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vmstat 命令

原创 Linux操作系统 作者:ilsyx 时间:2011-09-01 11:18:26 0 删除 编辑
此文系参考别人资料个人总结而出,内容不完整,欢迎指教.如需转载请附加参考资料来源:http://space.itpub.net/11780477/viewspace-706413

1.vmstat -h 显示vmstat简要用法

$vmstat -h
usage: vmstat [-V] [-n] [delay [count]]
              -V prints version.
              -n causes the headers not to be reprinted regularly.
              -a print inactive/active page stats.
              -d prints disk statistics
              -D prints disk table
              -p prints disk partition statistics
              -s prints vm table
              -m prints slabinfo
              -S unit size
              delay is the delay between updates in seconds.
              unit size k:1000 K:1024 m:1000000 M:1048576 (default is K)
              count is the number of updates.

2.vmstat版本信息

$vmstat -V
procps version 3.2.8

3.一些样例输出

VM mode (貌似这个用的最多)

$vmstat -a
procs -----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- -system-- ----cpu----
 r  b   swpd   free  inact active   si   so    bi    bo   in   cs us sy id wa
 3  1     32 188264 2514408 3147980    0    0   269   974  733 1323  2 16 60 22

$vmstat -a 2 2
procs -----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- -system-- ----cpu----
 r  b   swpd   free  inact active   si   so    bi    bo   in   cs us sy id wa
 0  0     48 195440 2516408 3138216    0    0   269   973  739 1331  2 16 60 22
 0  0     48 195316 2516268 3138644    0    0    66     0 4857 6047  2  6 90  2

DISK MODE

$vmstat -d
disk- ------------reads------------ ------------writes----------- -----IO------
       total merged sectors      ms  total merged sectors      ms    cur    sec
ram0       0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
ram1       0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
ram2       0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
ram3       0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
ram4       0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
ram5       0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
ram6       0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
ram7       0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
ram8       0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
ram9       0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
ram10      0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
ram11      0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
ram12      0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
ram13      0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
ram14      0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
ram15      0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
loop0      0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
loop1      0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
loop2      0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
loop3      0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
loop4      0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
loop5      0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
loop6      0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
loop7      0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
sda    10893  20994  779038  155227 118692 477441 4769688 6803939      0    253
sr0       12     84      96    3264      0      0       0       0      0      3
sdb   141807    645 12702650 4720757 1158411 3778171 39499104 696352710      0   4694
sdc    32970     90 1441466  321611 265525 986736 10018792 76819593      0    719

DISK PARTITION MODE

$vmstat -p /dev/sda1
sda1          reads   read sectors  writes    requested writes
                 218       1214          0          0

