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WPF and Silverlight 学习笔记(六):WPF窗体

原创 Linux操作系统 作者:iDotNetSpace 时间:2009-05-27 15:34:00 0 删除 编辑

一、窗体类

在Visual Studio和Expression Blend中,自定义的窗体均继承System.Windows.Window类(类型化窗体)。定义的窗体由两部分组成:

1、XAML文件

   1: <Window
   2:     xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
   3:     xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
   4:     x:Class="WpfWindow.BasicWindow"
   5:     x:Name="Window"
   6:     Title="BasicWindow"
   7:     Width="300" Height="200">
   8:     <Canvas>
   9:         <Button x:Name="btnMessage" Width="79" Height="24" Content="OK" 
  10:         Canvas.Left="172" Canvas.Top="93" Click="btnMessage_Click"/>
  11:         <TextBox x:Name="txtValue" Width="215" Height="25" 
  12:         Canvas.Left="36" Canvas.Top="48" Text="" TextWrapping="Wrap"/>
  13:     Canvas>
  14: Window>

2、后台代码文件

   1: using System;
   2: using System.Windows;
   3:  
   4: namespace WpfWindow
   5: {
   6:     public partial class BasicWindow : Window
   7:     {
   8:         public BasicWindow()
   9:         {
  10:             this.InitializeComponent();
  11:         }
  12:  
  13:         private void btnMessage_Click(object sender, System.Windows.RoutedEventArgs e)
  14:         {
  15:             txtValue.Text = "Hello World";
  16:         }
  17:     }
  18: }

也可以将后台代码放在XAML文件中,上面的例子可以改写为:

   1: <Window
   2:     xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
   3:     xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
   4:     x:Class="WpfWindow.BasicWindow"
   5:     x:Name="Window"
   6:     Title="BasicWindow"
   7:     Width="300" Height="200">
   8:     <Canvas>
   9:         <Button x:Name="btnMessage" Width="79" Height="24" Content="OK" 
  10:         Canvas.Left="172" Canvas.Top="93" Click="btnMessage_Click"/>
  11:         <x:Code>[CDATA[
  12:             void btnMessage_Click(object sender, System.Windows.RoutedEventArgs e)
  13:             {
  14:                 txtValue.Text = "Hello World";
  15:             }
  16:         ]]>
  17:         x:Code>
  18:         <TextBox x:Name="txtValue" Width="215" Height="25" 
  19:         Canvas.Left="36" Canvas.Top="48" Text="" TextWrapping="Wrap"/>
  20:     Canvas>
  21: Window>

二、窗体的生存周期

1、显示窗体

  • 构造方法
  • Show()、ShowDialog()方法:Show()方法显示非模态窗口,ShowDialog()方法显示模态窗口
  • Loaded事件:窗体第一次Show()或ShowDialog()时引发的事件,通常在此事件中加载窗体的初始化数据

2、关闭窗体

  • Close()方法:关闭窗体,并释放窗体的资源
  • Closing事件、Closed事件:关闭时、关闭后引发的事件,通常在Closing事件中提示用户是否退出。

3、窗体的激活

  • Activate()方法:激活某窗体
  • Activated、Deactivated事件:当窗体激动、失去焦点时引发的事件

4、窗体的生存周期

WindowLifeCycle

示例程序:

  • 在窗体载入时显示当前日期,并开始播放媒体
  • 当窗体失去焦点时暂停播放媒体
  • 当窗体重新获得焦点时继承播放窗体
  • 当点击窗体的关闭按钮时,询问用户是否退出应用程序

XAML文件:

   1: <Window x:Class="WpfWindow.WindowLifeCycle"
   2:     xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
   3:     xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
   4:     Title="WindowLifeCycle" Height="200" Width="300" 
   5:         Loaded="Window_Loaded" 
   6:         Activated="Window_Activated" 
   7:         Deactivated="Window_Deactivated" 
   8:         Closing="Window_Closing">
   9:     <Canvas>
  10:         <TextBlock Canvas.Right="15" Canvas.Bottom="15" Height="21" Name="txtDate"/>
  11:         <MediaElement Canvas.Left="89" Canvas.Top="12" Height="100" Width="100" 
  12:                       Name="myMedia" Source="numbers.wmv" 
  13:                       Stretch="Fill" LoadedBehavior="Manual" />
  14:     Canvas>
  15: Window>

代码文件:

   1: using System;
   2: using System.Windows;
   3:  
   4: namespace WpfWindow
   5: {
   6:     public partial class WindowLifeCycle : Window
   7:     {
   8:         public WindowLifeCycle()
   9:         {
  10:             InitializeComponent();
  11:         }
  12:  
  13:         // 开关变量,判断是否正在播放媒体
  14:         private bool isPlaying;
  15:  
  16:         private void Window_Loaded(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
  17:         {
  18:             // 窗体加载时,显示当前日期及开始播放媒体
  19:             txtDate.Text = DateTime.Now.ToString("yyyy-MM-dd");
  20:  
  21:             myMedia.Play();
  22:             isPlaying = true;
  23:         }
  24:  
  25:         private void Window_Activated(object sender, EventArgs e)
  26:         {
  27:             // 如果窗体被激活,则继承播放媒体
  28:             if (!isPlaying)
  29:             {
  30:                 myMedia.Play();
  31:                 isPlaying = true;
  32:             }
  33:         }
  34:  
  35:         private void Window_Deactivated(object sender, EventArgs e)
  36:         {
  37:             // 如果窗体失去焦点,则暂停播放媒体
  38:             if (isPlaying)
  39:             {
  40:                 myMedia.Pause();
  41:                 isPlaying = false;
  42:             }
  43:         }
  44:  
  45:         private void Window_Closing(object sender, System.ComponentModel.CancelEventArgs e)
  46:         {
  47:             // 点击窗体的“关闭”按钮,询问用户是否退出程序
  48:  
  49:             string message = "Quit the application?";
  50:             string title = "System Information";
  51:             MessageBoxButton button = MessageBoxButton.OKCancel;
  52:             MessageBoxImage img = MessageBoxImage.Question;
  53:  
  54:             MessageBoxResult result = MessageBox.Show(
  55:                 message, title, button, img);
  56:  
  57:             if (result == MessageBoxResult.Cancel)
  58:             {
  59:                 e.Cancel = true;    // 取消退出
  60:             }
  61:         }
  62:     }
  63: }

