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原创 Oracle 作者:heyong3 时间:2005-03-09 18:05:06 0 删除 编辑



1.forcing log switches

sql> alter system switch logfile;

2.forcing checkpoints

sql> alter system checkpoint;

3.adding online redo log groups

sql> alter database add logfile [group 4]sql> ('/disk3/log4a.rdo','/disk4/log4b.rdo') size 1m;

4.adding online redo log members

sql> alter database add logfile member

sql> '/disk3/log1b.rdo' to group 1,

sql> '/disk4/log2b.rdo' to group 2;

5.changes the name of the online redo logfile

sql> alter database rename file 'c:/oracle/oradata/oradb/redo01.log'

sql> to 'c:/oracle/oradata/redo01.log';

6.drop online redo log groups

sql> alter database drop logfile group 3;

7.drop online redo log members

sql> alter database drop logfile member 'c:/oracle/oradata/redo01.log';

8.clearing online redo log files

sql> alter database clear [unarchived] logfile 'c:/oracle/log2a.rdo';

9.using logminer analyzing redo logfiles

a. in the init.ora specify utl_file_dir = ' '

b. sql> execute'oradb.ora','c:oracleoradblog');

c. sql> execute dbms_logmnr_add_logfile('c:oracleoradataoradbredo01.log',


d. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.add_logfile('c:oracleoradataoradbredo02.log',

sql> dbms_logmnr.addfile);

e. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.start_logmnr(dictfilename=>'c:oracleoradblogoradb.ora');

f. sql> select * from v$logmnr_contents(v$logmnr_dictionary,v$logmnr_parameters

sql> v$logmnr_logs);

g. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.end_logmnr;



1.create tablespaces

sql> create tablespace ts_name datafile 'c:oracleoradatafile1.dbf' size 100m ,

sql>'c:oracleoradatafile2.dbf' size 100m minimum extent 550k [logging/nologging]sql> default storage (initial 500k next 500k maxextents 500 pctinccease 0)

sql> [online/offline] [permanent/temporary] [extent_management_clause]

2.locally managed tablespace

sql> create tablespace user_data datafile 'c:oracleoradatauser_data01.dbf'

sql> size 500m extent management local uniform size 10m;

3.temporary tablespace

sql> create temporary tablespace temp tempfile 'c:oracleoradatatemp01.dbf'

sql> size 500m extent management local uniform size 10m;

4.change the storage setting

sql> alter tablespace app_data minimum extent 2m;

sql> alter tablespace app_data default storage(initial 2m next 2m maxextents 999);

5.taking tablespace offline or online

sql> alter tablespace app_data offline;

sql> alter tablespace app_data online;

6.read_only tablespace

sql> alter tablespace app_data read only|write;

7.droping tablespace

sql> drop tablespace app_data including contents;

8.enableing automatic extension of data files

sql> alter tablespace app_data add datafile 'c:oracleoradataapp_data01.dbf' size 200m

sql> autoextend on next 10m maxsize 500m;

9.change the size fo data files manually

sql> alter database datafile 'c:oracleoradataapp_data.dbf' resize 200m;

10.Moving data files: alter tablespace

sql> alter tablespace app_data rename datafile 'c:oracleoradataapp_data.dbf

sql> to 'c:oracleapp_data.dbf';

11.moving data files:alter database

sql> alter database rename file 'c:oracleoradataapp_data.dbf' to 'c:oracleapp_data.dbf';



1.create a table

sql> create table table_name (column datatype,column datatype]....)

sql> tablespace tablespace_name [pctfree integer] [pctused integer]

sql> [initrans integer] [maxtrans integer]sql> storage(initial 200k next 200k pctincrease 0 maxextents 50)

sql> [logging|nologging] [cache|nocache]

2.copy an existing table

sql> create table table_name [logging|nologging] as subquery

3.create temporary table

sql> create global temporary table xay_temp as select * from xay;

on commit preserve rows/on commit delete rows

4.pctfree = (average row size - initial row size) *100 /average row size

pctused = 100-pctfree- (average row size*100/available data space)

5.change storage and block utilization parameter

sql> alter table table_name pctfree=30 pctused=50 storage(next 500k minextents 2 maxextents 100);

6.manually allocating extents

sql> alter table table_name allocate extent(size 500k datafile 'c:/oracle/data.dbf');

7.move tablespace

sql> alter table employee move tablespace users;

8.deallocate of unused space

sql> alter table table_name deallocate unused [keep integer]

9.truncate a table

sql> truncate table table_name;

10.drop a table

sql> drop table table_name [cascade constraints];

