOVER AT 00:00 on SUNDAY
REPORTCOUNT EVERY 4 HOURS, RATE
FETCHOPTIONS, FETCHPKUPDATECOLS, USESNAPSHOT, NOUSELATESTVERSION, MISSINGROW REPORT
STATOPTIONS REPORTFETCH
WARNLONGTRANS 1H, CHECKINTERVAL 5M


TABLE J.T1  ;

Step 5. 源端添加Extract进程
GGSCI> add extract EJT, tranlog, begin now
GGSCI> add exttrail /data01/oracle/ogg/dirdat/ta, extract EJT, megabytes 256
GGSCI> start extract EJT

Step 6. 目标端数据库配置
SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET enable_goldengate_replication=TRUE;

Step 7. 目标端OGG账号配置
参见Step 1. 源端OGG账号配置

Step 8. 目标端Checkpoint配置
GGSCI> dblogin userid ggs, password AADAAAAAAAAAAAGAJDSJTIIEHJJBOBPDNEZBYIAAPDOCCFGILFMAOGNCMCCAXABIQIFIJAXCKBLFQIMC, encryptkey DEFKEY
GGSCI> add checkpointtable ggs.checkpoint

Step 9. 目标端Manager进程配置
GGSCI> edit params ./GLOBALS
CHECKPOINTTABLE ggs.checkpoint
ALLOWOUTPUTDIR /data01/oracle/ogg/dirdat


GGSCI> edit params MGR
PORT 7809
PURGEOLDEXTRACTS /data01/oracle/ogg/dirdat/ta*, USECHECKPOINTS, MINKEEPDAYS 30
AUTORESTART ER *, RETRIES 5, WAITMINUTES 1, RESETMINUTES 30
LAGREPORTMINUTES 30
LAGCRITICALMINUTES 60
GGSCI> start MGR

Step 10. 源端Data Pump进程配置
GGSCI> edit params PJT
EXTRACT PJT
SETENV (ORACLE_HOME="/u01/app/oracle/product/database/11.2.0/db_1")
PASSTHRU
RMTHOST tj, MGRPORT 7809
RMTTRAIL /data01/oracle/ogg/dirdat/ta
DISCARDFILE /u01/app/oracle/product/ogg/gghome/11.2.1/gghome_1/dirrpt/PJT.dsc, APPEND, MEGABYTES 256
DISCARDROLLOVER AT 00:00 on SUNDAY
REPORTROLLOVER AT 00:00 on SUNDAY
REPORTCOUNT EVERY 4 HOURS, RATE


TABLE J.T1  ;


Step 11. 源端添加Data Pump进程
GGSCI> add extract PJT, exttrailsource /data01/oracle/ogg/dirdat/ta
GGSCI> add rmttrail /data01/oracle/ogg/dirdat/ta, extract PJT, megabytes 256
GGSCI> start extract PJT

Step 12. 目标端Replicat进程配置
GGSCI> edit params RJT
REPLICAT RJT
SETENV (ORACLE_HOME = "/u01/app/oracle/product/database/11.2.0/db_1" )
SETENV (ORACLE_SID="ttest")
SETENV (NLS_LANG = "AMERICAN_CHINA.ZHS16GBK")
USERID GGS, PASSWORD AADAAAAAAAAAAAGAJDSJTIIEHJJBOBPDNEZBYIAAPDOCCFGILFMAOGNCMCCAXABIQIFIJAXCKBLFQIMC, ENCRYPTKEY DEFKEY
DISCARDFILE /u01/app/oracle/product/ogg/gghome/11.2.1/gghome_1/dirrpt/RJT.dsc, APPEND Megabytes 256
DISCARDROLLOVER AT 00:00 on SUNDAY
REPORTROLLOVER AT 00:00 on SUNDAY
REPORTCOUNT EVERY 4 HOURS, RATE
ASSUMETARGETDEFS


MAP J.T1, TARGET J.T1;

Step 13. 目标端添加Replicat进程
GGSCI> dblogin userid ggs, password AADAAAAAAAAAAAGAJDSJTIIEHJJBOBPDNEZBYIAAPDOCCFGILFMAOGNCMCCAXABIQIFIJAXCKBLFQIMC, encryptkey DEFKEY
GGSCI> add replicat RJT, exttrail /data01/oracle/ogg/dirdat/ta

Step 14. 数据初始化-源端数据导出
SQL> SELECT CURRENT_SCN FROM V$DATABASE;


  CURRENT_SCN
-------------
    373926987


$ expdp system/systm123 directory=DUMPDIR dumpfile=JT1.dump tables=J.T1 flashback_scn=373926987 logfile=JT1.expdp.log

Step 15. 数据初始化-目标端数据导入
$ impdp system/systm123 directory=DUMPDIR dumpfile=JT1.dump logfile=JT1.impdp.log

Step 16. 目标端启Replicat进程
GGSCI> start replicat RJT, atcsn 373926987


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中国南方Oracle用户组(SOUG)联合创始人,Oracle 10g OCM,曾服务于国外某大型银行,现为国内某保险公司的技术经理。擅长系统架构设计、Oracle/PostgreSQL数据库的故障和性能诊断、熟悉Tomcat内核,对Linux内核也有较浓厚的兴趣等。

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