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RAC, Dataguard, Streams, Advanced Replication and Basic Replication

原创 Linux操作系统 作者:ilsyx 时间:2011-08-22 16:18:44 0 删除 编辑

个人总结

重要的是后面的表格,因为不需要多么深的技术,理解各个架构及用处就可以了.
Normal 0 7.8 磅 0 2 false false false EN-US ZH-CN X-NONE

Features

RealApplication Clusters(RAC)

Dataguard

Streams

Advance Replication

Basic Replication

Topic of Comparison

PhysicalStandby

LogicalStandby

Multi-Master Replication

Updatable Materialized Views

Read-only Materialized Views

Description

Allows the Oracle database to run applications across a set of clustered servers.

oracle数据库instance可以运行在集群服务上

Provides a physically identical copy of the primary database, with on disk database structures that are identical to the primary database on a block-for-block basis.

为主库提供结构一致的块到块的物理copy.

Contains the same logical information as the production database, although the physical organization and structure of the data can be different.

为逻辑提供逻辑一致的信息,即使主备库的底层数据组织结构不同.

Enables information sharing in form. of stream of messages. Enables the propagation and management of data, transactions, and events in a data stream.

(Also called peer-to-peer or n-way replication)Enables multiple sites, acting as equal peers, to manage groups of replicated database objects.

Provides complete or partial copy (replica) of a target table from a single point in time. Enable users to work on a subset of a database while disconnected from the central database server.

Provides complete or partial read-only copy (replica) of a target table from a single point in time. Enable users to view a subset of a database while disconnected from the central database server.

Purpose

- High availability 高可用

- Scalability 扩展

- Redundancy during failures 失败冗余

- Data protection

- Disaster recovery

数据保护,灾难恢复.

- High availability

- Data protection

- Disaster recovery

- Efficient use of redundant hardware

高可用,数据保护,灾难恢复,有效的利用冗余硬件.

- Data distribution

- Data sharing

- Data sharing

- Data distribution

- Sharing subset of data with update access.

- Data distribution

- Sharing subset of data in read-only mode.

Hardware

All nodes must have hardware that runs same OS. 所有nodes所在服务器硬件要能跑一样的操作系统

All sites must have hardware that runs same OS.

主备库操作系统一致

All sites must have hardware that runs same OS.

主备库操作系统一致

Servers with different hardware can be used.

Servers with different hardware can be used.

Servers with different hardware can be used.

Servers with different hardware can be used.

OS

Same OS on all nodes including Patchset release

所有nodes所在OS 发行补丁一致.

Same OS. Patchset release can be different in different sites.

Same OS. Patchset release can be different in different sites.

Can be used with different OS

Can be used with different OS

Can be used with different OS

Can be used with different OS

Oracle Software

Same version on all nodes including Oracle Patchset release

所有nodesdb oracle软件补丁发行版本要一致

Same version on all nodes including Oracle Patchset release

所有nodesdb oracle软件补丁发行版本要一致

Same version on all nodes including Oracle Patchset release

所有nodesdb oracle软件补丁发行版本要一致

Can be used with different Oracle versions

Can be used with different Oracle versions

Can be used with different Oracle versions

Can be used with different Oracle versions

Feature Specific Terms

Servers involved in RAC configuration are generally known as Nodes. High-speed link between nodes is called Interconnect.

Primary and Standby database servers are generally known as Primary Site and Standby Site respectively.

Primary and Standby database servers are generally known as Primary Site and Standby Site respectively.

Database from where changes are captured is called source or capture site. Database from where changes are applied is called destination or apply site.

One database where Replication Administrative activities can be performed is called Master Definition Site. All other replicated databases are called Master sites.

Database with Master table is called Master Site or Target Site. Database where Materialized view is created is called Materialized view site.

Database with Master table is called Master Site or Target Site. Database where Materialized view is created is called Materialized view site.

Database

Multiple instances linked by interconnect to share access to an Oracle database. 多个instance间通过内部连接共享数据.

One production database and one or more physical standby databases.

一个主库带一个或者多个备库

One production database and one or more logical standby databases.

一个主库带一个或者多个备库

Data stream can propagate data either within a database or from one database to another.

Complete copy of replicated table is maintained in multiple databases.

Updatable Materialized view is created in database other than the one containing master table.

Read-only materialized view can be created either within a database or in another database.