SLAB MODE

$vmstat -m
Cache                       Num  Total   Size  Pages
VMBlockInodeCache             1      1   4480      1
blockInfoCache                0      0   4160      1
AF_VMCI                       0      0    704     11
fib6_nodes                   12    113     32    113
ip6_dst_cache                14     30    256     15
ndisc_cache                   2     20    192     20
RAWv6                         5     11    704     11
UDPLITEv6                     0      0    704     11
UDPv6                         0      0    704     11
tw_sock_TCPv6                 0      0    256     15
request_sock_TCPv6            0      0    128     30
TCPv6                         4      6   1344      3
uhci_urb_priv                 2    127     28    127
ext4_groupinfo_4k         17473  17501    104     37
flow_cache                    0      0     80     48
ioat2                         0      0     64     59
scsi_sense_cache            180    180    128     30
scsi_cmd_cache              160    160    192     20
sd_ext_cdb                    2    113     32    113
scsi_tgt_cmd                  0      0     48     78
cfq_io_context              173    236     64     59
cfq_queue                   173    208    152     26
bsg_cmd                       0      0    284     14
mqueue_inode_cache            1      7    576      7
udf_inode_cache               0      0    424      9
isofs_inode_cache             0      0    396     10
fat_inode_cache               0      0    424      9
fat_cache                     0      0     20    169
hugetlbfs_inode_cache         1     10    368     10
squashfs_inode_cache          0      0    448      9
jbd2_journal_handle          79    169     20    169
jbd2_journal_head           486    567     60     63
jbd2_revoke_table            10    254     12    254
jbd2_revoke_record            0      0     32    113
journal_handle                0      0     20    169
journal_head                  0      0     60     63
revoke_table                  0      0     12    254
revoke_record                 0      0     16    203
Cache                       Num  Total   Size  Pages
ext4_inode_cache           3667   3900    644      6
ext4_xattr                    0      0     48     78
ext4_free_data                0      0     36    101
ext4_allocation_context       4     35    112     35
ext4_prealloc_space         475    504     68     56
ext4_system_zone              0      0     24    145
ext4_io_end                   0      0    572      7
ext4_io_page                  0      0      8    339
ext3_inode_cache              0      0    532      7
ext3_xattr                    0      0     48     78
configfs_dir_cache            0      0     52     72
dquot                         0      0    192     20
kioctx                        0      0    192     20
kiocb                         0      0    128     30
inotify_event_private_data      0      0     16    203
inotify_inode_mark          207    250     76     50
dnotify_mark                  0      0     76     50
dnotify_struct                0      0     20    169
fasync_cache                 10    127     28    127
pid_namespace                 0      0     40     92
nsproxy                       0      0     24    145
posix_timers_cache            0      0     96     40
uid_cache                     3     59     64     59
UNIX                        437    448    512      8
ip_mrt_cache                  0      0    128     30
UDP-Lite                      0      0    576      7
tcp_bind_bucket               9    113     32    113
inet_peer_cache               0      0     64     59
secpath_cache                 0      0     32    113
xfrm_dst_cache                0      0    320     12
ip_fib_alias                  0      0     24    145
ip_fib_hash                  22     84     44     84
ip_dst_cache                 65     75    256     15
arp_cache                     8     20    192     20
RAW                           4      7    576      7
UDP                          19     21    576      7
tw_sock_TCP                   0      0    192     20
request_sock_TCP              0      0    128     30
Cache                       Num  Total   Size  Pages
TCP                           9      9   1216      3
eventpoll_pwq                16    202     36    101
eventpoll_epi                16     30    128     30
sgpool-128                    2      2   3072      2
sgpool-64                     2      5   1536      5
sgpool-32                     4     10    768      5
sgpool-16                    10     10    384     10
sgpool-8                    160    160    192     20
scsi_data_buffer              0      0     20    169
blkdev_queue                 28     32    944      4
blkdev_requests             284    380    208     19
blkdev_ioc                  155    252     44     84
fsnotify_event_holder         0      0     12    254
fsnotify_event                1     59     64     59
bio-0                       516    540    128     30
biovec-256                    2      2   3072      2
biovec-128                    0      0   1536      5
biovec-64                     4      5    768      5
biovec-16                     5     20    192     20
sock_inode_cache            495    495    448      9
skbuff_fclone_cache          63     63    448      9
skbuff_head_cache           159    200    192     20
file_lock_cache              30     78    100     39
shmem_inode_cache          2026   2048    464      8
Acpi-Operand               3024   3024     44     84
Acpi-ParseExt                 7     78     48     78
Acpi-Parse                   74    113     32    113
Acpi-State                   84     84     44     84
Acpi-Namespace             1850   1885     24    145
task_delay_info             332    450     76     50
taskstats                    15     24    328     12
proc_inode_cache            790    790    392     10
sigqueue                    135    135    144     27
bdev_cache                   22     28    512      7
sysfs_dir_cache           10699  10764     48     78
mnt_cache                    28     40    192     20
filp                       5940   6000    192     20
inode_cache                1742   2270    368     10
Cache                       Num  Total   Size  Pages
dentry                     8851  16385    132     29
names_cache                  26     26   4096      1
key_jar                       1     30    128     30
buffer_head              783486 883596     56     67
vm_area_struct            15799  15918     92     42
mm_struct                   128    162    448      9
fs_cache                    112    226     32    113
files_cache                 113    195    256     15
signal_cache                167    252    640      6
sighand_cache               163    174   1344      3
task_xstate                 332    336    512      8
task_struct                 327    329   1072      7
cred_jar                    591   1080    128     30
anon_vma_chain             8927   9425     24    145
anon_vma                   5447   5684     16    203
pid                         344    472     64     59
idr_layer_cache             635    676    148     26
radix_tree_node           38573  38584    296     13
size-4194304(DMA)             0      0 4194304      1
size-4194304                  0      0 4194304      1
size-2097152(DMA)             0      0 2097152      1
size-2097152                  0      0 2097152      1
size-1048576(DMA)             0      0 1048576      1
size-1048576                  0      0 1048576      1
size-524288(DMA)              0      0 524288      1
size-524288                   0      0 524288      1
size-262144(DMA)              0      0 262144      1
size-262144                   0      0 262144      1
size-131072(DMA)              0      0 131072      1
size-131072                   5      5 131072      1
size-65536(DMA)               0      0  65536      1
size-65536                    0      0  65536      1
size-32768(DMA)               0      0  32768      1
size-32768                    1      1  32768      1
size-16384(DMA)               0      0  16384      1
size-16384                  283    287  16384      1
size-8192(DMA)                0      0   8192      1
size-8192                    28     28   8192      1
Cache                       Num  Total   Size  Pages
size-4096(DMA)                0      0   4096      1
size-4096                    81     81   4096      1
size-2048(DMA)                0      0   2048      2
size-2048                   224    224   2048      2
size-1024(DMA)                0      0   1024      4
size-1024                   448    448   1024      4
size-512(DMA)                 0      0    512      8
size-512                    810    824    512      8
size-256(DMA)                 0      0    256     15
size-256                    360    360    256     15
size-192(DMA)                 0      0    192     20
size-192                   1366   1420    192     20
size-128(DMA)                 0      0    128     30
size-128                   1830   1830    128     30
size-64(DMA)                  0      0     64     59
size-32(DMA)                  0      0     32    113
size-64                    4156   4661     64     59
size-32                   12552  13786     32    113
kmem_cache                  170    180    128     30