三、其他窗体相关的属性、方法、事件

WPF窗体的详细的属性、方法、事件请参考MSDN,有很多的属性、方法、事件与Windows应用程序中System.Windows.Forms.Form类相同或近似,其中常用的一些属性、方法、事件有:

  • 窗体边框模式(WindowStyle属性)和是否允许更改窗体大小(ResizeMode属性)
  • 窗体启动位置(WindowStartupLocation属性)和启动状态(WindowState属性)
  • 窗体标题(Title属性)
  • 始终在最前(TopMost属性)
  • 是否显示在任务栏(ShowInTaskbar)

四、定义异形窗体

使用异形窗体,可以将窗体的背景设置为透明,边框设置为空,然后利用控件做出异形的窗体,例如:

XAML:

   1: <Window x:Class="WpfWindow.CustomerWindow"
   2:     xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
   3:     xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
   4:     Title="NonRectangularWindowSample" SizeToContent="WidthAndHeight" 
   5:     MouseLeftButtonDown="NonRectangularWindow_MouseLeftButtonDown"
   6:     WindowStyle="None" 
   7:     AllowsTransparency="True" 
   8:     Background="Transparent">
   9:     <Canvas Width="200" Height="200" >
  10:         <Path Stroke="DarkGray" StrokeThickness="2">
  11:             <Path.Fill>
  12:                 <LinearGradientBrush StartPoint="0.2,0" EndPoint="0.8,1" >
  13:                     <GradientStop Color="White"  Offset="0">GradientStop>
  14:                     <GradientStop Color="White"  Offset="0.45">GradientStop>
  15:                     <GradientStop Color="LightBlue" Offset="0.9">GradientStop>
  16:                     <GradientStop Color="Gray" Offset="1">GradientStop>
  17:                 LinearGradientBrush>
  18:             Path.Fill>
  19:             <Path.Data>
  20:                 <PathGeometry>
  21:                     <PathFigure StartPoint="40,20" IsClosed="True">
  22:                         <LineSegment Point="160,20">LineSegment>
  23:                         <ArcSegment Point="180,40" Size="20,20" SweepDirection="Clockwise">ArcSegment>
  24:                         <LineSegment Point="180,80">LineSegment>
  25:                         <ArcSegment Point="160,100" Size="20,20" SweepDirection="Clockwise">ArcSegment>
  26:                         <LineSegment Point="90,100">LineSegment>
  27:                         <LineSegment Point="90,150">LineSegment>
  28:                         <LineSegment Point="60,100">LineSegment>
  29:                         <LineSegment Point="40,100">LineSegment>
  30:                         <ArcSegment Point="20,80" Size="20,20" SweepDirection="Clockwise">ArcSegment>
  31:                         <LineSegment Point="20,40">LineSegment>
  32:                         <ArcSegment Point="40,20" Size="20,20" SweepDirection="Clockwise">ArcSegment>
  33:                     PathFigure>
  34:                 PathGeometry>
  35:             Path.Data>
  36:         Path>
  37:         <Label Width="200" Height="120" FontSize="15" HorizontalContentAlignment="Center" VerticalContentAlignment="Center">Drag MeLabel>
  38:         <Button Canvas.Left="155" Canvas.Top="30" Click="closeButtonRectangle_Click">
  39:             <Button.Template>
  40:                 <ControlTemplate>
  41:                     <Canvas>
  42:                         <Rectangle Width="15" Height="15" Stroke="Black" RadiusX="3" RadiusY="3">
  43:                             <Rectangle.Fill>
  44:                                 <SolidColorBrush x:Name="myAnimatedBrush" Color="Red" />
  45:                             Rectangle.Fill>
  46:                         Rectangle>
  47:                         <Line X1="3" Y1="3" X2="12" Y2="12" Stroke="White" StrokeThickness="2">Line>
  48:                         <Line X1="12" Y1="3" X2="3" Y2="12" Stroke="White" StrokeThickness="2">Line>
  49:                     Canvas>
  50:                 ControlTemplate>
  51:             Button.Template>
  52:         Button>
  53:     Canvas>
  54: Window>

代码文件:

   1: using System.Windows;
   2: using System.Windows.Input;
   3:  
   4: namespace WpfWindow
   5: {
   6:     public partial class CustomerWindow : Window
   7:     {
   8:         public CustomerWindow()
   9:         {
  10:             InitializeComponent();
  11:         }
  12:  
  13:         void NonRectangularWindow_MouseLeftButtonDown(object sender, MouseButtonEventArgs e)
  14:         {
  15:             this.DragMove();
  16:         }
  17:  
  18:         void closeButtonRectangle_Click(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
  19:         {
  20:             this.Close();
  21:         }
  22:     }
  23: }

 

CustomerWindow

原文:http://www.cnblogs.com/DragonInSea/archive/2009/04/10/1432956.html

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