Data Storage

Single database on shared storage.

instance访问共享存储上单一的database.

Primary site and Standby sites have their own database

主备拥有各自的数据库.

Primary site and Standby sites have their own database.

主备拥有各自的数据库.

Source and Destination can either be same database or they can be different databases.

All replicated master sites are having their own databases.

Master table and Materialized views are part of different databases.

Master table and Materialized views can either be in same database or they can be in different databases.

Logical Database Structure

As there is one database, there is one logical structure of the database.

As physical structure of the database is exactly (block-by-block) same, the logical structure also remains same in primary and standby databases.

 

When created, logical standby database has same structure as primary. Later, additional schema/objects can be created in logical standby database. However, original objects must remain same as primary.

Streams provide flexibility to have different structure of schema/objects at source and destination databases.This can be accomplished by using transformation of messages.

Logical structure of replicated objects must be same. Owner of those objects must be same in all master sites.

Both row and column subsetting enable you to create materialized views that contain a partial copy of the data at a master table. However, they are always based on a single master table.

Both row and column subsetting enable you to create materialized views that contain a partial copy of the data at a master table. Read-only materialized views can be created using join between multiple master tables.

Architecture Overview

A cluster comprises multiple interconnected computers or servers that appear as if they are one server to end users and applications. RAC uses Oracle Clusterware for the infrastructure to bind multiple servers so that they operate as a single system. If one clustered server fails, the Oracle database will continue running on the surviving servers.

集群将多机器通过内部连接向最终用户提供统一服务,当某个结点的服务失败时,db会继续在提供服务的其他结点上运行.

Standby database is kept synchronized with the primary database, though Redo Apply, which recovers the redo data, received from the primary database and applies the redo to the standby database. If the primary database becomes unavailable, standby database can be switched to the primary role.

备库与主库同步应用redo,备库从主库接收redo数据应用到备库.当主库无效时,备库可以切换成主库.

Standby database is kept synchronized with the primary database though SQL Apply, which uses logminer, transforms the data from redo logs into SQL statements and then executing the SQL statements on the standby database. If the primary database becomes unavailable, standby database can be switched to the primary role.

备库与主库同步应用sql,通过logminerredo日志中提取sql语句然后在备库应用, 当主库无效时,备库可以切换成主库.

Each unit of shared information is called a message. Streams can capture, stage, and manage messages in Queue. Messages can be DML, DDL and user-defined messages. Streams can propagate the messages from one queue to other queue. When messages reach a destination, Streams can consume them based on your specifications.

Internal triggers capture changes applied at one site. The trigger stores those captured transactions locally. The source master site pushes (propagates and applies) those transactions to destination site.

Updatable Materialized view is a view that stores view data in it's own storage. A push process that is same as multi-master replication pushes updated data from MV site. However, changes from master site are pulled by refresh site using refresh process.

Read-only Materialized view is a view that stores view data in it's own storage. Data in materialized view are refreshed by refresh process. Refresh process is initiated at Materialized view site. Refresh process pulls data from master table using SQL query that was used to create Materialized view.

Overview of Installation/Setup

RAC installation is a two-phase installation. In phase one, use Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) to install Oracle Clusterware. In second phase, use OUI to install the RAC software (I.e. Oracle RDBMS with RAC option). You must install Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RDBMS in separate home directories.

两步:1 图形化安装cluster. 2 图形化安装rdbms软件.

clusterrdbmshome目录不同.

Prepare Primary Database by making required changes in parameters, logging, archiving etc. Create a Backup Copy of the Primary Database Datafiles. Create a Control File for the Standby Database. Prepare an Initialization Parameter File for the Standby Database. Copy Files from the Primary System to the Standby System. Set Up the Environment to Support the Standby Database. Start the Physical Standby Database in continuous recovery mode.

准备主库的参数,日志,归档等

备份主库,创建standby 控制文件,传输主库备份文件到备库系统,设置备库环境,将备库起成recover模式.

Verify prerequisites Logical Standby Database (e.g. Datatypes, Primary Key etc). Create a Physical Standby Database. Stop Redo Apply on the Physical Standby Database. Prepare the Primary Database to Support a Logical Standby Database. Convert to a Logical Standby Database. Adjust Initialization Parameters for the Logical Standby Database. Open the Logical Standby Database and then perform. certain Post-Creation Steps.