11.drop a column

sql> alter table table_name drop column comments cascade constraints checkpoint 1000;

alter table table_name drop columns continue;

12.mark a column as unused

sql> alter table table_name set unused column comments cascade constraints;

alter table table_name drop unused columns checkpoint 1000;

alter table orders drop columns continue checkpoint 1000

data_dictionary : dba_unused_col_tabs



1.creating function-based indexes

sql> create index summit.item_quantity on summit.item(quantity-quantity_shipped);

2.create a B-tree index

sql> create [unique] index index_name on table_name(column,.. asc/desc) tablespace

sql> tablespace_name [pctfree integer] [initrans integer] [maxtrans integer]

sql> [logging | nologging] [nosort] storage(initial 200k next 200k pctincrease 0 maxextents 50);

3.pctfree(index)=(maximum number of rows-initial number of rows)*100/maximum number of rows

4.creating reverse key indexes

sql> create unique index xay_id on xay(a) reverse pctfree 30 storage(initial 200k next 200k pctincrease 0 maxextents 50) tablespace indx;

5.create bitmap index

sql> create bitmap index xay_id on xay(a) pctfree 30 storage( initial 200k next 200k pctincrease 0 maxextents 50) tablespace indx;

6.change storage parameter of index

sql> alter index xay_id storage (next 400k maxextents 100);

7.allocating index space

sql> alter index xay_id allocate extent(size 200k datafile 'c:/oracle/index.dbf');8.alter index xay_id deallocate unused;



1.define constraints as immediate or deferred

sql> alter session set constraint[s] = immediate/deferred/default;

set constraint[s] constraint_name/all immediate/deferred;

2. sql> drop table table_name cascade constraints

sql> drop tablespace tablespace_name including contents cascade constraints

3. define constraints while create a table

sql> create table xay(id number(7) constraint xay_id primary key deferrable

sql> using index storage(initial 100k next 100k) tablespace indx);

primary key/unique/references table(column)/check

4.enable constraints

sql> alter table xay enable novalidate constraint xay_id;

5.enable constraints

sql> alter table xay enable validate constraint xay_id;



1.loading data using direct_load insert

sql> insert /*+append */ into emp nologging

sql> select * from emp_old;

2.parallel direct-load insert

sql> alter session enable parallel dml;

sql> insert /*+parallel(emp,2) */ into emp nologging

sql> select * from emp_old;

3.using sql*loader

sql> sqlldr scott/tiger

sql> control = ulcase6.ctl

sql> log = ulcase6.log direct=true

第七章:reorganizing data

1.using expoty

$exp scott/tiger tables(dept,emp) file=c:

2.using import

$imp scott/tiger tables(dept,emp) file=emp.dmp log=imp.log ignore=y

3.transporting a tablespace

sql>alter tablespace sales_ts read only;

$exp sys/.. file=xay.dmp transport_tablespace=y tablespace=sales_ts

triggers=n constraints=n

$copy datafile

$imp sys/.. file=xay.dmp transport_tablespace=y datafiles=(/disk1/sles01.dbf,/disk2


sql> alter tablespace sales_ts read write;

4.checking transport set

sql> DBMS_tts.transport_set_check(ts_list =>'sales_ts' ..,incl_constraints=>true);

在表transport_set_violations 中查看

sql> dbms_tts.isselfcontained 为true 是,表示自包含


第八章: managing password security and resources

1.controlling account lock and password

sql> alter user juncky identified by oracle account unlock;

2.user_provided password function

sql> function_name(userid in varchar2(30),password in varchar2(30),

old_password in varchar2(30)) return boolean

3.create a profile : password setting

sql> create profile grace_5 limit failed_login_attempts 3

sql> password_lock_time unlimited password_life_time 30

sql>password_reuse_time 30 password_verify_function verify_function

sql> password_grace_time 5;

4.altering a profile

sql> alter profile default limit

sql> failed_login_attempts 3

sql> password_life_time 60;

5.drop a profile

sql> drop profile grace_5 [cascade];

6.create a profile : resource limit

sql> create profile developer_prof limit sessions_per_user 2

sql> cpu_per_session 10000 idle_time 60 connect_time 480;

7. view => resource_cost : alter resource cost


8. enable resource limits

sql> alter system set resource_limit=true;


第九章:Managing users

1.create a user: database authentication

sql> create user juncky identified by oracle default tablespace users temporary tablespace temp quota 10m/unlimited on data password expire [account lock|unlock] [profile profilename|default];

2.change user quota on tablespace

sql> alter user juncky quota 0 on users;

3.drop a user

sql> drop user juncky [cascade];

4. monitor user

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