4.man vmstat 显示详细帮助解释信息


VMSTAT(8)                                                    Linux Administrator's Manual                                                   VMSTAT(8)



NAME
       vmstat - Report virtual memory statistics

SYNOPSIS
       vmstat [-a] [-n] [delay [ count]]
       vmstat [-f] [-s] [-m]
       vmstat [-S unit]
       vmstat [-d]
       vmstat [-p disk partition]
       vmstat [-V]

DESCRIPTION
       vmstat reports information about processes, memory, paging, block IO, traps, and cpu activity.

       The  first  report  produced  gives averages since the last reboot.  Additional reports give information on a sampling period of length delay.
       The process and memory reports are instantaneous in either case.


   Options
       The -a switch displays active/inactive memory, given a 2.5.41 kernel or better.

       The -f switch displays the number of forks since boot.  This includes the fork, vfork, and clone system calls, and is equivalent to the  total
       number of tasks created. Each process is represented by one or more tasks, depending on thread usage.  This display does not repeat.

       The -m displays slabinfo.

       The -n switch causes the header to be displayed only once rather than periodically.

       The -s switch displays a table of various event counters and memory statistics. This display does not repeat.

       delay is the delay between updates in seconds.  If no delay is specified, only one report is printed with the average values since boot.

       count is the number of updates.  If no count is specified and delay is defined, count defaults to infinity.

       The -d reports disk statistics (2.5.70 or above required)

       The -p followed by some partition name for detailed statistics (2.5.70 or above required)

       The -S followed by k or K or m or M switches outputs between 1000, 1024, 1000000, or 1048576 bytes

       The -V switch results in displaying version information.

FIELD DESCRIPTION FOR VM MODE
   Procs
       r: The number of processes waiting for run time.   --在internal时间段里,运行队列里等待CPU的任务(任务)的个数,即不包含vmstat进程 procs_running-1
       b: The number of processes in uninterruptible sleep. --在internal时间段里,被资源阻塞的任务数(I/0,页面调度,等等),通常情况下是接近0的 procs_blocked

   Memory
       swpd: the amount of virtual memory used. --内存切换到swap的数量,单位KB.如果swpd的值不为0,或者比较大,比如超过了100m,只要si,so的值长期为0,系统性能还是正常的.
       free: the amount of idle memory. --当前的空闲页面列表中内存数量,单位KB.
       buff: the amount of memory used as buffers. --作为buffer cache的内存数量,一般对块设备的读写才需要缓冲.单位KB.
       cache: the amount of memory used as cache. --作为page cache的内存数量,一般作为文件系统的cache.单位KB.如果cache较大,说明用到cache的文件较多,如果此时IO中bi比较小,说明文件系统效率比较好.
       inact: the amount of inactive memory. (-a option) --不活动的内存数量,单位KB.
       active: the amount of active memory. (-a option) --活动的内存数量,单位KB.