Create streams administrator user in all databases. In source database, create Capture Process and Propagation schedule for propagation to destination database. Create Apply Process in destination database.Start Supplemental Logging in source database. . Prepare source database/objects. Create copy of those objects in destination database using export/import (datapump or traditional) or using RMAN. Complete the instantiation of objects. Start Apply, Propagation and Capture processes.

Create replication administrator user at all the sites with required privileges. Create propagation from each site to all other sites. At one site create Master replication group. The group remains in quiesced state when created. This site becomes MDS. Add objects (to be replicated) in the group from MDS. Add all master sites in master group from MDS. Start replication by resuming replication group. It alters replication group from quiesced to normal state.

At master site, create replication administrator. At materialized view (MV) site, create MV administrator. Create propagation from MV site to master site. Create master group at master site and add master objects in master group. Create materialized views at MV site. Create MV group at MV site and add materialized views in the MV group. On the MV site, create refresh group and add materialized views in refresh group.Start replication by resuming replication group.

If MV is being created in database other than the one containing master table, then create database link in MV database to point to master database for accessing master table. Create materialized view.

Database/Instance status

All or any node of RAC can have instance with database open for DML/DDL access.

所有RAC中的node地位等同

Redo apply requires database in recovery mode. When Physical standby database is in recovery mode, it cannot be opened. When not in recovery mode, it can only be opened in read-only mode.

Redo应用需要备库在recovery模式,当物理备库在recovery模式时,不能打开数据库,当不在recovery模式时,只能以只读模式打开.

SQL Apply requires database open for running SQL statements. Hence, Logical standby database must be open in normal circumstances.

Sql应用需要数据库以open状态打开才行,所以逻辑备库必须以正常状态打开.

Apply process requires database open for running SQL statements. Hence, destination database must be open in normal circumstances.

Push job requires master sites to be open when it pushes transaction to other master sites. Hence, in normal circumstances, all the master databases must be open.

Push as well as refresh job requires master and MV sites to be open. Hence, in normal circumstances, the master and MV databases must be open.

Refresh job requires master and MV sites to be open. Hence, in normal circumstances, the master and MV databases must be open.

Restriction on Datatypes

As there is one database, it supports all datatypes.

RAC中的node支持所有数据类型

As physical structure of the database is exactly (block-by-block) same, it supports all datatypes.

物理备库与主库块与块都相同,支持所有的数据类型.

There is restriction on datatypes allowed in logical standby setup.

有一些数据类型的限制在逻辑备库中.

There is restriction on datatypes allowed in streams setup.

There is restriction on datatypes allowed in replicated tables.

There is restriction on datatypes allowed in materialized views.

There is restriction on datatypes allowed in materialized views.




Comparison Between Features : RAC, Dataguard, Streams, Advanced Replication and Basic Replication [ID 370850.1]

  Modified 21-AUG-2011     Type BULLETIN     Status PUBLISHED  

In this Document
  Purpose
  Scope and Application
  Comparison Between Features : RAC, Dataguard, Streams, Advanced Replication and Basic Replication
     Streams


Applies to:

Oracle Server - Enterprise Edition - Version: 9.0.1.4 and later   [Release: 9.0.1 and later ]
Oracle Server - Enterprise Edition - Version: 9.0.1.4 and later    [Release: 9.0.1 and later]
Oracle Server - Enterprise Edition - Version: 9.2.0.1 and later    [Release: 9.2 and later]
Information in this document applies to any platform.
Database Features :

Real Application Clusters (RAC)
Dataguard : Physical Standby & Logical Standby
Streams
Advance Replication : Multi-Master Replication & Updatable Materialized Views
Basic Replication : Read-only Materialized Views

Purpose

This article describes similarities and differences between different features available for high availability and distributed systems.

It contains comparison between multiple features in matrix format

It would help users to select feature useful and feasible in their environment.

Scope and Application

This article is meant for DBA and Support Engineers. It does not require in-depth technical knowledge in any of these features.

The article contains overview of covered topics and not technical details/steps.

Comparison Between Features : RAC, Dataguard, Streams, Advanced Replication and Basic Replication

Features

Real Application Clusters (RAC)

Dataguard

Streams

Advance Replication

Basic Replication

Topic of Comparison

Physical Standby

Logical Standby

Multi-Master Replication

Updatable Materialized Views

Read-only Materialized Views

Description

Allows the Oracle database to run applications across a set of clustered servers.

Provides a physically identical copy of the primary database, with on disk database structures that are identical to the primary database on a block-for-block basis.

Contains the same logical information as the production database, although the physical organization and structure of the data can be different.

Enables information sharing in form. of stream of messages. Enables the propagation and management of data, transactions, and events in a data stream.

(Also called peer-to-peer or n-way replication) Enables multiple sites, acting as equal peers, to manage groups of replicated database objects.

Provides complete or partial copy (replica) of a target table from a single point in time. Enable users to work on a subset of a database while disconnected from the central database server.

Provides complete or partial read-only copy (replica) of a target table from a single point in time. Enable users to view a subset of a database while disconnected from the central database server.

Purpose

- High availability

- Scalability

- Redundancy during failures

- Data protection

- Disaster recovery

- High availability

- Data protection

- Disaster recovery

- Efficient use of redundant hardware

- Data distribution

- Data sharing

- Data sharing

- Data distribution

- Sharing subset of data with update access.

- Data distribution

- Sharing subset of data in read-only mode.

Hardware

All nodes must have hardware that runs same OS.

All sites must have hardware that runs same OS.

All sites must have hardware that runs same OS.

Servers with different hardware can be used.

Servers with different hardware can be used.

Servers with different hardware can be used.

Servers with different hardware can be used.

OS

Same OS on all nodes including Patchset release

Same OS. Patchset release can be different in different sites.

Same OS. Patchset release can be different in different sites.

Can be used with different OS

Can be used with different OS

Can be used with different OS

Can be used with different OS

Oracle Software

Same version on all nodes including Oracle Patchset release

Same version on all nodes including Oracle Patchset release

Same version on all nodes including Oracle Patchset release

Can be used with different Oracle versions

Can be used with different Oracle versions

Can be used with different Oracle versions

Can be used with different Oracle versions

Feature Specific Terms

Servers involved in RAC configuration are generally known as Nodes. High-speed link between nodes is called Interconnect.

Primary and Standby database servers are generally known as Primary Site and Standby Site respectively.

Primary and Standby database servers are generally known as Primary Site and Standby Site respectively.

Database from where changes are captured is called source or capture site. Database from where changes are applied is called destination or apply site.

One database where Replication Administrative activities can be performed is called Master Definition Site. All other replicated databases are called Master sites.

Database with Master table is called Master Site or Target Site. Database where Materialized view is created is called Materialized view site.

Database with Master table is called Master Site or Target Site. Database where Materialized view is created is called Materialized view site.

Database

Multiple instances linked by interconnect to share access to an Oracle database.

One production database and one or more physical standby databases.

One production database and one or more logical standby databases.

Data stream can propagate data either within a database or from one database to another.

Complete copy of replicated table is maintained in multiple databases.

Updatable Materialized view is created in database other than the one containing master table.

Read-only materialized view can be created either within a database or in another database.

Data Storage

Single database on shared storage.

Primary site and Standby sites have their own database.

Primary site and Standby sites have their own database.

Source and Destination can either be same database or they can be different databases.

All replicated master sites are having their own databases.

Master table and Materialized views are part of different databases.

Master table and Materialized views can either be in same database or they can be in different databases.

Logical Database Structure

As there is one database, there is one logical structure of the database.

As physical structure of the database is exactly (block-by-block) same, the logical structure also remains same in primary and standby databases.

When created, logical standby database has same structure as primary. Later, additional schema/objects can be created in logical standby database. However, original objects must remain same as primary.

Streams provide flexibility to have different structure of schema/objects at source and destination databases. This can be accomplished by using transformation of messages.

Logical structure of replicated objects must be same. Owner of those objects must be same in all master sites.

Both row and column subsetting enable you to create materialized views that contain a partial copy of the data at a master table. However, they are always based on a single master table.

Both row and column subsetting enable you to create materialized views that contain a partial copy of the data at a master table. Read-only materialized views can be created using join between multiple master tables.

Architecture Overview

A cluster comprises multiple interconnected computers or servers that appear as if they are one server to end users and applications. RAC uses Oracle Clusterware for the infrastructure to bind multiple servers so that they operate as a single system. If one clustered server fails, the Oracle database will continue running on the surviving servers.

Standby database is kept synchronized with the primary database, though Redo Apply, which recovers the redo data, received from the primary database and applies the redo to the standby database. If the primary database becomes unavailable, standby database can be switched to the primary role.