   Swap
       si: Amount of memory swapped in from disk (/s). --从磁盘交换到内存的交换页数量,单位KB/s.
       so: Amount of memory swapped to disk (/s). --从内存交换到磁盘的交换页数量,单位KB/s.

   IO
       bi: Blocks received from a block device (blocks/s). --数据从块设备读取的量(读磁盘),单位blocks/s.
       bo: Blocks sent to a block device (blocks/s). --数据写入块设备的量(写磁盘),单位blocks/s.  这里我们设置的bi+bo参考值为1000,如果超过1000,而且wa值较大应该考虑均衡磁盘负载,可以结合iostat输出来分析.

   System
       in: The number of interrupts per second, including the clock. --每秒的中断数,包括时钟中断. (不明白)
       cs: The number of context switches per second. --在internal时间段里,每秒上下文切换的次数,即每秒内核任务交换的次数 ctxt/interval

   CPU
       These are percentages of total CPU time. --按总CPU时间的使用百分比来显示
       us: Time spent running non-kernel code. (user time, including nice time) --cpu运行非kernel code所花费的时间百分比.(user time,including nice time 不明白).在internal时间段里,用户态的CPU时间(%),不包含 nice值为负进程 usr/total*100
       sy: Time spent running kernel code. (system time) --cpu运行kernel code所花费的时间百分比.在internal时间段里,核心时间(%) (system + irq + softirq)/total*100
       id: Time spent idle. Prior to Linux 2.5.41, this includes IO-wait time. --cpu空闲百分比.在2.5.41内核以前,此值包含 IO-wait 时间.在internal时间段里,CPU除去等待磁盘IO操作外的因为任何原因而空闲的时间闲置时间(%)idle/total*100
       wa: Time spent waiting for IO. Prior to Linux 2.5.41, included in idle. --cpu等待IO花费时间的百分比.此值被idle包含.在internal时间段里,硬盘IO等待时间(%)iowait/total*100
       st: Time stolen from a virtual machine. Prior to Linux 2.6.11, unknown.  --(不明白)


FIELD DESCRIPTION FOR DISK MODE
   Reads
       total: Total reads completed successfully
       merged: grouped reads (resulting in one I/O)
       sectors: Sectors read successfully
       ms: milliseconds spent reading

   Writes
       total: Total writes completed successfully
       merged: grouped writes (resulting in one I/O)
       sectors: Sectors written successfully
       ms: milliseconds spent writing

   IO
       cur: I/O in progress
       s: seconds spent for I/O


FIELD DESCRIPTION FOR DISK PARTITION MODE
       reads: Total number of reads issued to this partition
       read sectors: Total read sectors for partition
       writes : Total number of writes issued to this partition
       requested writes: Total number of write requests made for partition
FIELD DESCRIPTION FOR SLAB MODE
       cache: Cache name
       num: Number of currently active objects
       total: Total number of available objects
       size: Size of each object
       pages: Number of pages with at least one active object
       totpages: Total number of allocated pages
       pslab: Number of pages per slab


NOTES
       vmstat does not require special permissions.

       These reports are intended to help identify system bottlenecks.  Linux vmstat does not count itself as a running process.

       All linux blocks are currently 1024 bytes. Old kernels may report blocks as 512 bytes, 2048 bytes, or 4096 bytes.

       Since procps 3.1.9, vmstat lets you choose units (k, K, m, M) default is K (1024 bytes) in the default mode

       vmstat uses slabinfo 1.1    FIXME

FILES
       /proc/meminfo
       /proc/stat
       /proc/*/stat


SEE ALSO
       iostat(1), sar(1), mpstat(1), ps(1), top(1), free(1)

BUGS
       Does not tabulate the block io per device or count the number of system calls.

AUTHORS
       Written by Henry Ware .
       Fabian Frédérick (diskstat, slab, partitions...)

Throatwobbler Ginkgo Labs                                           27 July 1994                                                            VMSTAT(8)

参考资料

vmstat工具 http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_3dbab2840100j4fe.html  ()
linux vmstat输出方法解析 http://www.jb51.net/os/RedHat/2161.html
Vmstat参数输出结果解释 http://www.agou.net/article/study/745.html

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