Standby database is kept synchronized with the primary database though SQL Apply, which uses logminer, transforms the data from redo logs into SQL statements and then executing the SQL statements on the standby database. If the primary database becomes unavailable, standby database can be switched to the primary role.

Each unit of shared information is called a message. Streams can capture, stage, and manage messages in Queue. Messages can be DML, DDL and user-defined messages. Streams can propagate the messages from one queue to other queue. When messages reach a destination, Streams can consume them based on your specifications.

Internal triggers capture changes applied at one site. The trigger stores those captured transactions locally. The source master site pushes (propagates and applies) those transactions to destination site.

Updatable Materialized view is a view that stores view data in it's own storage. A push process that is same as multi-master replication pushes updated data from MV site. However, changes from master site are pulled by refresh site using refresh process.

Read-only Materialized view is a view that stores view data in it's own storage. Data in materialized view are refreshed by refresh process. Refresh process is initiated at Materialized view site. Refresh process pulls data from master table using SQL query that was used to create Materialized view.

Overview of Installation/Setup

RAC installation is a two-phase installation. In phase one, use Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) to install Oracle Clusterware. In second phase, use OUI to install the RAC software (I.e. Oracle RDBMS with RAC option). You must install Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RDBMS in separate home directories.

Prepare Primary Database by making required changes in parameters, logging, archiving etc. Create a Backup Copy of the Primary Database Datafiles. Create a Control File for the Standby Database. Prepare an Initialization Parameter File for the Standby Database. Copy Files from the Primary System to the Standby System. Set Up the Environment to Support the Standby Database. Start the Physical Standby Database in continuous recovery mode.

Verify prerequisites Logical Standby Database (e.g. Datatypes, Primary Key etc). Create a Physical Standby Database. Stop Redo Apply on the Physical Standby Database. Prepare the Primary Database to Support a Logical Standby Database. Convert to a Logical Standby Database. Adjust Initialization Parameters for the Logical Standby Database. Open the Logical Standby Database and then perform. certain Post-Creation Steps.

Create streams administrator user in all databases. In source database, create Capture Process and Propagation schedule for propagation to destination database. Create Apply Process in destination database. Start Supplemental Logging in source database. . Prepare source database/objects. Create copy of those objects in destination database using export/import (datapump or traditional) or using RMAN. Complete the instantiation of objects. Start Apply, Propagation and Capture processes.

Create replication administrator user at all the sites with required privileges. Create propagation from each site to all other sites. At one site create Master replication group. The group remains in quiesced state when created. This site becomes MDS. Add objects (to be replicated) in the group from MDS. Add all master sites in master group from MDS. Start replication by resuming replication group. It alters replication group from quiesced to normal state.

At master site, create replication administrator. At materialized view (MV) site, create MV administrator. Create propagation from MV site to master site. Create master group at master site and add master objects in master group. Create materialized views at MV site. Create MV group at MV site and add materialized views in the MV group. On the MV site, create refresh group and add materialized views in refresh group. Start replication by resuming replication group.

If MV is being created in database other than the one containing master table, then create database link in MV database to point to master database for accessing master table. Create materialized view.

Database/Instance status

All or any node of RAC can have instance with database open for DML/DDL access.

Redo apply requires database in recovery mode. When Physical standby database is in recovery mode, it cannot be opened. When not in recovery mode, it can only be opened in read-only mode.

SQL Apply requires database open for running SQL statements. Hence, Logical standby database must be open in normal circumstances.

Apply process requires database open for running SQL statements. Hence, destination database must be open in normal circumstances.

Push job requires master sites to be open when it pushes transaction to other master sites. Hence, in normal circumstances, all the master databases must be open.

Push as well as refresh job requires master and MV sites to be open. Hence, in normal circumstances, the master and MV databases must be open.

Refresh job requires master and MV sites to be open. Hence, in normal circumstances, the master and MV databases must be open.

Restriction on Datatypes

As there is one database, it supports all datatypes.

As physical structure of the database is exactly (block-by-block) same, it supports all datatypes.

There is restriction on datatypes allowed in logical standby setup.

There is restriction on datatypes allowed in streams setup.

There is restriction on datatypes allowed in replicated tables.

There is restriction on datatypes allowed in materialized views.

There is restriction on datatypes allowed in materialized views.


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